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Joanna I.

Alafag
Adv. Animal Physiology
Feb. 13, 2020
HUMAN URINARY SYSTEM

group of organs concerned with filtering out excess
fluid and other substances from the bloodstream

works with the other systems of the body to help
maintain homeostasis.

Parts of the Urinary Sytem
I. KIDNEYS

Functions of the Kidneys
1. Regulation of blood ionic composition.
2. Maintenance of blood osmolarity.
3. Regulation of blood volume.
4. Regulation of blood pressure.

5. Regulation of blood pH
6. Release of hormones
7. Regulation of blood glucose level
8. Excretion of wastes and foreign
substances

Functions of the Kidneys
External Anatomy of the
Kidney:

1. Size length: 4-5 in
width: 2-3 in
thickness: 1 in
mass: 145 -150 g

2. Renal hilus
- deep vertical fissure through which
the ureters, vessels and nerves leave
the kidney



3. Tissue layers

a. Renal capsule
- smooth, transparent, fibrous
membrane
- barrier against trauma and helps
maintain the shape of the kidney


b. Adipose capsule
- fatty tissue
- protects the kidney from trauma and
holds it firmly in place

c. Renal fascia
- thin, dense layer of irregular
connective tissue
-anchors the kidney



Internal Anatomy of the
Kidney






Blood and Nerve Supply of
the Kidneys
Renal vein
Segmental veins
Interlobar veins
Arcuate veins
Interlobar veins
Peritubular capillaries
and / or vasa recta
Efferent arterioles
Glomerular capillaries
Affferent arterioles
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
Interlobar arteries
Segmental arteries
Renal artery













NEPHRON

functional unit of the kidney

3 basic functions:
filters blood
returns useful substances to the
blood
removes wastes and other
substances
maintain homeostasis of blood
urine is produced


Parts of the Nephron

A. Renal corpuscle
-where plasma is filtered

1. Glomerulus
- a tangled, rounded mass of capillary
network

2. Glomerular (Bowmans) capsule
- double-walled epithelial cup that
surrounds the glomerulus
- 2 layers:
a. visceral layer
*podocytes - modified simple
squamous epithelial cells

b.parietal layer
- simple squamous epithelium and
forms outer wall of capsule

* capsular (Bowmans) space
- space between the 2 layers of the
glomerular capsule

B. Renal tubule
- where filtered fluid passes


Region Description
1. Proximal convoluted
tubule (PCT)
Simple cuboidal epithelial cells with
prominent brush borders of
microvilli
2. Loop of Henle (LOH)

Loop of Henle: descending
limb and thin ascending limb


Simple squamous epithelial cells

Loop of Henle: thick ascending
limb

Simple cuboidal to low columnar
epithelial cells

3. Most distal convoluted tubule
(DCT)

Simple cuboidal epithelial cells

4. Collecting duct (CD)
Final portion of DCT; collecting
duct (CD)

Simple cuboidal epithelium
consisting of principal cells and
intercalated cells in last part of
DCT and collecting duct
2 Types of Nephrons
1. Flow of Fluid through a
Juxtamedullary Nephron
Glomerular (Bowmans)
capsule
Proximal convoluted
tubule
Descending limb of the
loop of Henle
Thin ascending limb of the
loop of Henle
Thick ascending limb of
the loof of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
(drains into collecting duct)
Glomerular (Bowmans)
capsule
Proximal convoluted
tubule
Descending limb of the
loop of Henle
Ascending limb of the
loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
(drains into collecting
duct)
2. Flow of Fluid through a
Cortical Nephron






URINE FORMATION

I. GLOMERULAR FILTRATION
substances in blood are filtered at the
endothelial-capsular membrane and
the filtrate enters the PCT

Filtration fraction
- fraction of plasma in the afferent
arterioles of the kidneys that becomes:

Glomerular filtrate
- fluid that enters the capsular space


average daily glomerular
filtrate in adults:



99% of the glomerular filtrate returns to
the bloodstream via tubular
reabsorption

1-2L are excreted as urine

female 150L
male 180L
Filtration Membrane or
Endothelial Capsular Membrane
- sandwich like assembly of endothelial
cells of glomerular capillaries and
podocytes

- permits water and small solutes

- prevents most plasma proteins,
blood cells, and platelets


3 Components:

1. glomerular endothelial cells
- large fenestration (70-100nm)

-permits all solutes in blood plasma to
exit glomerular capillaries

-prevents filtration of blood cells and
platelets.

mesangial cells
- contractile cells that help regulate
glomerular filtration

relaxation: maximal surface area
high glomerular filtration

contraction: reduced surface area
low glomerular filtration




2. basal lamina
- acellular material between the
endothelium and the podocytes

- fibrils in a glycoprotein matrix

- prevents filtration of larger plasma
proteins

3. pedicels
- foot-like processes from each
podocyte
filtration slits
- spaces between pedicels
slit membrane
- permits the passage of molecules
having a diameter smaller than 6-7 nm
(water, glucose, urea, and ions)


Why is there larger volume of fluid
filtered in renal corpuscle than in
other capillaries?

1. glomerular capillaries are long and
extensive greater surface area

2. filtration membrane is thin and porous

3. glomerular capillary blood pressure is
high

Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)

- total pressure that promotes filtration

1. Glomerular blood hydrostatic
pressure (GBHP)
- promotes filtration
- forces water and solutes in blood
plasma
- about 55mm Hg

2. Capsular hydrostatic pressure
(CHP)

- opposes filtration
- pressure exerted against the filtration
membrane by fluid present capsular
space and renal tubule
- about 15mm Hg




3. Blood colloid osmotic pressure
(BCOP)

- opposes filtration
- due to proteins such as albumins,
globulins, and fibrinogen in blood
plasma
- about 30 mm Hg







NFP = GBHP CHP - BCOP
= 55 mmHg - 15mmHg - 30mm Hg
= 10mm Hg

pressure that causes a normal amount of
plasma to filter from glomerulus into
capsular space


Glomerular Filtration Rate
(GFR)

- amount of filtrate formed in all renal
corpuscles of both kidney each minute

- average adult GFR
female: 105 ml/min
male: 125 ml/min

Type of Regulation Major Stimulus Mechanism and Site of Action Effect on GFR

Renal Autoregulation
Myogenic mechanism


Increased stretching of smooth
muscle fibers in afferent arteriole
walls due to increased blood
pressure.


Stretched smooth muscles fibers
contract, thereby narrowing the
lumen of the afferent arterioles.


Decrease
Tubuloglomerular
feedback
Rapid delivery of Na
+
and Cl
-
to the
macula densa due to high systemic
blood pressure.
Increased release of a
vasoconstrictor by the
juxtaglomerular apparatus causes
constriction of afferent arterioles.
Decrease
Neural regulation Increase in level of activity of renal
sympathetic nerves releases
norepinephrine.
Constriction of afferent arterioles
through activation of
1
receptors
and increased rennin.
Decrease
Hormonal Regulation
Angiotensin II



Atrial natriuretic
peptide
(ANP)

Decreased blood volume or blood
pressure stimulates production of
angiotensin II.

Stretching of the heart stimulates
secretion of ANP.

Constriction of both afferent and
efferent arterioles.


Relaxation of mesangial cells in
glomerulus increase capillary
surface area available for filtration.

Decrease



Increase
Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Renal Corpuscle

Glomerular filtration rate:
105-125 ml/min of fluid that is isotonic to
blood

Filtered substances: water and all solutes
present in blood (except proteins) including
ions, glucose, amino acids, creatinine, uric
acid
Substance Total Amount in
Plasma
Filtered (Enters
glomerular capsule
per day)
Reabsorbed
(Returned to blood
per day)
Urine (excreted per
day)
Water 3 L 180 L 178-179 L 1-2 L
Proteins 200g 2 g 1.9 g 0.1 g
Na
+
ions 9.7 g 579 g 575 g 4 g
Cl
-
ions 10.7 g 640 g 633.7 g 6.3 g
HCO
3
-

ions 4.6 g 275 g 275 g 0.03 g
Glucose 2.7 g 162 g 162 g 0
Urea 0.9 g 54 g 27 g 27 g
K
+
ions 0.5 g 29.6 g 29.6 g 2 g
Uric acid 0.15 g 8.5 g 7.7 g 0.8 g
Creatinine 0.03 1.6g 0 1.6 g
Substances in plasma and amounts filtered,
reabsorbed and excreted in urine


II. SELECTIVE TUBULAR
REABSORPTION

- selective process that reclaims
materials from tubular fluid and returns
them to the bloodstream
- epithelial cells all along the renal
tubule and duct carry out reabsorption

- PCT cells make the largest
contribution
Reabsorption Routes:

1. Paracellular Reabsorption
- water and solutes move between
tubule cells

- up to 50 % of the reabsorption of
certain ions and the water that
osmotically accompanies them

2. Transcellular Reabsorption
- substance passes through the apical
membrane of a tubule cell, cytosol,
basolateral membrane and into
interstitial fluid

Transport Mechanisms:

1. Primary active Transport
- energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP
is used to pump a substance across a
membrane

- used by the Na
+
pumps

2. Secondary Active Transport

- the energy stored in an ions
electrochemical gradient drives
substance across a membrane

- symporters: membrane proteins that
move 2 or more substances in the
same direction


- antiporters: membrane proteins that
move 2 or more substances in the
opposite direction

- transport maximum (T
m
): maximum
amount of substance that can be
reabsorbed per unit time

3. Osmosis

a. obligatory water reabsorption:
- water reabsorbed together with
solutes in tubular fluid

- occurs in the PCT and descending
limb of Henle due to their permeability
to water
- 90% of reabsorption of water filtered
by the kidneys occurs together with
Na
+
, Cl
-
and glucose



b. facultative water reabsorption
- occurs mainly in collecting ducts and
is regulated by antidiuretic hormone

- 10% of reabsorption of water
III. TUBULAR SECRETION

- removes a substance from the blood
by transferring materials from the
blood and tubule cells into tubular fluid

2 outcomes of tubular secretion:
Secretion of H
+
helps control blood pH
Secretion of other substances helps
eliminate them from the body


Proximal Convoluted Tubule


Reabsorption (into blood) of filtered:
Water 65% (osmosis)
Na
+
65% (Na pumps,
symporters, antiporters)
K
+
65% (diffusion)
Glucose 100 % (symporters, facilitated
diffusion)
Amino acids 100% (symporters, facilitated
diffusion)
Cl
-
50 % (diffusion)
HCO
3
-
80-90% (facilitated diffusion)
Urea 50% (diffusion)
Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
variable (diffusion)


Secretion (into urine) of:
H
+
variable (antiporters)
NH
4
+
variable, increase in acidosis
(antiporters)
Urea variable (diffusion)
Creatinine small amount
At end of PCT, tubular fluid is still isotonic to
blood (300 mOsm/L)

Loop of Henle


Reabsorption (into blood) of:
Water 15% (osmosis in descending
limb)
Na
+
20-30%(symporters in ascending
limb)
K
+
20-30%(symporters in ascending
limb)
Cl
-
35% symporters in ascending
limb)
HCO
3
-
10-20% (facilitated diffusion)
Urea 50% (diffusion)
Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
variable (diffusion)


Secretion (into urine) of:
Urea variable (recycling from CD)


At end of LOH, tubular fluid is hypotonic (100-
150 mOsm/L)

Distal Convoluted Tubule


Reabsorption (into blood) of filtered

Water 10-15% (osmosis)
Na
+
5% (symporters)
Cl
-
5% (symporters)
Ca
2+
variable (stimulated by
parathyroid)

Principal Cells in Late Distal Tubule
and Collecting Duct


Reabsorption (into blood) of filtered
Water 5-9% (insertion of water channels
stimulated by ADH)
Na
+
1-4% (Na pumps)
Cl
-
5% (symporters)
Urea variable (recycling to loop of
Henle)



Secretion (into urine) of:
K
+
variable amount to adjust for
dietary intake (leakage
channels)

Tubular fluid leaving the collecting duct is
diluted when ADH level is low and
concentrated when ADH level is high

Intercalated Cells in Distal Tubule
and Collecting Duct


Reabsorption (into blood) of filtered
HCO
3
-
variable amount, depends on
(new) H
+
secretion (antiporters)
Urea variable (recycling to LOH)



Secretion (into urine) of:
H
+
variable amount to maintain
acid-base homeostasis (H
+

pumps)

Hormone Major Stimuli that Trigger
Release
Mechanism and Site of
Action
Effects
Angiotensin II Low blood volume or low
blood pressure stimulates
renin-induced production of
angiotensin II.
Stimulates activity of Na
+
/
H
+
antiporters in proximal
tubule cells
Increases reabsorption of
Na
+
, other solutes, and
water, which increases
blood volume
Aldosterone Increased angiotensin II
level and increased level of
plasma K
+
promote release
of aldosterone by adrenal
cortex.
Enhances activity and
synthesis of sodium pumps
in basolateral membrane
and Na
+
channels in apical
membrane of principal cells
in collecting duct.

Increases secretion K
+
and
reabsorption of Na
+
, Cl
-
,
and water, which increases
blood volume.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
or vasopressin
Increased osmolarity of
extracellular fluid or
increased angiotensin II
level promote release of
ADH from the posterior
pituitary gland.

Stimulates insertion of
water-channel proteins-
aquaporin-2, into the apical
membranes of principal
cells.
Increases facultative
reabsorption of water,
which decreases
osmolarity of body fluids.
Atrial natriuretic peptide
(ANP)
Stretching of atria of heart
stimulates secretion of
ANP.
Suppresses reabsorption of
Na
+
and water in proximal
tubule and collecting duct;
also inhibits secretion of
aldosetrone and ADH.
Increases excretion of Na
+

in urine (natriuresis);
increases urine output
(diuresis) and thus
decreases blood volume.
Hormonal Regulation of Selective Tubular
Reabsorption and Tubular Secretion

II. URETERS

transport urine from the renal pelvis of kidney
to the urinary bladder

25-30 cm long; thick-walled, narrow tubes that
vary in diameter from 1 mm -10 mm

peristaltic contractions of the muscular walls of
the ureters, hydrostatic pressure and gravity
push urine toward the urinary bladder
3 Coats:

a. Mucosa
- deepest coat

transitional epithelium
- stretches to accommodate variable amount of fluid
mucus
- prevents cells from coming in contact with urine

b. Muscularis
- intermediate coat
-functions for peristalsis

c. Adventitia
- superficial coat;
- anchors the ureters in place
III. URINARY BLADDER
- a hollow , distensible muscular organ

- receives urine ureters and stores urine
until it is excreted through urethra

- average capacity is 700-800ml


3 Coats of Urinary Bladder

a. Mucosa
- mucous membrane

b. Muscularis / Detrusor muscle
- consists of 3 layers of smooth muscle fibers
internal urethral sphincter (involuntary):
external urethral sphincter (voluntary

c. Adventitia
areolar connective tissue
Micturition Reflex

discharge of urine from the urinary bladder

when the volume of urine exceeds 200-400 ml,
pressure within the urinary bladder increases and
stretch receptors in its wall transmit nerve impulses
into the spinal cord

occurs via parasympathetic impulses
contractions of the detrusor muscle and
relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter muscle
IV. URETHRA

- a duct leading from the internal
urethral orifice in the floor of the
urinary bladder to the exterior of the
body that conveys urine in females
and urine and semen in males

Female Urethra
Male Urethra