Fundamentals

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A router is a special type of computer. It has the same basic components as a standard desktop PC. It has a CPU, memory, a system bus, and various input/output interfaces. However, routers are designed to perform some very specific functions that are not typically performed by desktop computers.

Fundamentals

Just as computers need operating systems to run software applications, routers need the Internetwork Operating System software (IOS) to run configuration files. These configuration files contain the instructions and parameters that control the flow of traffic in and out of the routers. Specifically, by using routing protocols, routers make decisions regarding the best path for packets

Components

Components

RAM, has the following characteristics and functions:
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Stores routing tables Holds ARP cache Holds fast-switching cache Performs packet buffering (shared RAM) Maintains packet-hold queues Provides temporary memory for the configuration file of the router while the router is powered on Loses content when router is powered down or restarted

Components

NVRAM has the following characteristics and functions:

Provides storage for the startup configuration file Retains content when router is powered down or restarted

Components

Flash memory has the following characteristics and functions:
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Holds the operating system image (IOS) Allows software to be updated without removing and replacing chips on the processor Retains content when router is powered down or restarted Can store multiple versions of IOS software Is a type of electronically erasable, programmable ROM (EEPROM)

Components

ROM has the following characteristics and functions:

Maintains instructions for power-on self test (POST) diagnostics Stores bootstrap program and basic operating system software Requires replacing pluggable chips on the motherboard for software upgrades

Interfaces

Interfaces have the following characteristics and functions:

Connect router to network for packets entry and exit Can be on the motherboard or on a separate module

Interfaces

The interfaces are the router connections to the outside. The three types of interfaces are local-area network (LANs), widearea network (WANs), and Console/AUX

Interfaces

The LAN interfaces are usually one of several different varieties of Ethernet or Token Ring. These interfaces have controller chips that provide the logic for connecting the system to the media. The LAN interfaces may be a fixed configuration or modular.

Interfaces

The WAN interfaces include serial, ISDN, and integrated Channel Service Unit (CSUs). As with LAN interfaces, WAN interfaces also have special controller chips for the interfaces. The WAN interfaces may be a fixed configuration or modular.

Interfaces

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The Console/AUX ports are serial ports used primarily for the initial configuration of the router. These ports are not networking ports. They are used for terminal sessions from the communication ports on the computer or through a modem.

Segmentation

Internetworking

Functions

They operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model, making decisions based on network addresses. The two main functions of a router are the selection of best path for and the switching of packets to the proper interface. Routers accomplish this by building routing tables and exchanging network information with other routers

Functions

An administrator can maintain routing tables by configuring static routes. But generally routing tables are maintained dynamically through the use of a routing protocol. Routing protocol exchanges network topology (path) information with other routers

Functions

A correctly configured internetwork provides the following:
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Consistent end-to-end addressing Addresses that represent network topologies Best path selection Dynamic or static routing Switching

Layers
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A WAN is said to operate at the physical layer and at the data link layer. It simply means that the characteristics that separate a WAN from a LAN are typically found at the physical layer and the data link layer. In other words, the standards and protocols used in WANs at Layer 1 and Layer 2 are different from those used in LANs at the same layers

DTE-DCE

The WAN physical layer describes the interface between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). Generally, the DCE is the service provider and the DTE is the attached device. In this model, the services offered to the DTE are made available through a modem or a CSU/DSU CSU/DSU is used to convert the data from the DTE into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider

DTE-DCE

Functions
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The principal function of a router is routing. Routing occurs at the network layer, Layer 3, but if a WAN operates at Layers 1 and 2, is a router a LAN device or a WAN device? The answer is both, as is so often the case in the field of networking. A router may be exclusively a LAN device, it may be exclusively a WAN device, or it may sit at the boundary between a LAN and a WAN and be a LAN and WAN device at the same time.

Functions
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Routing is a major function of routers Equally important is providing connections to and between the various WAN physical and data-link standards ISDN with PPP and T1 with Frame Relay Router should be able to move data from one interface to another interface

Physical Layer

WAN physical layer standards and protocols:
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EIA/TIA-232 EIA/TIA-449 V.24 V.35 X.21 G.703 EIA-530 ISDN T1, T3, E1, and E3 xDSL SONET (OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, OC-192)

Data Link Layer

WAN data link layer standards and protocols:
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High-level data link control (HDLC) Frame Relay Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) X.25 ATM LAPB ( Link Access Procedure Balanced ) LAPD ( Link Access Procedure on D Channel ) LAPF ( Link Access Procedure for Frame Relay )

Internal Components

Functions of Components

Main Board

Mother Board

1700 – Front View

1700 – Rear View

1700 – Expansion Cards

2600 – Front View

2600 – Rear View

2600 – Expansion Cards

Configuration Ports
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The console port and the auxiliary (AUX) port are management ports. These asynchronous serial ports are not designed as networking ports. One of these two ports is required for the initial configuration of the router. The console port is recommended for this initial configuration. Not all routers have an auxiliary port.

Configuration Ports

When the router is first put into service, there are no networking parameters configured. Therefore the router cannot communicate with any network. To prepare for initial startup and configuration, attach an RS-232 ASCII terminal, or a computer emulating an ASCII terminal, to the system console port. Then configuration commands can be entered to set up the router.

Configuration Ports

Configuration Ports

Configuration Ports

Once this initial configuration is entered into the router through the console or auxiliary port, the router can then be connected to the network for troubleshooting or monitoring. The console port is also preferred over the auxiliary port for troubleshooting.

Configuration Ports

Configuration Ports

To connect to the console port, a rollover cable and a RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter are used to connect a PC. Cisco supplies the necessary adapter to connect to the console port.

Configuration Ports

The PC or terminal must support VT100 terminal emulation. Terminal emulation software such as HyperTerminal is usually used.

Configuration Ports
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To connect the PC to a router: Configure terminal emulation software on the PC for:
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The appropriate com port 9600 baud 8 data bits No parity 1 stop bit No flow control

Connect the RJ-45 connector of the rollover cable to the router console port. Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter. Attach the female DB-9 adapter to a PC.

Connections

In most LAN environments, the router is connected to the LAN using an Ethernet or Fast Ethernet interface. The router is a host that communicates with the LAN via a hub or a switch. A straight-through cable is used to make this connection. A 10/100BaseTX router interface requires Category 5 or better, unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) regardless of the router type.

Connections

In some cases the Ethernet connection of the router is connected directly to the computer or to another router. For this type of connection, a crossover cable is required.

Connections

Straight through

Switch to Router Router to Router Router to PC Console port to console

Cross-over
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Roll-over

Connections

The most commonly used router interfaces for WAN services are serial interfaces What is the type of connection to the Cisco device? Is the network system being connected to a DTE or DCE device?

Connections

What signaling standard does the device require? Is a male or female connector required on the cable?

Connections

Connections

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