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Ship Stability

prepared by:
Guided by:
 The ability of the object or vessel
to float free on the water surface
without sinking and gravitational
force acting on it is grater than
that of buoyancy force acting on
it is called stability of the ship.

 Archimedes Principle

 Terminology of ship’s hydrostatics

 Metacenter, Center of Gravity, Center of

Buoyancy, couple etc.

 Stability curves
Archimedes Principle
 Law: A body floating or
submerged in a fluid is buoyed
up by a force equal to the
weight of the water it
Archimedes Principle
 Ship sinks until weight of water
displaced by the underwater volume
is less to the weight of the ship.
 Forces of gravity: G = mshipg =Wship
 Forces of buoyancy: B = ρ Vdisplaced

Wship = ρ Vdisplaced
Archimedes Principle
 Forces act everywhere on ship -> too
tough to analyze
 Center of Gravity (G): all gravity forces
as one force acting downward through
ship’s geometric center
 Center of Buoyancy (B): all buoyancy
forces as one force acting upward
through underwater geometric center
Archimedes Principle
 Center of Gravity (G):
 Changes position only by change/shift in
mass of ship
 Does not change position with
movement of ship
 Center of Buoyancy (B):
 Changes position
G with movement of ship
-> underwater geometric center moves
 Also affected by displacement

Displacement: total weight of ship = total
submerged volume of ship (measured in tons)
 Draft: vertical distance from waterline to keel
at deepest point (measured in feet)
 Reserve Buoyancy: volume of watertight
portion of ship above waterline (important
factor in ship’s ability to survive flooding)
 Freeboard: vertical distance from waterline to
main deck (rough indication of reserve
Hydrostatics Terminology

 As draft & displacement increase, freeboard and

reserve buoyancy decrease
 Def’n: tendency of a force to produce
rotation or to move an object about an
 Distance between the force and axis of
rotation is the moment arm
 Couple: two forces of equal magnitude in
opposite and parallel directions, separated
by a perpendicular distance
 G and B are a couple
 Depending on location of
G and B, two types of
 Righting moment: tends to
return ship to upright
 Upsetting moment: tends
to overturn ship
 Magnitude of righting
 RM = W * GZ (ft-tons)
 GZ: moment arm (ft)
 Define as the
intersection of two
successive lines of
action of the force of
buoyancy as ship
heels through small
angles (M)
 If angle too large, M
moves off centerline
Metacentric height
 Ship’s Metacentric
height is define as
distance from
center of gravity
(G) to the
metacenter is
known as the
 Relationship between G and M
 G under M: ship is stable
 G = M: ship neutral

 G over M: ship unstable

Metacenter v. Stability
 At this point, we could use lots of
trigonometry to determine exact
values of forces, etc for all angles
-> too much work
 GM used as a measure of stability
up to 7°, after that values of GZ are
plotted at successive angles to
create the stability curve
Stability Curve
 Plot GZ (righting arm) vs. angle of heel
Plot GZ (righting arm) vs. angle of heel

 When a series of values for GZ at

successive angles of heel are plotted on a
graph which result in STABILITY CURVE

 Ship’s G does not change as angle changes

 Ship’s B always at center of underwater portion of
 Ship’s underwater portion of hull changes as heel
angle changes
 GZ changes as angle changes
Stability Curve
 Ship stability normally refers to the ability of a
floating vessel to resists the overturning forces
encountered in the course of its operations.
Which is arise from weather, wind, waves etc.
 Stability calculations solves this forces and apply
them in a practical way to a mathematical model
of the ship so that the response of the vessel can
be examined for various magnitudes of