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To enable the student to get an exposure to the
Aerospace Industry and understand the Basics of
Aircraft Systems and Aircraft Structures.
To able to understand Design of Aircraft Structures
To understand the applicability of Design aspects in
Aircraft Design so that he/she can relate the
theoretical knowledge with the design of Aircraft

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Reference/Text Books
John D Anderson Jr, Introduction to Flight, Tata
McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, NewDelhi,
5th Edition, 2009.
David A Lombardo, Aircraft Systems, Tata
McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, NewDelhi,
2nd Edition, 1998.
A.C Kermode, Flight without Formulae , Pearson
Education,5th Edition, 2008.

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History of Flight
Types of Aerospace Industry
Aerospace Manufacturing
Prime contractors
Key challenges in Industry Supply Chain
Aerospace Industry Trends
Advances in Engineering/CAD/CAM/CAE Tools and
Materials technology
Global and Indian Aircraft Scenario.
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The Man Wanted To Be Like Bird And
Be On To Fly.
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First Attempts to Fly By Man
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What does Aviation mean?
from the
word avis,
with the
of bird in
History of Aviation
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Aviation is the design, development,
production, operation, and use of aircraft,
especially heavier-than-air aircraft.
The word "Aviation" was coined by French
writer and former naval officer Gabriel La
Landelle in 1873, from the verb "avier"
(synonymous flying), itself derived from the
Latin word "avis" ("bird") and the suffix "-
What is an aircraft?
A machine that is able to
fly by gaining support from
the air
counters the force
of gravity
using either static
lift or the dynamic lift
Methods of lifting an aircraft
Depends on buoyant
in air to have
densities lower than
that of air.
does not depend on
buoyancy for support
but gains lift from
aerodynamic forces.
History of Aviation
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Aircraft have been around for a century, but aviation has
been around for more than 2000 years.
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Vimna (Sanskrit: ) is a word with several meanings ranging
from temple or palace to mythological flying machines
Rama being welcomed back to Ayodhya , also shown him flying in
the Pushpaka Vimana

Aviation Through the Ages
1000B.C to 1250A.D
The Greek myth of Daedalus and
his son Icarus was written
around 1000 B.C.
Kites flown around the year 400
B.C. in China .
In the year 1020 A.D. Oliver put
on a pair of wings and leapt from
the top of an abbey. He landed
very hard and broke his legs.
Luckily he survived the crash.
Many others attempted to fly
with "wings" but all failed.
Leonardo da Vincis Ornithopter design
I was one of the
first to experiment
with the science of
Unfortunately my
writings and
sketches weren't
discovered until
three hundred
years after my
Aviation Through the Ages 1250 to 1750

Leonardo da Vinci, made
many model aircraft that
didnt fly. He introduced
lighter-than air flight.
He spent most of his life
exploring flight and left the
world about 160 documents
of sketches and observations
about flight.
He made important
discoveries about the center
of gravity, the center of
pressure, and streamlining.
Aviation Through the Ages
1750 to 1850
What forces cause
smoke to rise in a
fireplace? This was what
sparked Montgolfier's
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Joseph-Michel Montgolfier
Jacques-tienne Montgolfier
Designed the first successful flying craft.
Burning created a gas, which they called
"Montgolfier's gas," causing a craft to rise.
They constructed a balloon made of cloth and
paper. The first aviators were a duck, rooster, and a
sheep. Then in 1783 a crowd in Paris watched as a
Montgolfier balloon
To counter this problem Henri Giffard
designed a round oval shaped balloon
called a blimp and combined it with a
steam engine to make it steerable. When
gasoline engines were invented they
became a major source of transportation
across the Atlantic Ocean.

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Aviation Through the Ages 1850 to 1900
Sir George Cayley 1773 1857
The whole problem is confined within these
limits, namely, to make a surface support a
given weight by the application of power to
the resistance of air.
Sir George Cayley experimented with gliders at
his home.
He was the first to discover how wings work.
Cayley discovered that wings are lifted on the
He also constructed the first aircraft that was
heavier than air.
He is now recognized as the father of aviation.
He came up with many principles of heavier-
than-air flight.

Lighter than air vehicles
Lighter-than air vehicles, at first used hot air but started
using hydrogen because it is lighter than air. But hydrogen
is highly explosive and can be triggered by just a spark.
On May 6
1937, Hindenburg a hydrogen airship exploded
and crashed on landing in New Jersey.
Nowadays, airships use helium which is an inert gas.

Hindenburg Disaster
Aviation Through the Ages
1850 to 1900
In 1896, the German
engineer, Otto Lilienthal,
tested several monoplane
and biplane gliders.
He built and flew the first
glider capable of carrying a
person, but died when he
crashed in a sudden gust of
wind before he could finish
his powered plane.
Jean-Marie Le Bris and his flying machine,
Albatros II, 1868
The 1884 La Franc, the first fully controllable
The Wright Military Flyer aboard a wagon
in 1908.
The first flight
The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, made the first successful
heavier than air aircraft, the Wright flyer.
The first flight was on December 17
After the Wright
brothers first flight,
there was an aviation
Modern-day aircraft
giants, Boeing and
Airbus, came into existence.
The first plane, the Wright
Aviation Through the Ages
1900 to 1935
The first flight
December 17, 1903 the world's first
successful airplane known as the Flyer

The brothers had made their own
engine that weighed 200 pounds
and had four cylinders. It could
make 12 horse power, a sixth of
the engine power of a small car. It
had no seat and the pilot had to
lay in a cradle in the bottom wing.
The first heavier-than-air flight traveled one hundred
twenty feet in twelve seconds. The two brothers took
turns flying that day with the fourth and last flight
covering 850 feet in 59 seconds. But the Flyer was
unstable and very hard to control.
The brothers returned to Dayton, Ohio, where they
worked for two more years perfecting their design.
Finally, on October 5, 1905, Wilbur piloted the Flyer III
for 39 minutes and about 24 miles of circles around
Huffman Prairie. He flew the first practical airplane
until it ran out of gas.

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First Flight
Aviation Through the Ages 1900 A.D to 1935 A.D
Wright biplane that the first cost-to-cost flight
was made by Calbraith P. Rodgers, in 1911.
The key to their success was to learn how to
control the plane.
At first planes were used mostly for
But later planes developed into biplane and
triplane fighters and bombers
Germany developed many fighter tactics that
are still in modified use today.
The compass was an important instrument to
these early fighters.
Aviation Through the Ages
1900 to 1935
Aviation Through the Ages 1935 A.D to 1950 A.D
World War II implemented almost
exclusively monoplanes.
Both sides of the war manufactured
literally thousands of fighters and
British Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IV,
the American P-51 Mustang,
the American C-4U Corsair,
the American B-17, and
the American B-29 Superfortress.
The Grumann F6F Hellcat was first
used in 1943 and many more
Aviation Through the Ages
1935 A.D to 1950 A.D
The new technology called
radar was used to detect
and identify the size, speed,
distance, and trajectory of
the German bombers and
send their Spitfires on
perfect intercept missions.
Aviation Through the Ages
1935 A.D to 1950 A.D
Instrumentation was crude in
comparison to today's technology. In
the early days pilots relied on
landmarks and sometimes even pre-
set bonfires to guide them along their
way. What were the early
instruments like and what were their
functions? How has instrumentation
evolved through the ages?
In the late 1940's, the military had
developed the jet engine and began
changing over to jet fighters. This
resulted in faster and better
performing craft. New aviation
records were set. In 1947, Chuck
Yeager broke the sound barrier.
Aviation Through the Ages
1950 A.D to 1975 A.D

After Chuck Yeager's supersonic flight in 1947,
aviation entered a new era dominated by jets.
The years following the war saw the aviation
industry grow in leaps and bounds. The military
airforce developed more effective planes to
address the arms race with Russia. The B-47 and
B-52 bombers were built to be used to deliver
nuclear bombs. They were the world's heaviest
bombers and could hold up to 99,206 pounds of
bombs. Early bombers flew so high that the crew
had to wear pressure suits but later they were
used at low altitude because they were harder to
locate with radar.

Aviation Through the Ages
1950 A.D to 1975 A.D
In September, 1955, a contract was awarded to North
American Aviation for the X-15 plane which could fly at
4,500 miles per hour at an altitude of at least 70,000
feet. 54 percent of its total weight was its fuel (18,000
pounds). The total weight of the X-15 was 33,000
pounds. Though only three of this type of plane were
built they flew a total of over 200 times. The highest
speed ever reached was about 4,525 miles per hour or
Mach 6.72.
Aviation Through the Ages
1950 A.D to 1975 A.D
In 1958, the first American commercial jet, the
707, was put into service by the Boeing
Company. The commercial liners were an instant
hit with passengers who appreciated the faster
flying time. Again new records were set. By 1966
both Lockheed and Douglas Aircraft Corporations
had entered the commercial industry giving rise
to competition and the development of new
During the Vietnam War the use of military air
power was somewhat limited by policy in
Washington. President Nixon launched the only
strategic bombing campaign of the war. Many
fliers were shot down over Southeast Asia. They
were recently honored in a ceremony dedicating
the Missing Man Monument at Randolph Air
Force Base, in Texas.

Aviation Through the Ages
1975A.D to 2000A.D
Aviation has changed much since the beginning of time.
The world's first supersonic commercial passenger aircraft operating regular
scheduled flights was the Concorde. It was developed jointly by Great Britain
and France during the 1960s and 1970s when the Comet 4, the DC-3, and the
Constellation were in regular service. No other supersonic aircraft can fly as fast
and as far as the Concorde without needing mid-flight refueling. Some military
aircraft can fly faster, but need in-flight refueling. The Concorde flies literally on
the edge of space, high through the atmosphere. Passengers are even capable of
seeing the earth's surface.

The Nighthawk (F-117A) first flew in 1981 and began combat in 1989. This jet
was designed to avoid detection and mount precision attacks. It is the first
stealth combat aircraft in the world. It has a top speed of 593 mph (955 kph) and
is loaded with 5,000 lbs. of weapons. The choice of weaponry varies from laser-
guided bombs, air-to-air missiles, or air-to-surface missiles. Two types of
weapons can be carried at one time. The outside of the Nighthawk is coated
with a special material that absorbs some of the radar signals that strike it. It is
protected by 24 hour security with armed guards all around it. Authorized
personnel must pass a palm print test to get near the aircraft.
Aviation Through the Ages
1975A.D to 2000A.D
The CL-415, or "Firebird," is a very
important aircraft. This aircraft is
amphibious, which means it can be
operated from land or water. It was
developed by Canadair to stop raging
forest fires. However, it is also useful for
search and rescue missions, especially
on the sea. It can search for survivors
for up to seven hours before refueling.
It can scoop water into its tanks.
Through doors in the bottom of the
aircraft it drops water on the fire.
The age of computers continues to
impact the aviation field. Today's
technology is exciting and it seems as if
"the sky's the limit" as we look into the

Aviation today and tomorrow
Boeing 787
designed completely on
the computer
will carry 250 - 290
passengers on routes of
8,000 to 8,500 nautical
The airplane will use 20
percent less fuel for
comparable missions
than today's similarly
sized airplane. It will also
travel at speeds similar to
today's fastest wide
bodies, Mach 0.85.
Airlines will enjoy more
cargo revenue capacity.
Martin Aircraft - Maryland
1937 Mini-Mariner,
the flying prototype
of the WWII flying
boat bomber
A PBM-3 Martin Mariner in flight
Martin PBM-5A Mariner.
This was the only amphibious version
of the Mariner.
An airplane is a vehicle heavier than air, powered by an engine,
which travels through the air by the reaction of air passing over
its wings.
The fuselage is the central body portion of an airplane which
accommodates the crew and passengers or cargo.
In general aviation airplanes, the cockpit is usually the space in
the fuselage for the pilot and the passengers: in some aircrafts it
is just the pilot's compartment.
The landing gear, located underneath the airplane, supports it
while on the ground.
Wings are the parts of airplanes which provide lift and support
the entire weight of the aircraft and its contents while in flight.
2 sheets of notebook paper
Hold two sheets of notebook paper about four
inches apart. Blow between them. Instead of
flying apart they come together. The air
moving rapidly between the two pieces of
paper has less pressure than the air pressing
on the outer sides of the paper.
Ping-pong ball
Tank-type vacuum cleaner
Connect the hose to the blower rather than to the suction end
of the vacuum cleaner. Turn the switch on. Hold the hose
vertically so the stream of air goes straight up. Release the
ping-pong ball into the stream of air about a foot from the
nozzle. Slowly tip the nose so that air shoots at an angle. The
ball will stay suspended in the airstream. The force of gravity
upon the ball tends to make it drop out of the airstream.
However, the fast moving airstream lessens the air pressure
on the portion of the ball remaining in the airstream,
overcoming the force of gravity, which results in the ball
remaining suspended.
What are airfoils and how do they

Wright Brother
The first flight by Orville Wright, of 120 feet
(37 m) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a
famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the
same day, Wilbur Wright flew 852 feet
(260 m) in 59 seconds.
The first in-flight film, made by a camera man
flying with Wilbur Wright on 24 April 1909
Demoiselle No.19 First series production
Life Cycle
First performances steps under World War
I (19141918)
Technology and performance advances in
aviation's "Golden Age" (19181939)
Progress goes on and massive production,
World War II (19391945)
19451991: The Cold War

Flagg biplane from 1933
Progress goes on and massive production,
World War II (19391945)

Me 262, world first operational jet fighter
World War One Aircrafts
During WW 1, pilots became famous for their air to air
combats, the most well-known is Red Baron, who shot
down 80 planes in air to air combat with several
different planes.
Fokker Dr.I replica at the ILA 2006, the "Red Baron" triplane
Aviation During WW 1: 1914-1918
1916: William Boeing's fascination with aviation leads to
the creation of his own airplane manufacturing business.
Over the next several decades, the company would
evolve into the world's largest commercial airline

1918: The United States officially establishes air mail
service with flights between New York City,
and Washington D.C.
World War One Aircrafts "flying coffins"
The Golden Age: 1919 - 1938
Golden Age After WW1: (1919-1938)

Aviation focus on Airmail Services
Birth of the Airlines
Advancement in aircraft technology.
Birth of Commercial Aviation
Birth of Air Traffic Control
Charles Lindbergh Made an Historic Flight
Birth of Instrument Flying
Air mail services
It was the Post Office and airmail delivery that
gave the commercial airlines their true start.

In the early part of the 20th century, the Post
Office had used mostly railroads to transport mail
between cities.

By 1925, only seven years after the first official
airmail flight, U.S. Post Office airplanes were
delivering 14 million letters and packages a year
and were maintaining regular flight schedules.
1925: Contract Act of 1925 (Kelly Act)
Congress passes the Air Mail Act of 1925 (also known
as the Kelly Act), permitting the government to hire
private air carriers to deliver the mail.

The government contracts that were subsequently
awarded helped determine which airlines would
dominate commercial aviation - airlines including
United Airlines, American Airlines and TWA.
Golden Age - Between Wars
Large advancement in aircraft technology.
Wood and canvas converts to aluminums.
Engine development, In-line water cooled
gasoline engines convert to rotary air cooled
engines (increase propulsive power).
After WWI, experienced fighter pilots were eager
to show off their new skills.
Air shows sprang up around the country, with air
races and acrobatic stunts.

Birth of Instrument Flying
New Flying Instruments developed to enable flying during
night and bad weather
Visual radio direction finder:
Using vibration system to direct the aircraft. The closer
the plane is to the beacon, the more intense the vibration.
Artificial horizon:
Showed at what angle the plane was flying in relation to
the ground, whether and how the wings were tilted,
whether the nose was up, down or level, and to what
Barometric altimeter
Showed how far above the ground of a particular field,.
They will sensitively record the time and therefore the
distance which a sound or radio impulse travels from a
plane to the ground and back.
Aviation During World War 2
Drastic increase in the of aircraft development and
Aircraft faster and more maneuverable
Stronger in design
Weapon systems are more sophisticated
Roles are dedicated:
Aviation During World War 2
1936: Spitfires (fast maneuverable fighter airplanes)
developed for use in WWII.
1943: Helicopters are mass-produced for WWII.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190, German
fighter plane of World War II.
A Supermarine Spitfire was a typical
World War II fighter.
Crossing the English channel
inventor and
Built a
Made the first
flight across the
English Channel
in a heavier than
air aircraft in

Worlds first jet propelled aircraft

heat to
pure air
fan blades
in a duct
Romanian Henri Coand (1910)
Crossing the Atlantic ocean
Curtiss seaplane NC-4 (1919)
One of the three
United States
Navy aircraft
Supported by a
trail of 22
"station ships
23 days
1945 1991: The Cold War
Most ex-military aircraft were used in the business
of transporting people and goods.
Many companies existed, with routes that crossed
North America, Europe and other parts of the world.
Heavy and super-heavy bomber airframes (e.g., B-
29, Lancaster, DC-3) easily converted into
commercial aircraft

In 1946, The DC-6 was the aircraft that greatly
reduced traveling time with greater comfort for
passengers and made air travel economically viable.
1947: Airplanes fly faster than the speed of sound.
1947: Radar is developed to keep track of aircraft
from the ground.

Further barriers of distance were eliminated in 1948 and
1952 as the first jet crossing of the Atlantic occurred and the
first nonstop flight to Australia occurred.
1950s: The airliner begins to replace other means of
transportation as the primary means of long-distance travel.
By 1952, the British state airline introduced into service the
first jet airliner, the De Havilland Comet (the plane suffered a
series of highly public failures)

Boeing 707

In 1967, the X-15 set the air speed record for an airplane
at 4,534 mph or Mach 6.1 (7,297 km/h).
1968: Aircraft are developed that can take off and land
vertically, without the use of a runway (Harrier Jump
1969: The Concorde is developed and used as the first
supersonic airliner. (It crosses the Atlantic Ocean in less
than 3 hours.)
1969, Boeing came out with its vision for the future of air
travel (Boeing 747). This plane is still one of the largest
aircraft ever to fly, and it carries millions of passengers
each year.
Apollo 11 moon landing
The spaceflight
that landed the
first humans, Neil
Armstrong & Buzz
Commercial aviation progressed even further in
1976 as British Airways provide supersonic service
across the Atlantic (Concorde).
A few years earlier the SR-71 Blackbird had set
the record for crossing the Atlantic in under 2

Lockheed SR71
1981: Space Shuttle is developed as a
reusable space ship that can land after
reentry into Earths atmosphere.

Largest passenger airliner in the world
Airbus A380

Unit cost US$375.3 million
The A380 can be fitted with two types of turbofan engines: either the Rolls-
Royce Trent 900 (variants A380-841, 842 and 843F) or with the Engine
provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up
to 853 people
Subsidiary of
viable fly-by-
wire airliner,
First flight using solar panels &
electric power
Solar Impulse
is a Swiss
solar powered
aircraft project
Carbon-Composite plane
Boeing 787 Dreamliner

The cockpit of All Nippon Airways' (ANA) first
Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft is seen after the
aircraft landed at Haneda airport in Tokyo September
28, 2011.
All Nippon Airways' first
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
carbon-composite plane
Future of aviation
Future Aircraft-D8
NASA researchers are working with
industry and university partners to
develop ideas for future airplanes
that dramatically reduce noise,
emissions and fuel consumption.
One idea comes from a research
team led by the MIT in Cambridge,
Mass., and funded by a NASA grant.
MIT and NASA engineers recently
tested a 1/11
scale model version
of the D8 in the 14 by 22 Foot
Subsonic Wind Tunnel at NASA's
Langley Research Center.
The test was designed to produce
data, now being analyzed, that can
determine whether incorporating
the engines into the fuselage of the
airplane actually reduces drag.

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New Way to Fly
One possible design for a future
commercial airplane that's much
more environmentally friendly .
The idea fuses two aircraft bodies
together lengthwise to create a
twin-aisle passenger area, and
mounts the engines on top of the
It also uses composite, or non-
metallic, materials to lower overall
weight, and is designed to do the
same work as a Boeing 737-800 or
an Airbus 320.
The aerodynamic performance of
a 1/11
scale model version of the
D8 was recently tested in the 14
by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel
at NASA's Langley Research

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Updated Supersonic
This updated future aircraft
design concept from NASA .
It is a good example of how
simulations and wind tunnel
tests, conducted over time,
generate data that tell
researchers how to improve a
design to achieve goals.
The goals for a future supersonic
aircraft are to produce a much
lower-level sonic boom and to
reduce emissions.
The ultimate goal is to achieve a
low enough boom that a current
ruling prohibiting supersonic
flight over land might be lifted.

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Flying Wing
This computer-generated
image shows a possible
future "flying wing" aircraft,
very efficiently and quietly in
flight over populated areas.
This kind of design, produced
by Northrop Grumman,
would most likely carry cargo
at first and then also carry
His design is among those
presented to NASA at the
end of 2011 by companies
that conducted NASA-funded
studies into aircraft that
could enter service in 2025.

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Aviation in 2025 according to NASA
Fly up to
85% of the
speed of
Cover a
range of
pounds of
Lower fuel
Boeings Design
on the
top of
the back

2 vertical

Lockheed Martins Design
A box wing
A wing on the
lower belly
and one on the
Ultra fan
engine, five
times greater
than current
Northrop Grummans Design
Aerospace Companies
United Technologies Corporation
General Dynamics Corp.
L-3 Communications
Honeywell International Inc.
Parker Hannifin
Computer Sciences Corp.
Thales Group (U.S. branch)
Lockheed Martin Corp
Northrop Grumman Corp
Aquarius Defence Industries
Woodlawn Manufacturing
BAE Systems
Thales Alenia Space
EADS Astrium Satellites

Indian Aircraft manufacture
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
HAL was established as Hindustan Aircraft in
Bangalore in 1940 by Walchand Hirachand to produce
military aircraft for the Royal Indian Air Force.
Mahindra Aerospace
first Indian private firm to make smaller civil aircraft
for the Indian general aviation market
Raj Hamsa Ultralights
Raj Hamsa Ultralights is an Indian private limited
company and ultralight aircraft manufacturer, founded
in 1980 at Pondicherry, India by Joel Koechlin of
France. The company is one of India's largest aircraft
manufacturers and its only producer of commercial
microlight aircraft.
Types of airplanes
1) Monoplane
an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces.
Since the late 1930s it has been the "ordinary" form for a
fixed wing aircraft.
2) Biplane
is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings.
The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as
did most aircraft in the early years of aviation.
3) Tri-plane
Is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three sets of wings.
The best-known triplane is Fokker Dr.I during WW1.

Types of airplanes
Types of Aerospace Industry

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