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DNA Technology/

Genetic Engineering
5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of
exogenous DNA into the cells.
As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:

a. the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.

b. how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during

semi-conservative replication, and transcription of information from DNA
into mRNA.

c. how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical

and agricultural products.

d.* how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel

electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to construct
recombinant DNA molecules.

e.* how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells in order to alter
their genetic makeup and support expression of new protein products.
Selective Breeding
• Selective breeding
produces organisms w/
desired traits.
• Inbreeding
- mating between closely
related individuals
- Ex. Dog show or horse
Test Cross
• A cross of an • _____ x bb = ?
individual of unknown
genotype w/ an • Ex. BB x bb => all Bb
individual of known
• Bb x bb => Bb & bb
What is genetic engineering?
• Manipulation/ alteration
of genes to change the
protein products
expressed in an

Ex. A glow-in-the-dark
Recombinant DNA
• Made by connecting or
recombining fragments of
DNA from different
• Plasmid = circular
bacteria DNA
• Restriction enzyme = cuts
• Gene splicing = ligating or
connecting DNA
Gel Electrophoresis
• How does it work?
-separates DNA
fragments by size &
-small fragments move
faster & large
fragments lag behind
-neg. charged DNA is
repelled by neg.
charge and attracted
to positive charge.
Application of Gel Electrophoresis
• DNA fingerprinting
- determine whether
sample DNA matches
DNA from a specific
Ex. Forensic science &
paternity testing

• DNA sequencing
-determine the order of
nitrogen bases of DNA
Human Genome
Approximately 80,000 genes on the 46 human chromosomes.

Maps are currently being prepared that show the locations of
• known genes on each chromosome.
Gene Therapy
• inserts a normal copy
of the gene into cells
to compensate for
abnormal genes OR
to make a functional
• A gene that is inserted
directly into a cell
usually does not
• Vector (virus) = a
carrier that delivers
the gene.
• Clones – genetically
identical copies.
• Therapeutic cloning
- clone organs or cells
• Cloning of genes
• Cloning of animals
Transgenic organism
• Definition: An organism • Method: The gene of your
(typically a mouse) that is interest is first isolated and
recombinant DNA is created.
engineered to carry a
- The transgene of choice is then
foreign gene, or injected into a fertilized egg.
transgene of choice as
part of its own genetic - These eggs are then
material. transplanted back into a
• Purpose: Very useful for surrogaate female, in which
they can develop to term.
understanding the
function of newly
discovered genes & for
producing useful proteins