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You are on page 1of 46

AND

LOGIC SIMPLIFICATION

1

Chapter 4

Contents

2

Boolean Algebra

De Morgan Theorem

Karnaugh Map

2 variables

3 variables

4 variables

5 variables

Dont care condition

Boolean Algebra

Boolean algebra is the mathematics of digital systems.

Terms used in Boolean algebra

A variable is a symbol used to represent a logical quantity. Any

single variable can have the value of 1 or 0.

The complement is the inverse of a variable and is indicated by a

bar over the variable. The complement of the variable A is A. If A=1,

then A =0. Sometimes a prime symbol is used to denote a

complement of a variable, A .

A literal is each appearance of a variable or its complement.

For example, F (X ,Y ,Z) = XY(Z + YX) + YZ:

3 Variables

7 Literals

3

Laws of Boolean Algebra

4

Commutative Law

Addition: A + B = B + A

Multiplication : AB = BA

A

B

X

B

A

X

A

B

X

B

A

X

Laws of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

5

Associative Law

Addition: A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

Multiplication: A(BC) = (AB)C

A

B

C

C

A

B

A

B

C

A

B

C

Laws of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

6

Distributive Law

A(B + C) = AB + AC

A

B

C

C

A

B

Rules of Boolean Algebra

7

1. A + 0 = A

2. A + 1 = 1

3. A 0 = 0

4. A 1 = A

5. A + A = A

6. A + A = 1

7. A A = A

8. A A = 0

9. (A) = A

10. A + AB = A

11. A + AB = A + B

12. (A+B)(A+C)=A+BC

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

8

1. A + 0 = A

2. A + 1 =1

A=0

0

0

A=1

0

1

A=0

1

1

A=1

1

1

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

9

3. A 0 = 0

4. A 1 =A

A=0

0

0

A=1

0

0

A=0

1

0

A=1

1

1

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

10

5. A + A = A

6. A + A = 1

A=0

A=0

0

A=1

A=1

1

A=0

A=1

1

A=1

A=0

1

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

11

7. A A = A

8. A A =0

A=0

A=0

0

A=1

A=1

1

A=0

A=1

0

A=1

A=0

0

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

12

9. (A) = A

A=0 A=1 (A)=0

A=1 A=0 (A)=1

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

13

10. A+AB = A

11. A+ AB = A + B

A + AB = A 1 + AB

= A (1 +B)

= A 1

= A

A + AB = (A + AB) + AB

= A + B(A +A)

= A + B 1

= A + B

Rules of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

14

12. (A + B)(A + C) = A + BC

(A+ B)(A + C) = AA + AC + AB + BC

= A + AC + AB + BC

= A (1 +C) + AB + BC

= A 1 + AB + BC

= A(1 + B) + BC

= A 1 + BC

= A + BC

DeMorgans Theorem

1. XY = X + Y

2. X + Y = X Y

15

NAND

Negative-OR

NOR Negative-AND

DeMorgans Theorem Examples

Apply DeMorgans theorem for WXYZ.

16

WXYZ = W + X + Y + Z

DeMorgans Theorem Examples

Apply DeMorgans Theorem for (A+B+C)D

Let (A+B+C) = X, and D =Y

Applying DeMorgans Theorem

(A+B+C)D= A+B+C + D

Applying DeMorgans Theorem for first term

A+B+C + D = A B C + D

17

Simplification Using Boolean Algebra

AB + A(B+C) + B(B+C)

= AB + AB + AC + BB + BC

= AB + AC + B + BC

= AB + AC + B

= B + AC

18

Apply distributive law

BB=B (R7); AB+AB=AB (R5)

B+BC = B (R10)

B+AB = B (R10)

A

B

C

A

B

C

AB + AC +ABC

= (AB)(AC) + ABC

= (A+B)(A+C) + ABC

= AA+AC+AB+BC+ABC

= A + AC + AB + BC

= A + AB + BC

= A + BC

Simplification Using Boolean Algebra

19

Apply DeMorgans Theorem

Apply DeMorgans Theorem

Apply Distributive Law

AA=A (R7); AB+ABC=AB (R10)

A+AC=A (R10)

A+AB=A (R10)

SOP vs POS

Sum-of-Products (SOP)

Two or more product terms are summed by Boolean addition.

Implemented by ORing the outputs of two or more AND gates

For e.g., ABC+CDE+BCD

If any of the product-term is HIGH, then output is HIGH

Product-of-Sums (POS)

Two or more sum terms are multiplied by Boolean multiplication.

Implemented by ANDing the outputs of two or more OR gates

For e.g., (A+B)(A+B+C)

If any of the sum-term is LOW, then output is LOW

20

Canonical Forms of Boolean Algebra

Also known as, Standard form

Longest form of Boolean Expressions

All variable appears in each sum/product terms

21

Canonical Forms of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

Minterms Standard Sum-of-Products (SOP)

All variables appear in each product terms

Output is HIGH if any product-term is HIGH

22

Binary Equivalent

(ABC)

Minterm Minterm

Number

000 ABC m

0

001 ABC m

1

010 ABC m

2

011 ABC m

3

100 ABC m

4

101 ABC m

5

110 ABC m

6

111 ABC m

7

Note:

0 bar

1 no bar

Canonical Forms of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

For eg; X(A,B,C) = m(0, 2, 3, 5)

=m

0

+ m

2

+ m

3

+ m

5

=ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC

23

Binary (ABC) X

000 1

001 0

010 1

011 1

100 0

101 1

110 0

111 0

Canonical Forms of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

Maxterms Standard Product-of-Sums (POS)

All variables appear in each sum terms

Output is LOW if any sum-term is LOW

24

Binary Equivalent

(ABC)

Maxterm

000 (A+B+C) M

0

001 (A+B+C) M

1

010 (A+B+C) M

2

011 (A+B+C) M

3

100 (A+B+C) M

4

101 (A+B+C) M

5

110 (A+B+C) M

6

111 (A+B+C) M

7

Note:

1 bar

0 no bar

Canonical Forms of Boolean Algebra (cont.)

For eg; X (A, B, C) = M(1, 2, 6, 7)

= M

1

M

2

M

6

M

7

=(A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C)

25

Binary (ABC) X

000 1

001 0

010 0

011 1

100 1

101 1

110 0

111 0

Karnaugh Map

26

The Karnaugh map provides a systematic method for

simplifying Boolean expressions in SOP or POS form

The Karnaugh map is an array of cells in which each

cell represents a binary value of the input variables.

A Karnaugh map is similar to a truth table as it

presents all the possible values of input variables and

the resulting output for each value.

The number of cells is equal to the total number of

possible input variable combination, 2

n

.

The 2-variables Karnaugh Map

27

Is an array of 2

2

= 4 cells

Truth table

A B Minterm

0 0 m0

0 1 m1

1 0 m2

1 1 m3

AB AB

AB AB

0

0 1

1

A

B

The 3-variables Karnaugh Map

28

is an array of eight cells.

The 4-variables Karnaugh Map

29

is an array of sixteen cells.

Cell adjacency

30

The cells in a Karnaugh Map are arranged so that

there is only a single-variable change between

adjacent cells.

Adjacency is defined by a single-variable change.

Each cell is adjacent to the cells that are

immediately next to it on any of its four sides.

The cells in the top row are adjacent to the

corresponding cells in the bottom row . The cells in

the outer left column are adjacent to the cells in the

outer right column. This is called the wrap-around

adjacency.

31

K-map Mapping

32

Example 1: Map the standard SOP function below on

a K-map

f(a,b,c) = m(0, 5, 7)

= abc + abc + abc

abc

abc

abc

1

1 1

K-map Simplification

33

SOP expression; Boolean expression must be

presented in standard SOP form.

Map 1s on the minterm cells that make the standard

expression

Perform next 3 steps to simplify the expression:

1. Grouping the 1s

2. Determining the product term for each group

3. Summing the resulting product terms

K-map simplification (cont.)

34

Grouping the 1s:

Enclose adjacent cells containing 1s.

A group must contain either 1, 2,4,8 or 16 cells. Maximize the

size of the groups to minimize the number of groups .

Each 1 on the map must be included in at least one group.

The 1s already in a group can be included in another group as

long as the overlapping groups include noncommon 1s.

Determining the product terms:

Determine product terms for each group

Check variables that do not change for all the 1s in each group

35

Example 2: Use K-map to simplify the following SOP

expression

F(A,B,C,D) = ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD

+ ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD + ABCD

36

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

The domains

that have

different values

are A,B and C.

thus this group

give the

simplified

expression of

D.

The domains

that remain

their values are

B and C. thus

this group give

the simplified

expression of

BC.

F (A,B,C,D) = BC + D

Exercises

37

1. Simplify the Boolean function:

f(x,y,z) = m(2,3,4,5)

2. Simplify f(x,y,z)= m(3,4,6,7) using K-map.

3. Express the expression f = AC + AB + ABC + BC in

sum of minterms using K-map . Then determine the

minimal SOP form of the expression.

4. Map the function f(A,B,C,D) = (A+C)(B+C)(B+C+D)

on a K-map and determine its minterm and maxterm

list form.

Exe. 3: Express the expression f = AC + AB + ABC + BC in sum of minterms

using K-map . Then determine the minimal SOP form of the expression.

38

Exe. 4: Map the function f(A,B,C,D) = (A+C)(B+C)(B+C+D)

on a K-map and determine its minterm and maxterm list form.

39

2 ways to accomplish this task:

1. Express the complement of the function in SOP form , map

the 1s and determine the minterms and maxterms from the

K-map cells.

2. Plot 0s on a K-map following the POS expression and

determine the maxterms & minterms from the K-map cells.

1. Express the complement of the function in SOP form , map the 1s and

determine the minterms and maxterms from the K-map cells.

40

f '(A,B,C,D) = [(A+C)(B+C)(B+C+D)]

= (A+C) + (B+C) + (B+C+D)

= AC + BC + BCD

0 1 3 2

4 5

12

8 9

13

11

15

7 6

14

10

1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1

Complement

1. Express the complement of the function in SOP form , map the 1s and

determine the minterms and maxterms from the K-map cells.

41

f (A,B,C,D) = (AC + BC + BCD)

0 1 3 2

4 5

12

8 9

13

11

15

7 6

14

10

0 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

Complement

0 1 3 2

4 5

12

8 9

13

11

15

7 6

14

10

2. Plot 0s on a K-map following the POS expression and determine the

maxterms & minterms from the K-map cells.

42

f (A,B,C,D) = (A+C)(B+C)(B+C+D)

0 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

f = M (0,1,4,5,6,8,9,14)

= m (2,3,7,10,11,12,13,15)

The 5-variables K-Map

43

Is a 32 cells map.

Let a function be of domain A,B,C,D,E

The 32 cells K-map is presented by 2 4-variables

map. Each of the map has a fixed domain value for

each cells, e.g. A=0 and A=1

Dont Care Condition

44

The logical sum of the minterms associated with a

Boolean function specifies the conditions under which

the function is equal to 1. the function is 0 for the rest of

the minterms.

However, there are applications where the function is

not specified for certain combinations of the variables.

E.g. BCD code use only 10 minterms. Other 6 minterms

are unused (m

10

m

15

).

These unspecified minterms is called dont care

conditions, as we dont care what are the values

45

These dont care conditions can be used on K-map

to provide further simplification of the Boolean

expression.

The dont cares minterms are marked with d or X

on the K-map, and can take any values of 1 or 0 if

needed to simplify an expression

46

Example: Simplify the following Boolean function:

f (A,B,C,D) = m ( 1,3,7,11,15) + d (0,2,5)

f(A, B, C, D) = M(4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14)

0 1 3 2

4 5

12

8 9

13

11

15

7 6

14

10

1 1

1

1

1

d d

d

f (A,B,C,D) = AB + CD

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

f (A,B,C,D) = (A+ C) D

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