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Operational

Amplifier
Op-Amp Buffer
It provides electrical impedance transformation from one circuit
to another.
Typically a buffer amplifier is used to transfer a voltage from a
first circuit, having a high output impedance level, to a second
circuit with a low input impedance level. The interposed buffer
amplifier prevents the second circuit from loading the first circuit
unacceptably and interfering with its desired operation.
If the voltage is transferred unchanged (the voltage gain is 1), the
amplifier is a unity gain buffer; also known as a voltage
follower.
Although the voltage gain of a buffer amplifier may be
(approximately) unity, it usually provides considerable current
gain and thus power gain. However, it is commonplace to say
that it has a gain of 1 (or the equivalent 0 dB), referring to the
voltage gain.
Comparator
a comparator is a device which compares two
voltages or currents and switches its output to
indicate which is larger. More generally, the term is
also used to refer to a device that compares two
items of data.
A standard op-amp without negative feedback can
be used as a comparator, as indicated in the
following diagram
When the non-inverting input (V+) is at a higher voltage than the inverting input (V-), the high
gain of the op-amp causes it to output the most positive voltage it can. When the non-inverting
input (V+) drops below the inverting input (V-), the op-amp outputs the most negative voltage it
can. Since the output voltage is limited by the supply voltage, for an op-amp that uses a
balanced, split supply, (powered by ± VS) this action can be written:
Vout = VS sgn(V+ − V−)
where sgn(x) is the signum function. Generally, the positive and negative supplies VS will not
match absolute value:
Vout <= VS+ when (V+ > V-) else VS- when (V+ < V-).
Equality of input values is very difficult to achieve in practice. The speed at which the change in
output results from a change in input (often called the slew rate in operational amplifiers) is
typically in the order of 10ns to 100ns, but can be as slow as a few tens of μs.
A dedicated voltage comparator chip, such as the LM339, is designed to interface directly to
digital logic (for example TTL or CMOS). The output is a binary state, and it is often used to
interface real world signals to digital circuitry (see analog to digital converter). The LM339
Comparator
The LM339 accomplishes this with an open collector output. When the inverting input
is higher, the output of the comparator is connected to the negative power supply.
When the noninverting input is higher, the output is floating (has a very high
impedance to ground). With a pull-up resistor and a 0 to +5V power supply, the output
takes on the voltages 0 or +5 and can be interfaced to TTL logic:
Vout <= Vcc when (V+ > V-) else 0.
A dedicated voltage comparator will generally be faster than a general-purpose
op-amp pressed into service as a comparator. A dedicated voltage comparator may
also contain additional features such as an accurate, internal voltage reference and
adjustable hysteresis.
It is incorrect to consider a comparator as a device with a differential (bipolar) input
and a logic (0/Vcc) output as the inputs of real comparators are not isolated. This
means that not only their difference affects the output but also their voltages must not
exceed the power voltage range: VS- ≤ V+,V- ≤ VS+. In the case of TTL/CMOS logic
output comparators negative inputs are not allowed: 0 ≤ V+,V- ≤ Vcc.
When comparing a noisy signal to a threshold, the comparator may switch rapidly
from state to state as the signal crosses the threshold. If this is unwanted, a
Schmitt trigger can be used to provide hysteresis and a cleaner output signal.
DIFRENTIAL AMP

A differential amplifier is a type of an electronic amplifier that multiplies the


difference between two inputs by some constant factor (the differential gain). A
differential amplifier is the input stage of operational amplifiers, or op-amps, and
emitter coupled logic gates. Given two inputsVout and , a practical differential
amplifier gives an output Vout:

where Ad is the differential-mode gain and Ac is the common-mode gain.


The common-mode rejection ratio is usually defined as the ratio between differential-
mode gain and common-mode gain:

From the above equation, we can see that as Ac approaches zero, CMRR
approaches infinity. The higher the resistance of the current source, Re, the lower Ac
is, and the better the CMRR. Thus, for a perfectly symmetrical differential amplifier
with Ac = 0, the output voltage is given by,
DIFRENTIAL AMP
Note that a differential amplifier is a
more general form of amplifier than
one with a single input; by grounding
one input of a differential amplifier, a
single-ended amplifier results.

Differential amplifiers are found in


many systems that utilise
negative feedback, where one input
is used for the input signal, the other
for the feedback signal. A common
application is for the control of
motors or servos, as well as for
signal amplification applications. In
discrete electronics, a common
arrangement for implementing a
differential amplifier is the
long-tailed pair, which is also usually
found as the differential element in
most op-amp integrated circuits
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN OP-AMP

EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT OF
AN OP-AMP
SOME BASIC PARAMETERS
(Fairchild specs. for 741)
NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTORS
SPECS. FOR LM741C
EXPLAINING PARAMETERS
OP-AMP WITH –VE FEED BACK
 INPUT OFFSET CURRENT:
The algebric difference between the currents of the two
inputs of op-amp.
For 741c it is 6nA max. For better performance this parameter
should be as low as possible.

 INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE:


The voltage that must be applied at both i/ps to null the
o/p.
For 741c it is normally 6mV. For better performance this parameter
should be as low as possible.

 INPUT BIAS CURRENT:


Average of the two i/p currents.
For 741 precision ic it is approx (+ve,-ve)7nA.
CONTINUED
 DIFFERENTIAL INPUT RESISTANCE:
It is the other name of input
impedance that could be measured by connecting
one terminal of the Ohmmeter to the any input end
and the other to the ground.
For 741c it is 2 M-ohm.

 For 741c the input capacitance is 1.4pF

 OUTPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE:


The voltage in the absence of the input.
CONTINUED
OFFSET NULL SETTING:
Let a 10 KOhm potentiometer is
connected between terminal 1 and 5 with moving end
connected at –Vee then offset output voltage can be
adjusted to zero if potentiometer is varied.
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE:
When the same voltage
is applied to both inputs it is called Vcm.
For 741C it is (+ve,-ve) 13V. Hence exceeding these
range means improper function of performance.
CONTINUED
 COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO:
Ratio of the differential voltage gain
to the common voltage gain.
It is specified as 90 dB for 741C.

CMRR= Ad /Acm
Acm=Vocm Vcm/
Or the ratio of output common mode voltage to the
Input common mode voltage.

Note CMMR is measured in decibels & formula for measurement is


CMMR=20log10 [AOL/Acm]
CMMR
 CMRR of an amplifier (or other device) measures
the tendency of the device to reject input signals
common to both input leads. A high CMRR is
important in applications where the signal of
interest is represented by a small voltage
fluctuation superimposed on a (possibly large)
voltage offset, or when relevant information is
contained in the voltage difference between two
signals. (An example is audio transmission over
balanced lines.)
 The CMRR, measured in positive decibels, is
defined by the following equation:
assumed that the amplifier
output Vo can be modeled as
CONTINUED
Opamp in common mode connected to
source.
CONTINUED
 SUPPLY VOLTAGE REJECTION RATIO:
Change in op-amp input offset voltage
caused by variation in supply voltage is called SVRR.
 VOLTAGE GAIN:
It is actually large signal voltage gain
because it amplifies the difference of the inputs to a very
large output.
 OUTPUT RESISTANCE:
It can be measured by connection o/p
and ground.It is very very small for better performance.
CONTINUED
 OUTPUT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT:
Current flows when output
is grounded which could harm opamp.
It is normally 2.8mA for 741C.
 SLEW RATE:
Rate of change of output with the
change in input.
IDEAL OP-AMP
IDEAL OP-AMP
CHARACHTERISTICS
IDEAL VOLTAGE TRANSFER
CURVE (output offset voltage assumed zero)
Differential
Amplifiers
Differential Amplifiers

“Amplifies the difference between


two input signals “
Figure 1: Differential amplifier.
 2-I/Ps (inverting & non-inverting).
 It is combination of inverting & non-
inverting amplifiers.
 open-loop voltage gain of operational
amplifiers is too great to be used
without feedback.
 A practical difference Amp must have
–ve feedback.
With V2 = 0,
Vo1 = - R2/R1 * V1

With V1 = 0,
Vr4 = R4/(R3+R4)*V2

&
Vo2 = (R1+R2)/R1 * Vr4
= (R1+R2)/R1) * R4/(R3+R4) *V2
With R3 = R1 & R4 = R2,
Vo2 = R2/R1 * V2
With both signals present,
Vo = Vo2 + Vo1
= R2/R1 * V2 – R2/R1 * V1
= R2/R1 * (V2-V1)

R2 = R1, Vo = V2-V1
R2 > R1, O/P can be made amplified version
of the I/P difference.
INPUT RESISTANCES

 The I/P resistance for voltage V1 is R1, as


in case of inverting amplifier.
 At non-inverting I/P terminal, for voltage
V2, I/P resistance is R2+R4.
 Why R1=R3 & R2=R4?
 Two terms to be considered are:
 1-Differential I/P resistance, Ridif.
 2-Common mode I/P resistance, Ricm
Ridif:
The resistance offered to a signal source which
is connected directly across the I/P terminals. It
is the sum of two I/P resistances.
Ridif = R1+R3+R4
Ricm:
The resistance offered to a signal source which
is connected b/w ground & both I/P terminals, i-
e, the parallel combination of the two I/P
resistances.
Ricm = R1 || (R3+R4)
INVERTING AND NON INVERTING OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

INVERTING AND
NON INVERTING
OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIER
Characteristics
 The main characteristics that make
differential amplifiers so useful:
1- Their large gain
2- Ability to reject noise,
3- Fact that they amplify the difference
between two signals.
USES
 Fundamental configuration in electronics.
 Every op-amp has a differential amplifier as
its core.
 Backbone of many communication circuits
such as mixers and modulators.
 instrumentation amplifier.
INVERTING AMPLIFIER
 If the voltage going into the 741 chip is
positive, it is negative when it comes out
of the 741. In other words it reverses
polarity (inverts polarity).
Two resistors are needed to make the 741
work as an amplifier, R1 and R2.
 Hence the inverting amplifier produces
phase shift of 180 degree at the output as
was shown in fig.
INVERTING AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
CONTINUED
NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:
If the voltage going
into the 741 chip is positive, it is positive when it
comes out of the 741. In other words it retains its
polarity (symmetrical polarity).
Two resistors are needed to make the 741 work
as an amplifier, R1 and R2.
Hence it produces an output of 0 degree phagse
shift or no phase shift.
NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER
CALCULATE THE GAIN
INVERTING AMPLIFIER

GAIN (AV) = -R2 / R1

Example : if R2 is 100 kilo-ohm and R1 is 10 kilo-ohm


the gain would be :

-100 / 10 = -10 (Gain AV)

If the input voltage is 0.5v the output voltage would be :

0.5v X -10 = -5v


CONTINUED
NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER
GAIN (AV) = 1+(R2 / R1)
Example : if R2 is 1000 kilo-ohm and R1 is 100 kilo-ohm
the gain would be :
1+ (1000/100) = 1 + 10
OR
GAIN (AV) = 11
If the input voltage is 0.5v the output voltage would be :
0.5 X 11 = 5.5v
OFFSET NULL ADJUSTMENT
VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
 The voltage follower with an ideal op amp gives simply
but this turns out to be a very useful service, because the input
impedance of the op amp is very high, giving effective isolation of the
output from the signal source. You draw very little power from the
signal source, avoiding "loading" effects. This circuit is a useful first
stage.
The voltage follower is often used for the construction of buffers for
logic circuits.
Frequency Response
 Operational amplifiers have property called "Slew Rate". This
means that if the input waveform were to be a square-wave then
the output would not change instantaneously. It would take a
finite time for the output to change state.
Non-linear configurations

Non-linear
configurations
i) Precision rectifier

 Behaves like an ideal diode for the load, which is


here represented by a generic resistor RL.
ii) Logarithmic
iii) Exponential
ACTIVE FILTERS

ACTIVE
FILTERS
ACTIVE FILTERS
 Active filters are implemented using a
combination of passive and active
(amplifying) components.
Operational amplifiers are frequently used
in active filter designs. These can have
high Q, and achieve resonance without
the use of inductors. However, their upper
frequency limit is limited by the bandwidth
of the amplifiers used.
FILTERS BY TRANSFER
FUNCTION

 Low-pass filter
 High-pass filter
 Band-pass filter
 Band-stop filter
First Order Low Pass Filter with
Op Amp
RESPONSE CURVE
First Order High Pass Filter with
Op Amp
RESPONSE CURVE
Band Pass Filter with Op Amp
RESPONSE CURVE
COMPARATOR

OP AMP AS
COMPARATOR
OP-AMP COMPARATOR AS SCHMIT TRIGGER

OP-AMP
COMPARATOR
AS SCHMIT
TRIGGER
OP-AMP COMPARATOR AS SCHMIT TRIGGER
LIGHT ACTIVATED ALTERATOR
The buzzer emits a tone when light falls
on the light dependent resistor. Resistor 2
controls the sensitivity of the circuit.

The 741 is working as a comparator and


the piezo buzzer sounds when the output
form the 741 goes ‘low’ or in other words,
changes from a positive to a negative.
LIGHT ACTIVATED ALTERATOR
CIRCUIT
CURRENT TO VOLTAGE OP AMP
 A circuit for converting small
current signals (>0.01 micro
amps) to a more easily
measured proportional voltage.

By the current rule:

so the output voltage is given


by the expression above.
Application to photo-detector
INTEGRATOR
DIFFERENTIATOR
Audio Amplifiers

 The Op-Amp makes an ideal audio


amplifier with very few external
components. With an output current of up
to 20mA then it can also drive
headphones and even high-impedance
speakers, e.g. 50 - 80 ohms. To use the
Op-Amp for linear (undistorted) audio
applications we always need to use
negative feedback. It is the negative
feedback that "tames the wild beast".
Simple Audio Amplifier
Practicle Audio Amplifier
 The reactance of the capacitors should be at
least 0.2 x the input or output impedances at the
lowest operating frequency
Audio Power Amplifiers

 Power = Volts X Amperes. So to get an AF


power amplifier we must have both volts
and current. We have already seen how to
build a voltage amplifier, now let us give it
a little current capability. We can do this
by simply adding a pair of power
transistors, one to give positive current,
the other to give negative current.
Audio Power Amplifiers Circuit
Cross Over Distortion
 As the transistor in the output of opamp
are not biased over Vbe=0.7volts hence
distotion occurs, known as cross over
distortion
Limiting Of Cross Over Distortion
 Transistors
must be
biased to
overcome this
so
DIGITAL TO ANALOG
CONVERTIONS
 Introduction

 Connecting digital circuitry to sensor


devices is simple if the sensor devices are
inherently digital themselves. Switches,
relays, and encoders are easily interfaced
with gate circuits due to the on/off nature of
their signals.
 Analog devices are involved, interfacing
becomes much more complex. What is
needed is a way to electronically translate
analog signals into digital (binary)
quantities, and visa-versa. An analog-to-
digital converter, or ADC, performs the
former task while a digital-to-analog
converter, or DAC, performs the latter.
Digital To Analog Convertor
The R/2nR DAC
 This DAC circuit, otherwise known as the
binary-weighted-input DAC, is a variation
on the inverting summer op-amp circuit. If
you recall, the classic inverting summer
circuit is an operational amplifier using
negative feedback for controlled gain, with
several voltage inputs and one voltage
output. The output voltage is the inverted
(opposite polarity) sum of all input
voltages:
The R/2nR DAC
Ckt
The R/2R DAC

 An alternative to the binary-weighted-input


DAC is the so-called R/2R DAC, which
uses fewer unique resistor values. A
disadvantage of the former DAC design
was its requirement of several different
precise input resistor values: one unique
value per binary input bit. Manufacture
may be simplified if there are fewer
different resistor values to purchase,
stock, and sort prior to assembly.
 Of course, we could take our last DAC circuit
and modify it to use a single input resistance
value, by connecting multiple resistors together
in series:
oscillators
"Amplifiers oscillate and
oscillators amplify"
PRINCIPLE OF OSCILLATION
FEED BACK OSCILLATOR
PRINCIPLE :
 The key to oscillator operation is
positive feedback.
 The circuit must have regenerative
feedback; that is, feedback that results in
a combined 360°(or 0°) voltage phase
shift around the circuit loop.
 The circuit must receive some trigger
signal to start the oscillations.
Regenerative feedback.
BARKHAUSEN CRITETERION
 In order for an oscillator to work properly, the
following relationship must be met:

 If this criterion is not met, one of the following


, occurs:

1. If , the oscillations die out after a few


cycles.
2. If , the oscillator drives itself into
saturation and cutoff clipping.
EFFECT OF OP-AMP ON
OSCILLATOR
TYPES OF OSCILLATORS

 RC Oscillators
 LC Oscillators
 Crystal Oscillators
 Integrated circuit Oscillators
RC OSCILLATORS
 PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR
RC OSCILLATORS
 WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
RC OSCILLATORS
 THE twin-T OSCILLATOR
LC OSCILLATORS
 THE COLPITTS OSCILLATOR
LC OSCILLATORS
 THE ARMSTRONG OSCILLATOR
THANKS
THANKS FOR
YOUR
PATIENCE
Current Mirroring
A current mirror is a circuit designed to copy a current
through one active device by controlling the current in another
active device of a circuit, keeping the output current constant
regardless of loading. The current being 'copied' can be, and
sometimes is, a varying signal current. Conceptually, an ideal
current mirror is simply an ideal current amplifier with unity
current gain.
The current through R1 is given by:
IR1 = IC1 + IB1 + IB2
Where IC1 is the collector current of Q1, IB1 is the base current of Q1, IB2 is the base
Current of Q2 The collector current of Q1 is given by:
IC1 = β0IB1
Where β0 is the DC current gain of Q1. If Q1 and Q2 are perfectly matched, β of Q2 will be:

where VA is the Early Voltage.


Because VBE1 = VBE2 and Q1 and Q2 are matched, IB1 = IB2.
After substituting and rewriting, the collector current in Q2 is given by:

If β0 > > 1, then

Typical values of β will yield a current match of 1% or better


Current Mirroring (Th)
Transistor Q1 is connected such that it behaves as a forward-biased diode. The constant
current through it (due to R1 and Vs) is determined mainly by the series resistance R1 as
long as Vs is significantly larger than 0.7V, the typical forward VBE voltage for a silicon
BJT. It is important to have Q1 in the circuit instead of a regular diode because, assuming
the two transistors are closely matched, the base current for each transistor should be
nearly identical since VBE for each transistor is identical. With nearly identical base
currents, the matched transistors should then have nearly identical collector currents as
long as VCE2 is not significantly larger than VBE. If VCE2 is much larger than VBE, the
collector current in Q2 will be somewhat larger than for Q1 due to the Early effect and
further, Q2 may get substantially hotter that Q1 due to the associated higher power
dissipation. When this occurs, the transistors will no longer be matched. To maintain
matching, the temperature of the transistors must be nearly the same. In integrated
circuits and transistor arrays where both transistors are on the same die, this is easy to
achieve. But if the two transistors are widely separated, the precision of the current mirror
will not be stable.
Additional matched transistors can be connected to the same base and will supply the
same collector current. In other words, the right half of the circuit can be duplicated
several times with differing values of R2 on each. Note, however, that each additional
right-half transistor "steals" a bit of collector current from Q1 due to the non-zero base
currents of the right-half transistors. This will result in a small reduction in the programmed
current.)