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Amplifier

Op-Amp Buffer

It provides electrical impedance transformation from one circuit

to another.

Typically a buffer amplifier is used to transfer a voltage from a

first circuit, having a high output impedance level, to a second

circuit with a low input impedance level. The interposed buffer

amplifier prevents the second circuit from loading the first circuit

unacceptably and interfering with its desired operation.

If the voltage is transferred unchanged (the voltage gain is 1), the

amplifier is a unity gain buffer; also known as a voltage

follower.

Although the voltage gain of a buffer amplifier may be

(approximately) unity, it usually provides considerable current

gain and thus power gain. However, it is commonplace to say

that it has a gain of 1 (or the equivalent 0 dB), referring to the

voltage gain.

Comparator

a comparator is a device which compares two

voltages or currents and switches its output to

indicate which is larger. More generally, the term is

also used to refer to a device that compares two

items of data.

A standard op-amp without negative feedback can

be used as a comparator, as indicated in the

following diagram

When the non-inverting input (V+) is at a higher voltage than the inverting input (V-), the high

gain of the op-amp causes it to output the most positive voltage it can. When the non-inverting

input (V+) drops below the inverting input (V-), the op-amp outputs the most negative voltage it

can. Since the output voltage is limited by the supply voltage, for an op-amp that uses a

balanced, split supply, (powered by ± VS) this action can be written:

Vout = VS sgn(V+ − V−)

where sgn(x) is the signum function. Generally, the positive and negative supplies VS will not

match absolute value:

Vout <= VS+ when (V+ > V-) else VS- when (V+ < V-).

Equality of input values is very difficult to achieve in practice. The speed at which the change in

output results from a change in input (often called the slew rate in operational amplifiers) is

typically in the order of 10ns to 100ns, but can be as slow as a few tens of μs.

A dedicated voltage comparator chip, such as the LM339, is designed to interface directly to

digital logic (for example TTL or CMOS). The output is a binary state, and it is often used to

interface real world signals to digital circuitry (see analog to digital converter). The LM339

Comparator

The LM339 accomplishes this with an open collector output. When the inverting input

is higher, the output of the comparator is connected to the negative power supply.

When the noninverting input is higher, the output is floating (has a very high

impedance to ground). With a pull-up resistor and a 0 to +5V power supply, the output

takes on the voltages 0 or +5 and can be interfaced to TTL logic:

Vout <= Vcc when (V+ > V-) else 0.

A dedicated voltage comparator will generally be faster than a general-purpose

op-amp pressed into service as a comparator. A dedicated voltage comparator may

also contain additional features such as an accurate, internal voltage reference and

adjustable hysteresis.

It is incorrect to consider a comparator as a device with a differential (bipolar) input

and a logic (0/Vcc) output as the inputs of real comparators are not isolated. This

means that not only their difference affects the output but also their voltages must not

exceed the power voltage range: VS- ≤ V+,V- ≤ VS+. In the case of TTL/CMOS logic

output comparators negative inputs are not allowed: 0 ≤ V+,V- ≤ Vcc.

When comparing a noisy signal to a threshold, the comparator may switch rapidly

from state to state as the signal crosses the threshold. If this is unwanted, a

Schmitt trigger can be used to provide hysteresis and a cleaner output signal.

DIFRENTIAL AMP

difference between two inputs by some constant factor (the differential gain). A

differential amplifier is the input stage of operational amplifiers, or op-amps, and

emitter coupled logic gates. Given two inputsVout and , a practical differential

amplifier gives an output Vout:

The common-mode rejection ratio is usually defined as the ratio between differential-

mode gain and common-mode gain:

From the above equation, we can see that as Ac approaches zero, CMRR

approaches infinity. The higher the resistance of the current source, Re, the lower Ac

is, and the better the CMRR. Thus, for a perfectly symmetrical differential amplifier

with Ac = 0, the output voltage is given by,

DIFRENTIAL AMP

Note that a differential amplifier is a

more general form of amplifier than

one with a single input; by grounding

one input of a differential amplifier, a

single-ended amplifier results.

many systems that utilise

negative feedback, where one input

is used for the input signal, the other

for the feedback signal. A common

application is for the control of

motors or servos, as well as for

signal amplification applications. In

discrete electronics, a common

arrangement for implementing a

differential amplifier is the

long-tailed pair, which is also usually

found as the differential element in

most op-amp integrated circuits

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN OP-AMP

EQUIVALENT

CIRCUIT OF

AN OP-AMP

SOME BASIC PARAMETERS

(Fairchild specs. for 741)

NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTORS

SPECS. FOR LM741C

EXPLAINING PARAMETERS

OP-AMP WITH –VE FEED BACK

INPUT OFFSET CURRENT:

The algebric difference between the currents of the two

inputs of op-amp.

For 741c it is 6nA max. For better performance this parameter

should be as low as possible.

The voltage that must be applied at both i/ps to null the

o/p.

For 741c it is normally 6mV. For better performance this parameter

should be as low as possible.

Average of the two i/p currents.

For 741 precision ic it is approx (+ve,-ve)7nA.

CONTINUED

DIFFERENTIAL INPUT RESISTANCE:

It is the other name of input

impedance that could be measured by connecting

one terminal of the Ohmmeter to the any input end

and the other to the ground.

For 741c it is 2 M-ohm.

The voltage in the absence of the input.

CONTINUED

OFFSET NULL SETTING:

Let a 10 KOhm potentiometer is

connected between terminal 1 and 5 with moving end

connected at –Vee then offset output voltage can be

adjusted to zero if potentiometer is varied.

COMMON MODE VOLTAGE:

When the same voltage

is applied to both inputs it is called Vcm.

For 741C it is (+ve,-ve) 13V. Hence exceeding these

range means improper function of performance.

CONTINUED

COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO:

Ratio of the differential voltage gain

to the common voltage gain.

It is specified as 90 dB for 741C.

CMRR= Ad /Acm

Acm=Vocm Vcm/

Or the ratio of output common mode voltage to the

Input common mode voltage.

CMMR=20log10 [AOL/Acm]

CMMR

CMRR of an amplifier (or other device) measures

the tendency of the device to reject input signals

common to both input leads. A high CMRR is

important in applications where the signal of

interest is represented by a small voltage

fluctuation superimposed on a (possibly large)

voltage offset, or when relevant information is

contained in the voltage difference between two

signals. (An example is audio transmission over

balanced lines.)

The CMRR, measured in positive decibels, is

defined by the following equation:

assumed that the amplifier

output Vo can be modeled as

CONTINUED

Opamp in common mode connected to

source.

CONTINUED

SUPPLY VOLTAGE REJECTION RATIO:

Change in op-amp input offset voltage

caused by variation in supply voltage is called SVRR.

VOLTAGE GAIN:

It is actually large signal voltage gain

because it amplifies the difference of the inputs to a very

large output.

OUTPUT RESISTANCE:

It can be measured by connection o/p

and ground.It is very very small for better performance.

CONTINUED

OUTPUT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT:

Current flows when output

is grounded which could harm opamp.

It is normally 2.8mA for 741C.

SLEW RATE:

Rate of change of output with the

change in input.

IDEAL OP-AMP

IDEAL OP-AMP

CHARACHTERISTICS

IDEAL VOLTAGE TRANSFER

CURVE (output offset voltage assumed zero)

Differential

Amplifiers

Differential Amplifiers

two input signals “

Figure 1: Differential amplifier.

2-I/Ps (inverting & non-inverting).

It is combination of inverting & non-

inverting amplifiers.

open-loop voltage gain of operational

amplifiers is too great to be used

without feedback.

A practical difference Amp must have

–ve feedback.

With V2 = 0,

Vo1 = - R2/R1 * V1

With V1 = 0,

Vr4 = R4/(R3+R4)*V2

&

Vo2 = (R1+R2)/R1 * Vr4

= (R1+R2)/R1) * R4/(R3+R4) *V2

With R3 = R1 & R4 = R2,

Vo2 = R2/R1 * V2

With both signals present,

Vo = Vo2 + Vo1

= R2/R1 * V2 – R2/R1 * V1

= R2/R1 * (V2-V1)

R2 = R1, Vo = V2-V1

R2 > R1, O/P can be made amplified version

of the I/P difference.

INPUT RESISTANCES

in case of inverting amplifier.

At non-inverting I/P terminal, for voltage

V2, I/P resistance is R2+R4.

Why R1=R3 & R2=R4?

Two terms to be considered are:

1-Differential I/P resistance, Ridif.

2-Common mode I/P resistance, Ricm

Ridif:

The resistance offered to a signal source which

is connected directly across the I/P terminals. It

is the sum of two I/P resistances.

Ridif = R1+R3+R4

Ricm:

The resistance offered to a signal source which

is connected b/w ground & both I/P terminals, i-

e, the parallel combination of the two I/P

resistances.

Ricm = R1 || (R3+R4)

INVERTING AND NON INVERTING OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

INVERTING AND

NON INVERTING

OPERATIONAL

AMPLIFIER

Characteristics

The main characteristics that make

differential amplifiers so useful:

1- Their large gain

2- Ability to reject noise,

3- Fact that they amplify the difference

between two signals.

USES

Fundamental configuration in electronics.

Every op-amp has a differential amplifier as

its core.

Backbone of many communication circuits

such as mixers and modulators.

instrumentation amplifier.

INVERTING AMPLIFIER

If the voltage going into the 741 chip is

positive, it is negative when it comes out

of the 741. In other words it reverses

polarity (inverts polarity).

Two resistors are needed to make the 741

work as an amplifier, R1 and R2.

Hence the inverting amplifier produces

phase shift of 180 degree at the output as

was shown in fig.

INVERTING AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

CONTINUED

NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

If the voltage going

into the 741 chip is positive, it is positive when it

comes out of the 741. In other words it retains its

polarity (symmetrical polarity).

Two resistors are needed to make the 741 work

as an amplifier, R1 and R2.

Hence it produces an output of 0 degree phagse

shift or no phase shift.

NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

CALCULATE THE GAIN

INVERTING AMPLIFIER

the gain would be :

CONTINUED

NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER

GAIN (AV) = 1+(R2 / R1)

Example : if R2 is 1000 kilo-ohm and R1 is 100 kilo-ohm

the gain would be :

1+ (1000/100) = 1 + 10

OR

GAIN (AV) = 11

If the input voltage is 0.5v the output voltage would be :

0.5 X 11 = 5.5v

OFFSET NULL ADJUSTMENT

VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

The voltage follower with an ideal op amp gives simply

but this turns out to be a very useful service, because the input

impedance of the op amp is very high, giving effective isolation of the

output from the signal source. You draw very little power from the

signal source, avoiding "loading" effects. This circuit is a useful first

stage.

The voltage follower is often used for the construction of buffers for

logic circuits.

Frequency Response

Operational amplifiers have property called "Slew Rate". This

means that if the input waveform were to be a square-wave then

the output would not change instantaneously. It would take a

finite time for the output to change state.

Non-linear configurations

Non-linear

configurations

i) Precision rectifier

here represented by a generic resistor RL.

ii) Logarithmic

iii) Exponential

ACTIVE FILTERS

ACTIVE

FILTERS

ACTIVE FILTERS

Active filters are implemented using a

combination of passive and active

(amplifying) components.

Operational amplifiers are frequently used

in active filter designs. These can have

high Q, and achieve resonance without

the use of inductors. However, their upper

frequency limit is limited by the bandwidth

of the amplifiers used.

FILTERS BY TRANSFER

FUNCTION

Low-pass filter

High-pass filter

Band-pass filter

Band-stop filter

First Order Low Pass Filter with

Op Amp

RESPONSE CURVE

First Order High Pass Filter with

Op Amp

RESPONSE CURVE

Band Pass Filter with Op Amp

RESPONSE CURVE

COMPARATOR

OP AMP AS

COMPARATOR

OP-AMP COMPARATOR AS SCHMIT TRIGGER

OP-AMP

COMPARATOR

AS SCHMIT

TRIGGER

OP-AMP COMPARATOR AS SCHMIT TRIGGER

LIGHT ACTIVATED ALTERATOR

The buzzer emits a tone when light falls

on the light dependent resistor. Resistor 2

controls the sensitivity of the circuit.

the piezo buzzer sounds when the output

form the 741 goes ‘low’ or in other words,

changes from a positive to a negative.

LIGHT ACTIVATED ALTERATOR

CIRCUIT

CURRENT TO VOLTAGE OP AMP

A circuit for converting small

current signals (>0.01 micro

amps) to a more easily

measured proportional voltage.

by the expression above.

Application to photo-detector

INTEGRATOR

DIFFERENTIATOR

Audio Amplifiers

amplifier with very few external

components. With an output current of up

to 20mA then it can also drive

headphones and even high-impedance

speakers, e.g. 50 - 80 ohms. To use the

Op-Amp for linear (undistorted) audio

applications we always need to use

negative feedback. It is the negative

feedback that "tames the wild beast".

Simple Audio Amplifier

Practicle Audio Amplifier

The reactance of the capacitors should be at

least 0.2 x the input or output impedances at the

lowest operating frequency

Audio Power Amplifiers

power amplifier we must have both volts

and current. We have already seen how to

build a voltage amplifier, now let us give it

a little current capability. We can do this

by simply adding a pair of power

transistors, one to give positive current,

the other to give negative current.

Audio Power Amplifiers Circuit

Cross Over Distortion

As the transistor in the output of opamp

are not biased over Vbe=0.7volts hence

distotion occurs, known as cross over

distortion

Limiting Of Cross Over Distortion

Transistors

must be

biased to

overcome this

so

DIGITAL TO ANALOG

CONVERTIONS

Introduction

devices is simple if the sensor devices are

inherently digital themselves. Switches,

relays, and encoders are easily interfaced

with gate circuits due to the on/off nature of

their signals.

Analog devices are involved, interfacing

becomes much more complex. What is

needed is a way to electronically translate

analog signals into digital (binary)

quantities, and visa-versa. An analog-to-

digital converter, or ADC, performs the

former task while a digital-to-analog

converter, or DAC, performs the latter.

Digital To Analog Convertor

The R/2nR DAC

This DAC circuit, otherwise known as the

binary-weighted-input DAC, is a variation

on the inverting summer op-amp circuit. If

you recall, the classic inverting summer

circuit is an operational amplifier using

negative feedback for controlled gain, with

several voltage inputs and one voltage

output. The output voltage is the inverted

(opposite polarity) sum of all input

voltages:

The R/2nR DAC

Ckt

The R/2R DAC

DAC is the so-called R/2R DAC, which

uses fewer unique resistor values. A

disadvantage of the former DAC design

was its requirement of several different

precise input resistor values: one unique

value per binary input bit. Manufacture

may be simplified if there are fewer

different resistor values to purchase,

stock, and sort prior to assembly.

Of course, we could take our last DAC circuit

and modify it to use a single input resistance

value, by connecting multiple resistors together

in series:

oscillators

"Amplifiers oscillate and

oscillators amplify"

PRINCIPLE OF OSCILLATION

FEED BACK OSCILLATOR

PRINCIPLE :

The key to oscillator operation is

positive feedback.

The circuit must have regenerative

feedback; that is, feedback that results in

a combined 360°(or 0°) voltage phase

shift around the circuit loop.

The circuit must receive some trigger

signal to start the oscillations.

Regenerative feedback.

BARKHAUSEN CRITETERION

In order for an oscillator to work properly, the

following relationship must be met:

, occurs:

cycles.

2. If , the oscillator drives itself into

saturation and cutoff clipping.

EFFECT OF OP-AMP ON

OSCILLATOR

TYPES OF OSCILLATORS

RC Oscillators

LC Oscillators

Crystal Oscillators

Integrated circuit Oscillators

RC OSCILLATORS

PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR

RC OSCILLATORS

WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

RC OSCILLATORS

THE twin-T OSCILLATOR

LC OSCILLATORS

THE COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

LC OSCILLATORS

THE ARMSTRONG OSCILLATOR

THANKS

THANKS FOR

YOUR

PATIENCE

Current Mirroring

A current mirror is a circuit designed to copy a current

through one active device by controlling the current in another

active device of a circuit, keeping the output current constant

regardless of loading. The current being 'copied' can be, and

sometimes is, a varying signal current. Conceptually, an ideal

current mirror is simply an ideal current amplifier with unity

current gain.

The current through R1 is given by:

IR1 = IC1 + IB1 + IB2

Where IC1 is the collector current of Q1, IB1 is the base current of Q1, IB2 is the base

Current of Q2 The collector current of Q1 is given by:

IC1 = β0IB1

Where β0 is the DC current gain of Q1. If Q1 and Q2 are perfectly matched, β of Q2 will be:

Because VBE1 = VBE2 and Q1 and Q2 are matched, IB1 = IB2.

After substituting and rewriting, the collector current in Q2 is given by:

Current Mirroring (Th)

Transistor Q1 is connected such that it behaves as a forward-biased diode. The constant

current through it (due to R1 and Vs) is determined mainly by the series resistance R1 as

long as Vs is significantly larger than 0.7V, the typical forward VBE voltage for a silicon

BJT. It is important to have Q1 in the circuit instead of a regular diode because, assuming

the two transistors are closely matched, the base current for each transistor should be

nearly identical since VBE for each transistor is identical. With nearly identical base

currents, the matched transistors should then have nearly identical collector currents as

long as VCE2 is not significantly larger than VBE. If VCE2 is much larger than VBE, the

collector current in Q2 will be somewhat larger than for Q1 due to the Early effect and

further, Q2 may get substantially hotter that Q1 due to the associated higher power

dissipation. When this occurs, the transistors will no longer be matched. To maintain

matching, the temperature of the transistors must be nearly the same. In integrated

circuits and transistor arrays where both transistors are on the same die, this is easy to

achieve. But if the two transistors are widely separated, the precision of the current mirror

will not be stable.

Additional matched transistors can be connected to the same base and will supply the

same collector current. In other words, the right half of the circuit can be duplicated

several times with differing values of R2 on each. Note, however, that each additional

right-half transistor "steals" a bit of collector current from Q1 due to the non-zero base

currents of the right-half transistors. This will result in a small reduction in the programmed

current.)

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