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# Fourier Series

Representation
Fourier series
Fourier series is a technique for expressing a
periodic functions in terms of sinusoids. Once
the source function is expressed in terms of
sinusoids, we can apply the phasor method to
analyze circuits.

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Trigonometric Fourier Series
 According to Fourier theorem, any practical periodic function of
frequency ωo can be expressed as an infinite sum of sine or
cosine functions that are integral multiples of ωo . Thus g(t) can
be expressed as
g (t ) = a0 + a1 cosω 0t + a2 cos2ω 0t +  + an cosnω 0t + 
+ b1 cosω 0t + b2 cos2ω 0t +  + bn cosnω 0t + 

g (t ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nω 0 t + bn sin nω 0 t ) (t 0 < t < t 0 + T )
n =1

## This Equation is the trigonometric Fourier series representation

of g(t) over an interval (t0, t0 +To).
Where ωo = 2 π fo= 2 π / To is called fundamental frequency in
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Trigonometric Fourier Series
A major task in Fourier series is the determination of
the Fourier coefficients ao,,an & bn..
( t 0 +T )

an =

t0
g (t ) cos nω 0 t dt
( t 0 +T )
∫t0
cos 2 nω 0 t dt
( t 0 +T )

bn =
∫ t0
g (t ) sin nω0 t dt
( t 0 +T )
∫ t0
sin 2 nω0 t dt
If we put n=0 in above Eq, we get

1 ( t 0 +T )
a0 =
T ∫
t0
g (t ) dt

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Trigonometric Fourier Series
We also have
( t 0 +T ) ( t 0 +T ) T
∫ cos nω 0t dt = ∫ sin nω 0t dt =
2 2
t0 t0 2

2 ( t 0 +T )
an = ∫ g (t ) cos nω 0 t dt
T 0
t

2 ( t 0 +T )
bn = ∫ g (t ) sin nω 0 t dt
T t0

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Trigonometric Fourier
Series Example A
ƒ(t)

## We shall now expand a

function ƒ(t) shown in 0 1 t

figure2.1(a,b,c). Using
ƒ1(t)
trigonometric Fourier A
series over the interval
(0,1). It is evident that
0 1 t

ƒ2(t)
ƒ(t) =At, (0<t<1), A

Time interval T = 1
0 1 t

Figure 2.1(a,b,c)
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Trigonometric Fourier
Series Example
since
ω =

T
= 2π o

thus

f (t ) = ao + ∑ (an cos nωo t + bn sin nωo t )
→11
n =1
f (t ) = ao + a1 cos 2πt + a2 cos 4πt + ......... + an cos 2nπt + .........
+ b1 sin 2πt + b2 sin 4πt + ..... + bn sin 2nπt + .....

1 1 t 2  1 A →12
ao =
T ∫0 Atdt = A 2  0 = 2

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Trigonometric Fourier
2
a = ∫ A cos n( 2π ) tdt
1

Series
n
T Example
0

## 2 A  t sin 2πnt 1 1 sin 2πnt 

an =  − ∫ 1. dt 
T  2πn 0 0 2πn 
 t sin 2πnt cos 2πnt  1
an = 2 A + 2 
 2π n ( 2πn )  0
A 1
an = [ cos 2πnt + 2πnt sin 2πnt ]
2π n
2 2
0

A
an = [ (1 − 1) + (1.0 − 0.1) ]
2π n
2 2

a n =0 8
Trigonometric Fourier
Series Example
2 1 2 A  ( − cos 2πnt ) 1 1 ( − cos 2πnt ) 
bn = ∫ At sin 2πntdt = t −∫ dt 
T 0 1  2πn 0 0 2πn 

##  ( − t cos 2πnt ) ( sin 2πnt )  1 2A

bn = 2 A − 2 
=−
 2πn ( 2πn )  0 2πn
A
bn = −
πn

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Trigonometric Fourier
Series Example
Hence f(t) can be expressed as

A ∞
f (t ) = + ∑ bn sin 2π nt
2 n =1
 A 
A ∞
−  sin 2π nt
f (t ) = + ∑  nπ 
2 n =1

1 1 ∞ 1  (0<t<1)
f (t ) = A − ∑ sin 2π nt 
 2 π n =1 n 

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DIRICHLET CONDITIONS
A function that can be represented by a Fourier series
must meet certain
requirements, because the infinite series may or may not
converge. These
conditions on g(t) to yield a convergent Fourier series are
as follows:
g(t) is single valued every where.
g(t) has a finite number of finite discontinuities in any
one period.
g(t) has a finite number of maxima and minima in any
one period.
The integral ∫ |g(t)| dt < ∞ for any t0
These conditions are called Dirichlet conditions.

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