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Representation

Fourier series

Fourier series is a technique for expressing a

periodic functions in terms of sinusoids. Once

the source function is expressed in terms of

sinusoids, we can apply the phasor method to

analyze circuits.

2

Trigonometric Fourier Series

According to Fourier theorem, any practical periodic function of

frequency ωo can be expressed as an infinite sum of sine or

cosine functions that are integral multiples of ωo . Thus g(t) can

be expressed as

g (t ) = a0 + a1 cosω 0t + a2 cos2ω 0t + + an cosnω 0t +

+ b1 cosω 0t + b2 cos2ω 0t + + bn cosnω 0t +

∞

g (t ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nω 0 t + bn sin nω 0 t ) (t 0 < t < t 0 + T )

n =1

of g(t) over an interval (t0, t0 +To).

Where ωo = 2 π fo= 2 π / To is called fundamental frequency in

rad / sec.

3

Trigonometric Fourier Series

A major task in Fourier series is the determination of

the Fourier coefficients ao,,an & bn..

( t 0 +T )

an =

∫

t0

g (t ) cos nω 0 t dt

( t 0 +T )

∫t0

cos 2 nω 0 t dt

( t 0 +T )

bn =

∫ t0

g (t ) sin nω0 t dt

( t 0 +T )

∫ t0

sin 2 nω0 t dt

If we put n=0 in above Eq, we get

1 ( t 0 +T )

a0 =

T ∫

t0

g (t ) dt

4

Trigonometric Fourier Series

We also have

( t 0 +T ) ( t 0 +T ) T

∫ cos nω 0t dt = ∫ sin nω 0t dt =

2 2

t0 t0 2

2 ( t 0 +T )

an = ∫ g (t ) cos nω 0 t dt

T 0

t

2 ( t 0 +T )

bn = ∫ g (t ) sin nω 0 t dt

T t0

5

Trigonometric Fourier

Series Example A

ƒ(t)

function ƒ(t) shown in 0 1 t

figure2.1(a,b,c). Using

ƒ1(t)

trigonometric Fourier A

series over the interval

(0,1). It is evident that

0 1 t

ƒ2(t)

ƒ(t) =At, (0<t<1), A

Time interval T = 1

0 1 t

Figure 2.1(a,b,c)

6

Trigonometric Fourier

Series Example

since

ω =

2π

T

= 2π o

thus

∞

f (t ) = ao + ∑ (an cos nωo t + bn sin nωo t )

→11

n =1

f (t ) = ao + a1 cos 2πt + a2 cos 4πt + ......... + an cos 2nπt + .........

+ b1 sin 2πt + b2 sin 4πt + ..... + bn sin 2nπt + .....

1 1 t 2 1 A →12

ao =

T ∫0 Atdt = A 2 0 = 2

7

Trigonometric Fourier

2

a = ∫ A cos n( 2π ) tdt

1

Series

n

T Example

0

an = − ∫ 1. dt

T 2πn 0 0 2πn

t sin 2πnt cos 2πnt 1

an = 2 A + 2

2π n ( 2πn ) 0

A 1

an = [ cos 2πnt + 2πnt sin 2πnt ]

2π n

2 2

0

A

an = [ (1 − 1) + (1.0 − 0.1) ]

2π n

2 2

a n =0 8

Trigonometric Fourier

Series Example

2 1 2 A ( − cos 2πnt ) 1 1 ( − cos 2πnt )

bn = ∫ At sin 2πntdt = t −∫ dt

T 0 1 2πn 0 0 2πn

bn = 2 A − 2

=−

2πn ( 2πn ) 0 2πn

A

bn = −

πn

9

Trigonometric Fourier

Series Example

Hence f(t) can be expressed as

A ∞

f (t ) = + ∑ bn sin 2π nt

2 n =1

A

A ∞

− sin 2π nt

f (t ) = + ∑ nπ

2 n =1

1 1 ∞ 1 (0<t<1)

f (t ) = A − ∑ sin 2π nt

2 π n =1 n

10

DIRICHLET CONDITIONS

A function that can be represented by a Fourier series

must meet certain

requirements, because the infinite series may or may not

converge. These

conditions on g(t) to yield a convergent Fourier series are

as follows:

g(t) is single valued every where.

g(t) has a finite number of finite discontinuities in any

one period.

g(t) has a finite number of maxima and minima in any

one period.

The integral ∫ |g(t)| dt < ∞ for any t0

These conditions are called Dirichlet conditions.

11

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