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Despite their dispersion, or Diaspora,

and despite their persecution, the strength of


their religion and their faith in one God enabled
the Jews to retain a national identity wherever
they found themselves.

The word JEW refers to all of the physical and spiritual
descendants of Jacob/Israel, as well as to the patriarchs Abraham
and Isaac and their wives.
MAJOR JUDAISM
MOVEMENTS

Orthodox
Conservative
Reform
Reconstructionist
FILIPINO JEWS
BAR MITZVAH
BABYLONIAN EXILE
ALSO CALLED BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY, THE
FORCED DETENTION OF JEWS IN BABYLONIA
FOLLOWING THE LATTERS CONQUEST OF THE
KINGDOM OF JUDAH IN BC 598/7 AND 587/6
The Chaldeans, following standard Mesopotamian practice,
deported the Jews after they had conquered Jerusalem in
597 BC. 10,00 people were forced to relocate to BABYLON,
the capital of Chaldean empire.
Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Chaldeans, only deported the
most prominent citizens of Judah: professionals, priests,
craftsmen, and the wealthy. The "people of the land" (am-hares )
were allowed to stay
the Jews formed their own community in Babylon and retained
their religion, practices, and philosophies but for the most part,
the community remained united in its common faith in Yahweh

they blamed the disaster of the Exile on their own impurity. the
Babylonian Exile was proof of Yahweh's displeasure. During
this period, Jewish leaders no longer spoke about a theology
of judgment, but a theology of salvation
It is most likely that the Torah took its final shape during this
period or shortly afterward, and that it became the central text
of the Jewish faith at this time as well

when Cyrus the Persian conquered Mesopotamia, he allowed
the Jews to return home
ROMAN CAPTIVITY
The Romans suppressed Jewish revolts and destroyed the
Temple in Jerusalem (1st century AD). The Romans
slaughtered and enslaved the Jews. Survivors spread
throughout the Roman world, the Middle East, North Africa,
and Europe. This is today known as the Diaspora.

DIASPORA
Encyclopedia Britannica: Diaspora, ( Greek: Dispersion)
Hebrew Galut (Exile), dispersion of Jews among the Gentiles
after the Babylonian Exile; or the aggregate of Jews or Jewish
communities scattered in exile outside Palestine or present-
day Israel.





From almost the beginning of the Common Era, Judea was ruled
by Roman procurators, whose chief responsibility was to collect
and deliver an annual tax to the empire



Constantine
-a great warrior and man of
considerable talents, rose to the
top of the political ladder
-became the emperor of Rome
-did not find a favorable
response from the Jewish
community which intensified his
anti-Jewish feeling
-his conversion marked a very
significant, long-term weakening
of the Jewish presence in Israel



As with all revolutionaries, when the Christians gained power they
were more brutal than those they replaced. They, who had for
years pleaded for religious tolerance, now said no other religion
was acceptable except Christianity

they threw non-Christians to the lions

JESUS CHRIST AND THE JEWS
Jews rejected the idea of Jesus' messianic
divinity, a belief antithetical to the fundamental
basis of Christianity

He is seen as a "false messiah



According to Jewish scripture and belief, the true Messiah
(pronounced "moshiach" in Hebrew) must meet the following
requirements:

*Be an observant Jewish man descended from the house of
King David
*Be an ordinary human being (as opposed to the Son of God)
*Bring peace to the world
*Gather all Jews back into Israel
*Rebuild the ancient Temple in Jerusalem
*Unite humanity in the worship of the Jewish God and Torah
observance
START OF ANTI SEMITISM
Apostolic Line
Apostles with one specified student Special students in return
specified one student so on
Jews found themselves increasingly isolated as outsiders.
For centuries the Church taught that Jews were responsible for Jesus'
death. But who really killed Jesus?
Rulers placed restrictions on Jews,
barring them from holding certain jobs
and from owning land.

Early Church did not permit usury(lending
money at interest), Jews came to fill the
vital role of moneylenders for the
Christian majority.


Jews became scapegoats for many problems people
suffered, such as Black Death.

PROTOCOLS OF THE
ELDERS OF ZION
Many school textbooks
throughout the Arab and Islamic
world teach the Protocols as
fact.
This is the most notorious and
most successful work of
modern antisemitism.
JEWISH SUBGROUPS
Ashkenazi- trace their origins to 7th
century Europe, when Jews first
arrived in the Rhineland.

Sephardi- meaning Spain The
descendants of Jews who
left Spain or Portugal after the 1492
expulsion are referred to as
Sephardim. The word Sephardim
comes from the Hebrew word
for Spain, Sepharad, that is stated in
the Bible.
DIASPORA
The dispersion of the Jews beyond Israel

Encyclopedia Britannica: Diaspora, ( Greek:
Dispersion) Hebrew Galut (Exile), dispersion of Jews
among the Gentiles after the Babylonian Exile; or the
aggregate of Jews or Jewish communities scattered in
exile outside Palestine or present-day Israel.
Gentiles a person who is not Jewish
PERSECUTION
Anti-Semitism - is the prejudice, discrimination and hatred of Jews as
a national, ethnic, religious or racial group
The word "pogrom" is employed in
many languages to describe specifically
the attacks accompanied by looting and
bloodshed against the Jews in Russia
The pogroms of the 1880s took place during the period of confusion
which prevailed in Russia after the assassination of Czar
Alexander II by members of the revolutionary organization Narodnaya
Volya on March 13, 1881.
Anti-Jewish circles spread a rumor that the czar had been
assassinated by Jews and that the government had authorized
attacks on them.
One reaction to the pogroms was the birth of a nationalist and Zionist
movement among the Jews of Russia, while many of the Jewish
youth joined the revolutionary movement. The year 1881, the first
year of the pogroms, was a turning point not only for Russian Jewry
but also for the whole of the Jewish people.
GHETTO
The term "ghetto" originated from the name of the Jewish quarter in
Venice, established in 1516, in which the Venetian authorities
compelled the city's Jews to live. Various officials, ranging from local
municipal authorities to the Austrian Emperor Charles V, ordered the
creation of ghettos for Jews in Frankfurt, Rome, Prague, and other
cities in the 16th and 17th centuries.
GHETTO (VENICE, ITALY)
While Jews did not settle in Venice until the 13
th
century, many Jewish
merchants and moneylenders visited and worked in the city beginning
with the 10
th
century.
In 1290, Jewish merchants and moneylenders were allowed to work in
Venice, but were forced to pay a special tax of five percent on all their
import and export transactions
The Senate decided to expel the Jews from the city in 1394 due to
fears of Jewish encroachment in certain economic spheres.
Those who were not moneylenders were allowed to remain in the
city, albeit with certain restrictions.
Jews were forced to wear various markings on their clothing to
identify themselves as Jews. In 1394 they had to wear a yellow
badge, it was changed to a yellow hat in 1496 and to a red hat in
1500.
Venice received an influx of immigrants from Spain and Portugal
following the expulsion in 1492.
In 1516, the doges, Venices ruling council, debated whether Jews
should be allowed to remain in the city
They decided to let the Jews remain, but their residence would be
confined to Ghetto Nuova, a small, dirty island.
Jews were only permitted to work at pawn shops, act as money
lenders, work the Hebrew printing press, trade in textiles or
practice medicine.
Despite the poor living conditions, Jewish community life continued
to grow inside the ghetto.
Jews were also able to build their own free school, the only one in
Venice. Christians came to the ghetto to visit Jewish banks, doctors
or shop for spices, jewelry and fabrics.
Jews controlled much of Venices foreign trade by the mid-1600s.
The Sephardic groups gained influence and wealth in the Venetian
economy.
THE PROTOCOLS OF
THE ELDERS OF ZION
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion or The Protocols of the Meetings of
the Learned Elders of Zion is an anti-Semitic hoax purporting to describe
a Jewish plan for global domination.

These forged documents are presented as the minutes of a supposed
meeting of world Jewish leaders in which they finalized plans to dominate
the world, and suggest that Jews have formed secret organizations and
agencies through which they aim to control and manipulate political
parties, the economy, the press, and public opinion.
The Protocols are published in countries throughout the world, including
the United States, and used by antisemites to reinforce claims of a
Jewish conspiracy. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Protocols are used to
gain support for Nazi party antisemitic ideology and policies.
THEODOR
HERZL
born May 2, 1860, Budapest, Hungary, Austrian Empire (now in
Hungary)died July 3, 1904, Edlach, Austria.
founder of the political form of Zionism, a movement to establish
a Jewish homeland.
The Jewish State (1896)
In 1894, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French
army, was unjustly accused of treason, mainly because of the
prevailing anti-Semitic atmosphere.
Herzl concluded that anti-Semitism was a stable and immutable
factor in human society, which assimilation did not solve.
He declared that the Jews could gain acceptance in the world
only if they ceased being a national anomaly.
The Jews are one people, he said, and their plight could be
transformed into a positive force by the establishment of a
Jewish state with the consent of the great powers
WHY ARE JEWS SO SMART?