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Chapter 1

 Fundamental Science
 Concerned with the fundamental principles of the
 Foundation of other physical sciences
 Has simplicity of fundamental concepts
 Divided into five major areas
 Classical Mechanics
 Relativity
 Thermodynamics
 Electromagnetism
 Optics
 Quantum Mechanics

Classical Physics
 Mechanics and electromagnetism are basic to
all other branches of classical and modern
 Classical physics
Developed before 1900
Our study will start with Classical Mechanics
○ Also called Newtonian Mechanics or Mechanics
 Modern physics
From about 1900 to the present

Objectives of Physics
 To find the limited number of
fundamental laws that govern natural
 To use these laws to develop theories
that can predict the results of future
 Express the laws in the language of
Mathematics provides the bridge between
theory and experiment

theory may be modified Theory may apply to limited conditions ○ Example: Newtonian Mechanics is confined to objects traveling slowly with respect to the speed of light Try to develop a more general theory .Theory and Experiments  Shouldcomplement each other  When a discrepancy occurs.

optics and electromagnetism  Developed in the latter part of the 19th century  Apparatus for controlled experiments became available . and continuing through the 18th century  Thermodynamics.Classical Physics Overview  Classical physics includes principles in many branches developed before 1900  Mechanics  Major developments by Newton.

Modern Physics  Began near the end of the 19th century  Phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics  Includes theories of relativity and quantum mechanics .

Measurements  Used to describe natural phenomena  Needs defined standards  Characteristics of standards for measurements Readily accessible Possess some property that can be measured reliably Must yield the same results when used by anyone anywhere Cannot change with time .

Standards of Fundamental Quantities  Standardized systems Agreed upon by some authority. usually a governmental body  SI – Systéme International Agreed to in 1960 by an international committee Main system used in this text .

Fundamental Quantities and Their Units Quantity SI Unit Length meter Mass kilogram Time second Temperature Kelvin Electric Current Ampere Luminous Intensity Candela Amount of Substance mole .

three basic quantities are used Length Mass Time  Will also use derived quantities These are other quantities that can be expressed in terms of the basic quantities ○ Example: Area is the product of two lengths  Area is a derived quantity  Length is the fundamental quantity .Quantities Used in Mechanics  Inmechanics.

m  Defined in terms of a meter – the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a given time  See Table 1.1 for some examples of lengths .Length  Length is the distance between two points in space  Units SI – meter.

Mass  Units SI – kilogram.2 for masses of various objects . kg  Defined in terms of a kilogram. based on a specific cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Standards  See Table 1.

Standard Kilogram .

s  Defined in terms of the oscillation of radiation from a cesium atom  See Table 1.3 for some approximate time intervals .Time  Units seconds.

Number Notation  When writing out numbers with many digits. spacing in groups of three will be used No commas Standard international notation  Examples: 25 100 5.123 456 789 12 .

but text will use SI Quantity Unit Length foot Mass slug Time second .US Customary System  Still used in the US.

Prefixes  Prefixescorrespond to powers of 10  Each prefix has a specific name  Each prefix has a specific abbreviation .

 The prefixes can be used with any basic units  They are multipliers of the basic unit  Examples:  1 mm = 10-3 m  1 mg = 10-3 g .Prefixes. cont.

Model Building A model is a system of physical components Useful when you cannot interact directly with the phenomenon Identifies the physical components Makes predictions about the behavior of the system ○ The predictions will be based on interactions among the components and/or ○ Based on the interactions between the components and the environment .

Models of Matter  Some Greeks thought matter is made of atoms  No additional structure  JJ Thomson (1897) found electrons and showed atoms had structure  Rutherford (1911) central nucleus surrounded by electrons .

cont  Nucleus has structure.Models of Matter. containing protons and neutrons Number of protons gives atomic number Number of protons and neutrons gives mass number  Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks .

which we usually express as mass perunit volume: .DENSITY A property of any substance is its density (Greek letter rho). defined as the  amount of mass contained in a unit volume.

 Therefore.0 cm3 has a mass of 27.0 g.70 g/cm3.3 g/cm3. and lead has a density of 11. a piece of aluminum of volume 10. whereas an equivalent volume of lead has a mass of 113 g. aluminum has a density of 2. For example. .

Basic Quantities and Their Dimension  Dimension has a specific meaning – it denotes the physical nature of a quantity  Dimensions are denoted with square brackets Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T] .

Dimensions and Units  Each dimension can have many actual units  Table 1.5 for the dimensions and units of some derived quantities .

multiply. time. combinations) can be treated as algebraic quantities  add. mass. subtract.Dimensional Analysis  Technique to check the correctness of an equation or to assist in deriving an equation  Dimensions (length. divide  Both sides of equation must have the same dimensions  Any relationship can be correct only if the dimensions on both sides of the equation are the same .

leaving L for the dimensions of each side The equation is dimensionally correct There are no dimensions for the constant .Dimensional Analysis. example  Giventhe equation: x = ½ at 2  Check dimensions on each side: L L = 2 ⋅ T2 = L T  The T2’s cancel.

leaving the unit of length. This relationship is correct only if the dimensions of both sides  are the same. The units of time squared cancel as shown.  A more general procedure using dimensional analysis is to set up an expression  of the form  where n and m are exponents that must be determined and the symbol indicates  a proportionality. .

 Because the dimension of the left side is length. . That is. the dimension of the right side must also be length.

Calculate Dimensions .

nonitalicized letter . d. h. etc.  The dimensions will be given with a capitalized. y. time is t virtually all the time  Some quantities have many symbols used. r. lengths may be x. depending upon the specific situation  For example. z.Symbols  The symbol used in an equation is not necessarily the symbol used for its dimension  Some quantities have one symbol used consistently  For example.

you may need to convert to appropriate ones  See Appendix A for an extensive list of conversion factors  Units can be treated like algebraic quantities that can cancel each other out .Conversion of Units  When units are not consistent.

0 in   = 38.0 in = ? cm  2.1cm  1in   Note the value inside the parentheses is equal to 1 since 1 in. you can carry the units through the entire calculation  Multiply original value by a ratio equal to one  Example 15. is defined as 2.54 cm .54 cm  15.Conversion  Always include units for every quantity.

and/or the number of measurements made Need a technique to account for this uncertainty  We will use rules for significant figures to approximate the uncertainty in results of calculations . the experimenter.Uncertainty in Measurements  There is uncertainty in every measurement – this uncertainty carries over through the calculations May be due to the apparatus.

the significant figures include the first estimated digit . use scientific notation  In a measurement.Significant Figures  A significant figure is one that is reliably known  Zeros may or may not be significant  Those used to position the decimal point are not significant  To remove ambiguity.

0075 m has 2 significant figures  The leading zeros are placeholders only  Can write in scientific notation to show more clearly: 7. examples  0.5 x 103 m for 2 significant figures  Use 1.5 x 10-3 m for 2 significant figures  10.500 x 103 m for 4 significant figures .0 m has 3 significant figures  The decimal point gives information about the reliability of the measurement  1500 m is ambiguous  Use 1.Significant Figures.50 x 103 m for 3 significant figures  Use 1.

57 m x 2.45 m = 62.Operations with Significant Figures – Multiplying or Dividing  When multiplying or dividing.  Example: 25.6 m2 The 2. the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the number of significant figures in the quantity having the lowest number of significant figures.45 m limits your result to 3 significant figures .

Operations with Significant Figures – Adding or Subtracting  When adding or subtracting. the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places in any term in the sum.  Example: 135 cm + 3.25 cm = 138 cm The 135 cm limits your answer to the units decimal value .

the number of significant figures is the important consideration . the number of decimal places is the important consideration  For multiplying and dividing.Operations With Significant Figures – Summary  The rule for addition and subtraction are different than the rule for multiplication and division  For adding and subtracting.

What would a reader conclude from this recorded measurement? .043 860 564 2 m from a wall.Problem  Suppose you measure the position of a chair with a meter stick and record that the center of the seat is 1.

.0 m2. Find the area of the room.Problem A carpet is to be installed in a room whose length is measured  to be 12.46 m.71 m and whose width is measured to be 3.  Ans: 44.

Rounding  Last retained digit is increased by 1 if the last digit dropped is greater than 5  Last retained digit remains as it is if the last digit dropped is less than 5  If the last digit dropped is equal to 5. the retained digit should be rounded to the nearest even number  Saving rounding until the final result will help eliminate accumulation of errors .

 Different substances have different densities mainly because of differences in their atomic masses and atomic arrangements. and seconds (s). respectively.Summary  The three fundamental physical quantities of mechanics are length.  Prefixes indicating various powers of ten are used with these three basic units. kilograms (kg). . mass.  The density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. and Time  In the SI system have the units meters (m).

you should be able to approximate the  answer to a problem when there is not enough information available to completely  specify an exact solution.Summary  The number of particles in one mole of any element or compound. is 6. NA . By making estimates and  making order-of-magnitude calculations.  Dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities.02 *1023.  The method of dimensional analysis is very powerful in solving physics problems. called Avogadro’s number. .

each of which has a certain accuracy  you should give the result with the correct number of significant figures.Summary  When you compute a result from several measured numbers. .