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Chapter 1

Physics

Fundamental Science

Concerned with the fundamental principles of the

Universe

Foundation of other physical sciences

Has simplicity of fundamental concepts

Divided into five major areas

Classical Mechanics

Relativity

Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

Optics

Quantum Mechanics

Classical Physics

Mechanics and electromagnetism are basic to

all other branches of classical and modern

physics

Classical physics

Developed before 1900

Our study will start with Classical Mechanics

○ Also called Newtonian Mechanics or Mechanics

Modern physics

From about 1900 to the present

Objectives of Physics

To find the limited number of

fundamental laws that govern natural

phenomena

To use these laws to develop theories

that can predict the results of future

experiments

Express the laws in the language of

mathematics

Mathematics provides the bridge between

theory and experiment

theory may be modified Theory may apply to limited conditions ○ Example: Newtonian Mechanics is confined to objects traveling slowly with respect to the speed of light Try to develop a more general theory .Theory and Experiments Shouldcomplement each other When a discrepancy occurs.

optics and electromagnetism Developed in the latter part of the 19th century Apparatus for controlled experiments became available . and continuing through the 18th century Thermodynamics.Classical Physics Overview Classical physics includes principles in many branches developed before 1900 Mechanics Major developments by Newton.

Modern Physics Began near the end of the 19th century Phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics Includes theories of relativity and quantum mechanics .

Measurements Used to describe natural phenomena Needs defined standards Characteristics of standards for measurements Readily accessible Possess some property that can be measured reliably Must yield the same results when used by anyone anywhere Cannot change with time .

Standards of Fundamental Quantities Standardized systems Agreed upon by some authority. usually a governmental body SI – Systéme International Agreed to in 1960 by an international committee Main system used in this text .

Fundamental Quantities and Their Units Quantity SI Unit Length meter Mass kilogram Time second Temperature Kelvin Electric Current Ampere Luminous Intensity Candela Amount of Substance mole .

three basic quantities are used Length Mass Time Will also use derived quantities These are other quantities that can be expressed in terms of the basic quantities ○ Example: Area is the product of two lengths Area is a derived quantity Length is the fundamental quantity .Quantities Used in Mechanics Inmechanics.

m Defined in terms of a meter – the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a given time See Table 1.1 for some examples of lengths .Length Length is the distance between two points in space Units SI – meter.

Mass Units SI – kilogram.2 for masses of various objects . kg Defined in terms of a kilogram. based on a specific cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Standards See Table 1.

Standard Kilogram .

s Defined in terms of the oscillation of radiation from a cesium atom See Table 1.3 for some approximate time intervals .Time Units seconds.

Number Notation When writing out numbers with many digits. spacing in groups of three will be used No commas Standard international notation Examples: 25 100 5.123 456 789 12 .

but text will use SI Quantity Unit Length foot Mass slug Time second .US Customary System Still used in the US.

Prefixes Prefixescorrespond to powers of 10 Each prefix has a specific name Each prefix has a specific abbreviation .

The prefixes can be used with any basic units They are multipliers of the basic unit Examples: 1 mm = 10-3 m 1 mg = 10-3 g .Prefixes. cont.

Model Building A model is a system of physical components Useful when you cannot interact directly with the phenomenon Identifies the physical components Makes predictions about the behavior of the system ○ The predictions will be based on interactions among the components and/or ○ Based on the interactions between the components and the environment .

Models of Matter Some Greeks thought matter is made of atoms No additional structure JJ Thomson (1897) found electrons and showed atoms had structure Rutherford (1911) central nucleus surrounded by electrons .

cont Nucleus has structure.Models of Matter. containing protons and neutrons Number of protons gives atomic number Number of protons and neutrons gives mass number Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks .

which we usually express as mass perunit volume: .DENSITY A property of any substance is its density (Greek letter rho). defined as the amount of mass contained in a unit volume.

Therefore.0 cm3 has a mass of 27.0 g.70 g/cm3.3 g/cm3. and lead has a density of 11. a piece of aluminum of volume 10. whereas an equivalent volume of lead has a mass of 113 g. aluminum has a density of 2. For example. .

Basic Quantities and Their Dimension Dimension has a specific meaning – it denotes the physical nature of a quantity Dimensions are denoted with square brackets Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T] .

Dimensions and Units Each dimension can have many actual units Table 1.5 for the dimensions and units of some derived quantities .

multiply. time. combinations) can be treated as algebraic quantities add. mass. subtract.Dimensional Analysis Technique to check the correctness of an equation or to assist in deriving an equation Dimensions (length. divide Both sides of equation must have the same dimensions Any relationship can be correct only if the dimensions on both sides of the equation are the same .

leaving L for the dimensions of each side The equation is dimensionally correct There are no dimensions for the constant .Dimensional Analysis. example Giventhe equation: x = ½ at 2 Check dimensions on each side: L L = 2 ⋅ T2 = L T The T2’s cancel.

leaving the unit of length. This relationship is correct only if the dimensions of both sides are the same. The units of time squared cancel as shown. A more general procedure using dimensional analysis is to set up an expression of the form where n and m are exponents that must be determined and the symbol indicates a proportionality. .

Because the dimension of the left side is length. . That is. the dimension of the right side must also be length.

Calculate Dimensions .

nonitalicized letter . d. h. etc. The dimensions will be given with a capitalized. y. time is t virtually all the time Some quantities have many symbols used. r. lengths may be x. depending upon the specific situation For example. z.Symbols The symbol used in an equation is not necessarily the symbol used for its dimension Some quantities have one symbol used consistently For example.

you may need to convert to appropriate ones See Appendix A for an extensive list of conversion factors Units can be treated like algebraic quantities that can cancel each other out .Conversion of Units When units are not consistent.

0 in = 38.0 in = ? cm 2.1cm 1in Note the value inside the parentheses is equal to 1 since 1 in. you can carry the units through the entire calculation Multiply original value by a ratio equal to one Example 15. is defined as 2.54 cm .54 cm 15.Conversion Always include units for every quantity.

and/or the number of measurements made Need a technique to account for this uncertainty We will use rules for significant figures to approximate the uncertainty in results of calculations . the experimenter.Uncertainty in Measurements There is uncertainty in every measurement – this uncertainty carries over through the calculations May be due to the apparatus.

the significant figures include the first estimated digit . use scientific notation In a measurement.Significant Figures A significant figure is one that is reliably known Zeros may or may not be significant Those used to position the decimal point are not significant To remove ambiguity.

0075 m has 2 significant figures The leading zeros are placeholders only Can write in scientific notation to show more clearly: 7. examples 0.5 x 103 m for 2 significant figures Use 1.5 x 10-3 m for 2 significant figures 10.500 x 103 m for 4 significant figures .0 m has 3 significant figures The decimal point gives information about the reliability of the measurement 1500 m is ambiguous Use 1.Significant Figures.50 x 103 m for 3 significant figures Use 1.

57 m x 2.45 m = 62.Operations with Significant Figures – Multiplying or Dividing When multiplying or dividing. Example: 25.6 m2 The 2. the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the number of significant figures in the quantity having the lowest number of significant figures.45 m limits your result to 3 significant figures .

Operations with Significant Figures – Adding or Subtracting When adding or subtracting. the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places in any term in the sum. Example: 135 cm + 3.25 cm = 138 cm The 135 cm limits your answer to the units decimal value .

the number of significant figures is the important consideration . the number of decimal places is the important consideration For multiplying and dividing.Operations With Significant Figures – Summary The rule for addition and subtraction are different than the rule for multiplication and division For adding and subtracting.

What would a reader conclude from this recorded measurement? .043 860 564 2 m from a wall.Problem Suppose you measure the position of a chair with a meter stick and record that the center of the seat is 1.

.0 m2. Find the area of the room.Problem A carpet is to be installed in a room whose length is measured to be 12.46 m.71 m and whose width is measured to be 3. Ans: 44.

Rounding Last retained digit is increased by 1 if the last digit dropped is greater than 5 Last retained digit remains as it is if the last digit dropped is less than 5 If the last digit dropped is equal to 5. the retained digit should be rounded to the nearest even number Saving rounding until the final result will help eliminate accumulation of errors .

Different substances have different densities mainly because of differences in their atomic masses and atomic arrangements. and seconds (s). respectively.Summary The three fundamental physical quantities of mechanics are length. Prefixes indicating various powers of ten are used with these three basic units. kilograms (kg). . mass. The density of a substance is defined as its mass per unit volume. and Time In the SI system have the units meters (m).

you should be able to approximate the answer to a problem when there is not enough information available to completely specify an exact solution.Summary The number of particles in one mole of any element or compound. is 6. NA . By making estimates and making order-of-magnitude calculations. Dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities.02 *1023. The method of dimensional analysis is very powerful in solving physics problems. called Avogadro’s number. .

each of which has a certain accuracy you should give the result with the correct number of significant figures.Summary When you compute a result from several measured numbers. .

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