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You are on page 1of 33

(2 lectures in total)

• Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy

Theorem

• Work Done by a Varying Force

• Power

1

Energy Approach to Problems

• The concept of energy is one of the most

important topics in science

• The energy approach to describing motion is

particularly useful when the force is not constant

* Note: In this case, our standard constant acceleration

kinematic equations do not apply

2

Work

• Work is done on a system where an applied force

results in some net displacement

∗ Α force that results in no displacement does no work

* A displacement that results with no applied force has had

no work done (orbital motion, for example)

3

Work…

θ - is the angle between the force and the displacement vectors

4

Work…

[force] [displacement]

5

Work…

W = F d cos θ

move through a displacement

* The work done by a force on a moving object is zero

when the force applied is perpendicular to the

displacement of its point of application (think about an

object in orbit) !cos 90 = 0

6

The Scalar Product of Two Vectors

• Our definition of work: W = F d cos θ is messy

because of the cosine factor

• What we are actually doing is performing an

operation with two vectors called the scalar

product:

7

Scalar Product of Two Vectors

• The scalar product of two

vectors is written as

* It is also called the dot

product

•

∗ θ is the angle between A

and B

8

Scalar Product, cont

• The scalar product is commutative:

*

multiplication:

*

9

Dot Products of Unit Vectors

• î ⋅ î = ĵ ⋅ ĵ = k̂ ⋅ k̂ = 1

î ⋅ ĵ = î ⋅ k̂ = ĵ ⋅ k̂ = 0

• Using component form with and :

10

Dot product / Work

• Why did we introduce the dot product?

• Because:

W = F ⋅d

11

More About Work

• The sign of the work depends on the direction of

the displacement relative to the force

* Work is positive when the projection of F onto d is

in the same direction as the displacement

* Work is negative when the projection is in the opposite

direction

12

More About Work

• When more than one force acts on an object:

Wtotal = W1 + W2 + .... = ∑ Wi

or

Wtotal = ( Ftotal cos θ ) d = Ftotal cos θ d

13

Work - Example

the gravitational force, mg,

do no work on the object

* cos θ = cos 90° = 0

• The force does do work

on the object

• There is a component along

the direction of motion

W = F d cos θ

14

Example: Pr. 12 p. 194

• Water skiers often ride to one side of the center

line of a boat, as shown in Figure. In this case, the

ski boat is traveling at 15 m/s and the tension in

the rope is 75 N. If the boat does 3500 J of work

on the skier in 50.0 m, what is the angle between

the tow rope and the center line of the boat?

15

Example: Pr. 13 p. 194

To keep her dog from running away while she talks

to a friend, Susan pulls gently on the dog’s leash

with a constant force given by

F = (2.2 N )x + (1.1N )y

How much work does she do on the dog if its

displacement is (a) d = (0.25m)x

or Home!

(c) d = (−0.50m)x − (0.25m)y

16

Work Done by a Varying Force

• We know that for a constant force the work is just F ⋅ d

• But if the force is not constant in space we have a problem

• We will use an approach similar to that used to determine

net displacement given a time varying velocity!

17

Work Done by a Spring

spring as the block moves from xi = - xmax to xf

= 0:

W = [area] = 1/2 kx2

(Recall Hooks law F = - k x)

• Calculate the work done on the block by the

spring as the block moves from xi = 0 to xf =

xmax :

W = [area]= 1/2 k x2

moves from –xmax to xmax is zero

18

Work Done by a Spring

• The work done for an arbitrary

displacement is given by:

1 2 1 2

Ws = kxi − kx f

2 2

• For any motion that results in no net

displacement (xi = xf) there is no work

done!

• More intriguing, you get the same result if

the displacement is symmetric (xi = -xf).

19

Work & Kinetic Energy:

• A force F = 10 N pushes a box across a frictionless

floor for a distance ∆ x = 5 m. The speed of the

box is v1 before the push and v2 after the push.

v1 v2

F

m

i

∆x

20

Work & Kinetic Energy...

• Since the force F is constant, acceleration a will be

constant. We have shown that for constant a:

* v22 - v12 = 2a(x2-x1) = 2a∆ x.

* multiply by 1/2m: /2mv22 - 1/2mv12 = ma∆ x

1

* But F = ma 1

/2mv22 - 1/2mv12 = F∆ x

* F∆ x = W 1

/2mv22 - 1/2mv12 = W

v1 v2

F

m a

∆x 21

Kinetic Energy and the

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

• So we have:

1 2 1 2

Wnet = mv f − mvi

2 2

• That is, the work done by the net force on a particle of mass m is

equal to the difference between the initial and final values of a

quantity:

1 2

mv

2

22

Kinetic Energy and the Work-

Kinetic Energy Theorem

1

• The quantity mvis2 so important that we give it a special name.

2

• The kinetic energy K of an object of mass m moving with a speed v

is:

1 2

K ≡ mv

• Kinetic energy is the energy2of a particle due to its motion.

• Kinetic energy is a scalar and has the same units as work (Joules)

23

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

of doing work to transfer energy into a system.

• If the net work done on a particle is positive, the

speed (and hence the kinetic energy) of the

particle increases.

• If the net work done on a particle is negative, the

speed (and hence the kinetic energy) of the object

decreases.

24

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

• The equation relating work and kinetic energy is often written in the form:

Wnet = Kf – Ki = ∆ K

system is in its speed, the work done by the net force equals the

change in kinetic energy of the system.

• Important: The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem applies even if the force varies.

25

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem – Example

• A 6.00 kg block initially at rest

is being pulled to the right

along a horizontal frictionless

surface by a constant,

horizontal force F of magnitude

12.0 N as shown. Find the

speed of the block after it has

moved 3.00 m.

26

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem – Example

• Three external forces interact

with the block.

• The normal and gravitational

forces do no work since they

are perpendicular to the

direction of the displacement.

• There is no friction and so

resultant external force is F.

27

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem – Example

is:

WF = F ∆ x = (12.0 N)(3.00) m

= 36.0 J

• Apply Work-Kinetic Energy

Theorem:

1 2 Exercise: Find the acceleration of the

Wnet = WF = K f − K i = mv − 0 block and determine its final speed

2 using the constant acceleration

kinematic equations.

vf = = = 3.46 m / s

m 6.00kg

28

HOMEWORK!

29

Example Pr.18-19 p.194

• A 0.21-kg pine cone falls 14 m to the ground,

where it lands with a speed of 13 m/s. (a) With

what speed would the pine cone have landed if

there had been no air resistance? (b) Did air

resistance do positive work, negative work, or

zero work on the pine cone? Explain.

• In the previous problem, (a) how much work was

done on the pine cone by air resistance? (b) What

was the average force of air resistance exerted on

the pine cone?

30

Power

• It is also interesting to know the rate at which energy is

transferred.

• The time rate of energy transfer is called power

• If an external force is applied to an object and if the work

done by this force is W in the time interval Δt, the average

power during this interval is defined as

31

Units of Power

• The SI unit of power is called the Watt

* 1 Watt = 1 joule / second = 1 kg . m2 / s2

• The common unit of power is the horsepower

* 1 hp =550 ft .lb/s = 746 W

• In fact the rate at which a horse could do work!

• The unit of energy that appears on your household

electricity bill is defined in terms of the Watt:

* 1 kWh = (1000 W)(3600 s) = 3.6 x106 J

* See the electricity meter on your house or your

electricity bill!

32

• A certain car can accelerate from rest to the speed

v in T seconds. If the power output of the car

remains constant, (a) how long does it take for the

car to accelerate from v to 2v? (b) How fast is the

car moving at 2T seconds after starting? (home)

33

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