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in nature.

1. Gravity

2. Weak nuclear

3. Electromagnetic

4. Strong nuclear

Electroweak is a combination of the

electromagnetic and weak nuclear.

Still searching for a “grand unification.”

1

• Gravity (infinite range)

• Weak nuclear force (short range)

33

• 10 x stronger than gravity

• Electromagnetic force (infinite range)

• 1035 x stronger than gravity

• 102 x stronger than weak nuclear

• Strong nuclear force (short range)

• 1038 x stronger than gravity

• 105 x stronger than weak nuclear

• 103 x stronger than electromagnetic

2

• Gravity:

Acts only on mass.

Believed responsible for the large-scale structure

of the universe.

• Weak nuclear force:

Acts on charged particles.

Governs nuclear radioactive decay.

3

Electromagnetic force

Acts on charged particles.

Governs chemistry.

• Strong nuclear force

Acts on charged particles.

Binds quarks.

Overlaps to hold the nucleus together.

4

an attractive force that pulls

any two masses together

Earth’s gravitational force

exerts a force of attraction on

any object near the earth

**acts downward

towards the center

of the Earth

What will happen if….

dropped from the same height?

objects with a large surface area

What will happen if….

tight ball and then dropped at the same

time as the marble?

the ground at (almost) the same time

This is a stop-

action photo

showing a table-

tennis ball (blue)

and a golf ball

(white) fall at

exactly the same

rate even though

they have different

masses!

Therefore, mass

does NOT affect

the rate of

acceleration due

to gravity!

gravity causes all

objects to

accelerate

downwards at a

rate of 9.8

m/second each

second

So, for every

second that an

object is in free

fall, the object’s

downward velocity

increases by

9.8 m/s

The speed of a

falling object

increases as it

falls

Acceleration due to

gravity is “g”

g = 9.8 m/s2

downward

Butwhat if a

feather and a

rock are dropped

at the same time?

Air resistance

normally affects

the feather

Small, dense

bodies do not

have substantial

air resistance

Δv = g x t

Δv = change in velocity

= vfinal - vinitial

Δv = g x t

g = acceleration due to

gravity

= 9.8 m/s2

Δv = g x t

t = time the object takes

to fall

in seconds

An apple at rest falls from an apple tree.

The apple hits the ground with a velocity

of 10.5 m/s. How long did it take for the

apple to land?

vi = 0 time (t)

vf = 10.5 m/s

Δv = g x t 10.5 - 0 = 9.8 x t

vf-vi = g x t t = 1.07 seconds

As the skydivers

begin their

descent to Earth,

they continue to

accelerate until

they hit

“TERMINAL

VELOCITY”

VELOCITY

As the speed of

the skydivers

increases, the

upward force of

the air resistance

continues to

increase until it is

equal to the

downward force

of gravity.

As the speed of

the skydivers

increases, the

upward force of

the air resistance

continues to

F air F gravity increase until it is

resistance equal to the

downward force

of gravity.

Objects that are

thrown rather

than dropped

follow a curved

path

Has two components

1. forward velocity

(horizontal motion)

2. vertical motion

are independent of

eachother

These two balls

are released at

the same time

Once the yellow ball is

released there is no

more horizontal force

acting on it to keep the

ball moving to the right

Still only two

forces acting on

the body

1. gravity

2. air resistance

The curved path of

the yellow ball is

called “projectile

motion”

The two balls fall

with the same

acceleration and

strike the ground

at the same time!

31

32

Newton wondered about the force that keeps

the Moon in orbit around the Earth and the

Earth about the Sun.

He was also thinking about gravity.

Since falling bodies accelerate, Newton

concluded that they must have a force

exerted on them, a force we call the force of

gravity.

Whenever a body has a force exerted on it,

that force is exerted by some other body.

33

34

A year before he died, Newton’s friend

William Stukeley visited him at his home

in Kensington, near London.

After dining, they went into the garden

to drink tea under the shade of some

apple trees.

“Amidst other discourse,” Stukeley

wrote, “he told me he was just in the

same situation as when formerly the

notion of gravitation came to his mind.

It was occasioned by the fall of an apple,

as he sat in a contemplative mood.”

35

Newton realized that

Earth’s gravity was

the centripetal force Gravity

that kept the moon force

in orbit.

Also discovered that

gravity was weaker

at that great

distance.

37

The force that holds the moon in orbit

around the earth, the earth around the

sun, and governs the motion of all

celestial bodies is the same force that

causes the apple to fall from the tree.

38

39

Force of gravity has magnitude given by

( Distance ) x ( Distance )

DISTANCE

Object Object

A Force Force B

(Newton’s Third law)

Let’s calculate the

gravitational force

between two friends.

Assuming that the

friends are spheres [to

simplify the calculation

of r], have masses of

70 and 86 kg (about

154 and 189 lb,

respectively), and are

standing 2 m apart, we

have:

= 1.00 × 10−7 N.

In the formula for gravity force, we have

G = 0.0000000000667 N m2 / kg2

= 6.67 x 10–11 N m2 / kg2

“universal” because, up to now, this

theory predicts gravity anywhere in the

universe.

ar

43

What is gravity? One view is that gravity is a physical

entity called a field that is created by an object. A field

is something that has values at every point in space.

to every point in space. For a spherical (or point) mass M,

the vectors are given by The gravitational force can

r GM then be written as

g = − 2 rˆ r r

r Fg = mg

44

45

Here is an example of using the formula

( Distance ) x ( Distance )

Object A (1 kg mass)

Force

Object B (Earth)

Find gravity force for a 1 kg mass on

surface of Earth.

Earth’s Mass

( 6.38 x 106 )2

Universal Gravity Constant, G

Value comes out to 9.8 Newtons Earth’s(check

Radius this

with your calculator; it’s good practice).

Find gravity acceleration on a 1 kg mass.

Using Newton’s Second Law,

(Mass) (1 kg )

Answer is 9.8 m/s2, which we’ve been

rounding off as 10 m/s2.

Question: What happens to the other

quantity in an inverse-square

relationship if the first quantity is cut in

half?

Answer: The other quantity becomes

four times larger.

50

For elliptical orbits (of which a circular orbit is a special

case) the motion repeats indefinitely.

is large enough, the orbit

becomes open, that is,

it does not repeat. The

form of the orbit depends

on the total energy of the

orbiting object.

51

In deep space, far away

from all stars,

planets, etc. there is

almost no gravity

force.

In orbit near Earth,

gravity is still strong

(only 10% less than

on surface).

Why are Shuttle and

Space Station

astronauts

“weightless”?

Earth is nearby

Freefall is a state of weightlessness, even though gravity is present.

NASA has a special

airplane for

training

astronauts in free-

fall weightless

conditions.

The “Vomit Comet”

nickname tells

you it’s quite a

wild roller-coaster The plane flies between 20,000 and

ride. 30,000 feet, same as commercial flights.

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