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Diferentes tipos de clulas

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES 2001 & 2005


Section of a kidney
collecting duct
Vacuolar proton pumping
ATPase (apical membrane
& subapical intracellular
vesicles)
Chloride bicarbonate
exchanger AE1
Tight junctions (small
arrows).
Transporte vectorial de protenas,
molculas pequeas, etc

Transduccin de seales

Interacciones clula-clula

Adhesin e interaccin con matriz
extracelular

En los tejidos, las clulas cumplen diversas funciones:
DNA RNA
Ncleo
RNA + Ribosoma
+ a.a. + Prot Ribosomales +
Chaperonas +
Protenas!!!
DNA RNA
Ncleo
RNA + Ribosoma
+ a.a. + Prot Ribosomales +
Chaperonas +
Protenas!!!
Chaperones, Chaperonin
and Heat-Shock Proteins
The protein folding of a nascent polypeptide is the decoding of the linear information
contained in the primary sequence into the native three-dimensional conformation.
Chaperone proteins and folding catalysts may contribute to successful folding.
Calreticulin, calnexin, BiP (Binding Immunoglobulin Protein)/GRP78/HSP70)...
... general mechanisms of organelle
shaping that might be used
throughout the cell...

1. Some proteins help to shape organelles
by stabilizing membrane curvature.

2. Proteins that tether membranes, either
to the cytoskeleton or to other
membranes, can also determine
organelle morphology.

3. The regulated fission and fusion of
membranes can affect organelle shape.

4. Some proteins can help to determine
organelle shape by stabilizing different
morphologies in continuous membranes.
Nature Review Molecular and Cellular Biology 2007, 8:258
Pichia pastoris
mammalian normal
rat kidney (NRK) cell
0.5 m
1 m
Stabilizing membrane curvature
- Maintaining tubules, fenestrations, cisternae and other shapes with high curvature
requires proteins that bend membranes.
Three types of mechanism might
be used:

1.- A protein scaffold bends the
underlying membrane.

2.- The tendency of the two leaflets of a
bilayer to remain together, known as
the bilayer-couple effect, can facilitate
membrane bending by proteins that
insert domains into one of the leaflets.


Nature Review Molecular and Cellular Biology 2007, 8:258
QuickTime and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
http://genomebiology.com/2007/8/12/234
membrane topology of reticulons
Stabilizing membrane curvature
- Maintaining tubules, fenestrations, cisternae and other shapes with high curvature
requires proteins that bend membranes.
Three types of mechanism might
be used:

1.- A protein scaffold bends the
underlying membrane.

2.- The tendency of the two leaflets of a
bilayer to remain together, known as
the bilayer-couple effect, can facilitate
membrane bending by proteins that
insert domains into one of the leaflets.

3.- The asymmetrical distribution of
lipids in a bilayer can also affect
membrane curvature.
Nature Review Molecular and Cellular Biology 2007, 8:258
Ruta secretoria de protenas, lpidos... y otros
N
RE
Endosomas
Complejo de Golgi
Vesculas
secretorias
Ncleo
Mitocondria
Cloroplasto
Ruta secretoria (Palade 1975)
Lisosoma
Peroxisomas
Ribosomas
Ribosomas
N
RE
Endosomas
Complejo de Golgi
Vesculas
secretorias
Ncleo
Mitocondria
Cloroplasto
Ruta secretoria
Lisosoma
Peroxisomas
Fenotipo de mutantes de levadura
deficientes en trfico de protenas
(Lab. Randy Schekman, 1980)
Signal Peptides Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 2005
Entrada a Ruta
Secretoria:
Pptido Seal
(~20 aas,
hidrofbica)
Retculo
Endoplsmico:
KDEL, KKXX,
KXKXX
NLS, M9, NES
Lysosome
Plasma
membrane
Cell
Surface
(secreted)
ER signal
peptide
Peroxisome
Nucleus
Sorting Signals
Protein Secretory Pathways Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 2005
Endosomes
Protein Secretory Pathways Encyclopedia of Life Sciences 2005
Endosomes
Retculo Endoplsmico
(RE o ER)
Polisomas o poli-ribosomas libres
Ribosomas asociados a
Retculo Endoplsmico
Traduccin del mensajero: sntesis de protenas
RIBOSOMAS
Retculo endoplsmico
- compartimento intracelular mas largo

- extenso arreglo de tbulos membranales y cisternas

- continuacin de la membrana nuclear

- interaccin RE-citoesqueleto

- dominios especializados en ciertas funciones

- asociacin con otros organelos
(transitional
ER or ERES)
Liso
- biosntesis de lpidos (ac. grasos,
fosfolpidos, isoprenoides, flavonoides,
Esteroides.)
- reserva de Ca
++

Rugoso
- inicio de ruta secretoria
- translocacin de protenas
- protenas de membrana
- plegado de protenas
- modificaciones post-traduccionales
- degradacin de protenas

Composicin lipdica y proteica?: Protenas generales de RE
Marcadores de RER
EMBO reports vol. 3 no. 10 2002
Retculo Endoplsmico
Levadura/GFP-Sec63
Clulas COS/GFP-Sec61b
EMBO reports vol. 3 | no. 10 | 2002 945
Cortical
Perinuclear
QuickTime and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
GFP-HDEL A. thaliana
C. elegans
epidermal cell from tobacco leaves,
Colocalization of endoplasmic reticulum export sites (ERES)
and Golgi bodies.
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2005, 17:409414
B-cell (differentiated)
Undifferentiated cell
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2005, 17:409414
Crystalloid smooth ER in
embryonic adrenal cells that
produce large amounts of sterols
Sheep pituitary mammotroph cell showing cytoplasm with
electron-dense prolactin-containing secretory granules
Clula Pancretica
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 2006, 18:358364
Nature Review Molecular and Cellular Biology 2007, 8:258
CLIMP63 (cytoskeleton-
linking membrane
protein 63 o p63?
Clulas COS/GFP-Sec61b
Nature Review Molecular and Cellular Biology 2007, 8:258
FUNCIONES DEL RETICULO ENDOPLASMICO
Sntesis de Lpidos (RE liso)
Ciclo del complejo SRP (Signal Recognition Particle)
5
mRNA
Ribosoma
Pptido naciente
Citoplasma
Detencin de
la traduccin
Receptor
SR
Retculo Endoplsmico
Unin de pptido
seal a SRP
Traslocacin co-traduccional de protenas a RE (1a etapa / ruta secretoria)
Corte del pptido seal
3
NH
2
3
NH
2
3
5
5
Translocn
(complejo Sec61)
N-Glicosilacin
(Complejo OST)
ER
PDI
S-S
Modificaciones post-traduccionales
Sntesis del precursor dolicol-oligosacrido en RE
www.nature.com/reviews/molcellbio DECEMbER 2008 | volUME 9
Calreticulin
| www.nature.com/reviews/molcellbio DECEMbER 2008 | volUME 9
N-Glicosilacin
(Complejo OST)
ER
PDI
S-S
Modificaciones post-traduccionales
Protenas ancladas a GPI
GPI: glicofosfatidilinositol
Journal of Lipid Research April Supplement, 2009 S311
RE y otras estructuras celulares
citoesqueleto
Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2009) 37, 961965;
EMBO reports vol. 3 | no. 10 | 2002
Membrana
plasmtica
Mitocondria
Vacuola/lLisosoma
Golgi
Ncleo
Plasmadesmata
Asociacin con otros organelos.
Membrana
plasmtica
Mitocondria
Vacuola/lLisosoma
Golgi
Ncleo
Plasmadesmata
Asociacin con otros organelos.
Membrana
plasmtica
Mitocondria
Vacuola/lLisosoma
Golgi
Ncleo
Plasmadesmata
Asociacin con otros organelos.
KDEL-C terminal
M. Capitani, M. Sallese / FEBS Letters 583 (2009) 38633871
Membrana
plasmtica
Mitocondria
Vacuola/lLisosoma
Golgi
Ncleo
Plasmadesmata
Asociacin con otros organelos.
Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2008, 11:672679
Membrana
plasmtica
Mitocondria
Vacuola/lLisosoma
Golgi
Ncleo
Plasmadesmata
Asociacin con otros organelos.
Hepatocito HMG CoA reductasa y
citocromo P450

Adrenocortical cells: HMG CoA reductasa
es regulada via esterol y ACTH-dependent
(Adreocorticotropic
hormone-dependent)
Endocrinology, October 2005, 146(10):42344249
.
FIG. 2. The abundant SER in steroid-secreting cells facilitates preparation of very clean smooth microsomal subfractions. A,
Electron micrograph of a cell from the guinea pig inner adrenal cortex, illustrating the abundant SER in these cells. RER is largely
confined to short cisternae or small patches of ribosomes scattered on the predominantly tubular ER (arrowheads). Bar, 1.0 m.
20,700. B, Electron micrograph of rough microsomes obtained from this tissue. They are not as densely covered with ribosomes as
corresponding fractions prepared from protein-secreting cells such as pancreas or liver. Bar, 0.5 m. 40,000. C, Electron
micrograph of smooth microsomes obtained from this same tissue. Few, if any, ribosomes are visible on the surface of these
microsomes. Bar, 0.5 m. 40,000.
Endocrinology, October 2005, 146(10):42344249
Endocrinology, October 2005,
146(10):42344249
Endocrinology, October 2005, 146(10):42344249
Endocrinology, October 2005, 146(10):42344249