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# Pumps and Pumping Systems

## Categories and Types

Performance Characteristics
Key Design Parameters
Calculation Method
Specification Data Sheet
Selection Guidelines
Control Systems
Typical Operating Problems

Pumps and Pumping Systems
Positive Displacement
Reciprocating
Rotary

Kinetic or Centrifugal
Radial
Axial

Categories and Types
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Selection Guidelines
1820m
30.5m
227m
3
/h
2.3m
3
/h
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Positive Displacement Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
1.Casing, volute
2. Impeller, vanes, vane
tips, backplate,
frontplate (shroud),
back vanes, pressure
equalising passages
3. Back cover parallel
to Plane of the impeller
intake
4. Stuffing Box -
Gland/mechanical seal
housing,
packing/lantern ring
5. Pump shaft
6. Pump casing
7. Bearing housing
8. Bearings
9. Bearing seals
8
9
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Positive displacement Pumps are
Constant Volume Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps are
Constant Head Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Effect of Fluid Density on Pressure with Constant Head
9.8 bar 11.8 bar 7.4 bar
1
0
0
m

Water
SG=1.0
1
0
0
m

Brine
SG=1.2
1
0
0
m

Gasoline
SG=0.75
P = gh: g = 9.81 m/s
2
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Calculate the total differential head for the following
pumping system:
3
m

2
0
m

3m of 10 pipe
45m of 8 pipe
8 gate valve
8 check valve
1.8 bar
340 m
3
/h capacity
Hydrocarbon, sg = 1, = 0.9cP
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Discharge head:

Static head = 20m
Pressure head = 280/(9.81x1) = 28.5 m

Friction: for 8 line, flow = 340 m
3
/h:

u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.203
2
) = 2.9m/s

Re = 1000 x 2.9 x 0.203/0.0009 = 6.5 x 10
5

/d = 0.0018/7.98 = 0.00023

f = 0.016

P/100m = 0.016 x 100 x 1000 x 2.9
2
/(2 x 0.203) = 33.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Length of 8 pipe = 45m
3 x 8 elbows = 3 x 20.2ft = 60.6ft = 18.5m
1 x gate valve = 4.5 ft = 1.4 m
1 x check valve = 50 ft = 15.2m
Exit loss = 20 ft = 6.1m
Total = = 86.2m

P friction = 86.2/100 x 33.1 = 28.5 kPa
h friction = 28.5/(9.81 x 1) = 2.9 m, add 20% safety for pump
h friction = 1.2 * 2.9 = 3.5 m

Total Discharge head = 3.5 + 20 + 28.5 = 52 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Suction head:

Static head = -3m
Pressure head = 100/(9.81x1) = 10.2 m

Friction: for 10 line, flow = 340 m
3
/h:

u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.255
2
) = 1.85m/s

Re = 1000 x 1.85 x 0.255/0.0009 = 5.2 x 10
5

/d = 0.0018/10.02 = 0.00018

f = 0.015

P/100m = 0.015 x 100 x 1000 x 1.85
2
/(2 x 0.255) = 10.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Head Calculation: Example 1
Length of 10 pipe = 3m
1 x 10 elbows = 26ft = 8m
Entrance loss = 15 ft = 4.6m
Total = = 15.6m

P friction = 15.6/100 x 10.1 = 1.6 kPa
h friction = 1.6/(9.81 x 1) = 0.16 m, add 20% safety for pump
h friction = 1.2 * 0.16 = 0.2 m

Total Suction head = -3 + 10.2 0.2 = 7 m

Total differential head = 52 7 = 45 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
For similar conditions of flow (ie the same
efficiency):
Capacity is directly proportional to speed
Head is directly proportional to the square of
speed &
Power is directly proportional to the cube of
speed
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
This translates into the corresponding formulae (for variations in
speed with impeller diameter remaining constant) :

Q2 = Q1 x (N2 N1)
H2 = H1 x (N2 N1)
2
and
P2 = P1 x (N2 N1)
3

However, the above formulae can also be used to determine the
relationship between impeller Diameter and flow, Head and Power
by substituting speed (N) with Impeller Diameter (D), keeping
Speed constant. Results in this case are approximate as these
formulae are analogous to the Affinity Laws above.

Q2 = Q1 x (D2 D1)
H2 = H1 x (D2 D1)
2
and
P2 = P1 x (D2 D1)
3
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Design Parameters

Temperature
Properties
Capacity
Head (TDH)
Cavitation (NPSH)
Horsepower
Efficiency
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Liquid Properties

Specific Gravity
Composition/Quality
Vapour Pressure
Viscosity
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Effect of Viscosity on Pump Performance
Pumps and
Pumping Systems
Viscosity Correction
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation

NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head
Available
Required

Calculation
NPSH
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Cavitation
Formation of vapour bubbles in pump
Occurs when pressure NPSH
A
falls below
vapour pressure
Reduces capacity and efficiency
Eventually flow ceases
Causes noise, vibration, erosion and pump
failure if allowed to persist for a prolonged
period of time
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Avoiding Cavitation
Establish accurate range of flow for pump.
If running speed higher than pump curve data multiply
NPSH
R
at curve speed by speed ratio ( eg. NPSH
R
= 3.2 x
(1800 / 1500) = 3.84 m)
Avoid suction specific speeds of over 6750 (metric) or
11,000 (usgpm).
If possible select a pump with rated flow within 10% of
best efficiency point (BEP).
Select for NPSH
A
10% above NPSH
R
.
Require witnessed pump tests over flow range for critical
service applications.
Dont accept model tests as a basis for larger pumps.
Centrifugal Pumps
Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSH
A
)= Static Head + Head
developed

NPSH
A
= hp
s
+ h
s
hvp
s
hf
s

hp
s
Pressure Head
h
s
Static suction Head (@ min. supply level)
hvp
s
Vapour pressure Head (@ max. pumping temperature)
hf
s
Friction Head

p
s
h
s

hf
s
hvp
s
NPSH
Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH Example
The cooling water used for cooling of the reactor during the reaction is
pumped from an open tank. Calculate the NPSHA for the pump given the
following conditions:
Temperature of Water = 30c, Density (r) @ 30C = 995.7 kg / m
3

Vapour Pr @ 30c = 4.241 kPa (abs), Ha = atmospheric pr = 101.325 kPa
Gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s
2

Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH Example 1
Using the formula: NPSHA = Hts Hvap

Where Hts = total static head
= Atmospheric Pr (Ha) suction lift (Hs)
friction losses (Hf)
= Ha x 1000 2.6 (1 + 0.9 + 0.4 + 0.1)
g x r
= 101.325 x 1000 2.6 2.4
9.81 x 995.7
= 10.38 2.6 2.4
= 5.38m
H
vap
= 4.241 x 1000
9.81 x 995.7
= 0.43m
NPSH
A
= 5.38 0.43
= 4.95m

Add 10% safety factor for value specified to pump supplier:
The NPSH required is thus 4.95/1.1 = 4.5 m
Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH Example 2
Water temperature - 125 C
Density @ 125 C 939 kg/m
3

Vapour pr @ 125 C = 230 kPa (absolute)
Gauge pr = 130 kPag
Gravitational acceleration = g = 9.81 m/s^2
Suction head (Hs) = 4.0m max, 1.0m min
Pipe friction loss = 1.1m
Valve friction loss = 0.1m
NPSH
A
= Hts - Hvap
Hsmin = 1m
max
Centrifugal Pumps
NPSH Example 2
H
ts
= Ha + Hs - Hf
= (101.325 + 130) x 1000 + 1 (1.1 + 0.1)
9.81 x 939
= 25.1 + 1 1.2
= 24.9 m
H
vap
= 230 x 1000
9.81 x 939
= 25.0 m
NPSH
A
= 24.9 25.0
= -0.1 m

(as NPSH
A
is negative, the pump will start to cavitate when the tank level drops to
minimum level)
To solve this problem? Increase elevation of tank!
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Pumps
Define Liquid Properties: SG, VP, Vis
1
Establish Flow Rates
1
: Normal & Design
Calculate Net Suction Pressure
Calculate NPSH Available
Calculate Net Discharge Pressure at Normal Flow including
Control Valve P
2
Calculate Differential Pressure & Head
Select Efficiency: Calculate Power

1. At pumping temperature
2. Allow of total friction P at Normal Flow for control valve.
Verify control valve P at Design Flow minimum 70 kPa
Pump Calculation Method
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Centrifugal Reciprocating Rotary
Pressure max, bar abs 350 1000 350
Temperature max, C 500 370 400
P max, kPa 200 1400 200
Capacity max, m
3
/h 3600 450 340
Viscocity max Pa.s 0.2 400 400
Efficiency, % range 5080 6090 40-85
Capacity Turndown H M M
Relative Cost L H M

H = High, M = Medium, L = Low
Pumps and Pumping Systems
Cavitation / Low NPSH
Low Suction Pressure
High Discharge Pressure
High SpGr/Viscocity
Capacity Loss
Driver Overload
Typical Operating Problems