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Performance Characteristics

Key Design Parameters

Calculation Method

Specification Data Sheet

Selection Guidelines

Control Systems

Typical Operating Problems

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Positive Displacement

Reciprocating

Rotary

Kinetic or Centrifugal

Radial

Axial

Categories and Types

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Selection Guidelines

1820m

30.5m

227m

3

/h

2.3m

3

/h

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Positive Displacement Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

1.Casing, volute

2. Impeller, vanes, vane

tips, backplate,

frontplate (shroud),

back vanes, pressure

equalising passages

3. Back cover parallel

to Plane of the impeller

intake

4. Stuffing Box -

Gland/mechanical seal

housing,

packing/lantern ring

5. Pump shaft

6. Pump casing

7. Bearing housing

8. Bearings

9. Bearing seals

8

9

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Positive displacement Pumps are

Constant Volume Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps are

Constant Head Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Effect of Fluid Density on Pressure with Constant Head

9.8 bar 11.8 bar 7.4 bar

1

0

0

m

Water

SG=1.0

1

0

0

m

Brine

SG=1.2

1

0

0

m

Gasoline

SG=0.75

P = gh: g = 9.81 m/s

2

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Calculate the total differential head for the following

pumping system:

3

m

2

0

m

3m of 10 pipe

45m of 8 pipe

8 gate valve

8 check valve

1.8 bar

340 m

3

/h capacity

Hydrocarbon, sg = 1, = 0.9cP

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Discharge head:

Static head = 20m

Pressure head = 280/(9.81x1) = 28.5 m

Friction: for 8 line, flow = 340 m

3

/h:

u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.203

2

) = 2.9m/s

Re = 1000 x 2.9 x 0.203/0.0009 = 6.5 x 10

5

/d = 0.0018/7.98 = 0.00023

f = 0.016

P/100m = 0.016 x 100 x 1000 x 2.9

2

/(2 x 0.203) = 33.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Length of 8 pipe = 45m

3 x 8 elbows = 3 x 20.2ft = 60.6ft = 18.5m

1 x gate valve = 4.5 ft = 1.4 m

1 x check valve = 50 ft = 15.2m

Exit loss = 20 ft = 6.1m

Total = = 86.2m

P friction = 86.2/100 x 33.1 = 28.5 kPa

h friction = 28.5/(9.81 x 1) = 2.9 m, add 20% safety for pump

h friction = 1.2 * 2.9 = 3.5 m

Total Discharge head = 3.5 + 20 + 28.5 = 52 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Suction head:

Static head = -3m

Pressure head = 100/(9.81x1) = 10.2 m

Friction: for 10 line, flow = 340 m

3

/h:

u = 340/3600/((/4)*0.255

2

) = 1.85m/s

Re = 1000 x 1.85 x 0.255/0.0009 = 5.2 x 10

5

/d = 0.0018/10.02 = 0.00018

f = 0.015

P/100m = 0.015 x 100 x 1000 x 1.85

2

/(2 x 0.255) = 10.1 kPa/100m

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Head Calculation: Example 1

Length of 10 pipe = 3m

1 x 10 elbows = 26ft = 8m

Entrance loss = 15 ft = 4.6m

Total = = 15.6m

P friction = 15.6/100 x 10.1 = 1.6 kPa

h friction = 1.6/(9.81 x 1) = 0.16 m, add 20% safety for pump

h friction = 1.2 * 0.16 = 0.2 m

Total Suction head = -3 + 10.2 0.2 = 7 m

Total differential head = 52 7 = 45 m

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

For similar conditions of flow (ie the same

efficiency):

Capacity is directly proportional to speed

Head is directly proportional to the square of

speed &

Power is directly proportional to the cube of

speed

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

This translates into the corresponding formulae (for variations in

speed with impeller diameter remaining constant) :

Q2 = Q1 x (N2 N1)

H2 = H1 x (N2 N1)

2

and

P2 = P1 x (N2 N1)

3

However, the above formulae can also be used to determine the

relationship between impeller Diameter and flow, Head and Power

by substituting speed (N) with Impeller Diameter (D), keeping

Speed constant. Results in this case are approximate as these

formulae are analogous to the Affinity Laws above.

Q2 = Q1 x (D2 D1)

H2 = H1 x (D2 D1)

2

and

P2 = P1 x (D2 D1)

3

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Design Parameters

Temperature

Properties

Capacity

Head (TDH)

Cavitation (NPSH)

Horsepower

Efficiency

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Liquid Properties

Specific Gravity

Composition/Quality

Vapour Pressure

Viscosity

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Effect of Viscosity on Pump Performance

Pumps and

Pumping Systems

Viscosity Correction

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

NPSH = Net Positive Suction Head

Available

Required

Calculation

NPSH

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Cavitation

Formation of vapour bubbles in pump

Occurs when pressure NPSH

A

falls below

vapour pressure

Reduces capacity and efficiency

Eventually flow ceases

Causes noise, vibration, erosion and pump

failure if allowed to persist for a prolonged

period of time

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Avoiding Cavitation

Establish accurate range of flow for pump.

If running speed higher than pump curve data multiply

NPSH

R

at curve speed by speed ratio ( eg. NPSH

R

= 3.2 x

(1800 / 1500) = 3.84 m)

Avoid suction specific speeds of over 6750 (metric) or

11,000 (usgpm).

If possible select a pump with rated flow within 10% of

best efficiency point (BEP).

Select for NPSH

A

10% above NPSH

R

.

Require witnessed pump tests over flow range for critical

service applications.

Dont accept model tests as a basis for larger pumps.

Centrifugal Pumps

Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSH

A

)= Static Head + Head

developed

NPSH

A

= hp

s

+ h

s

hvp

s

hf

s

hp

s

Pressure Head

h

s

Static suction Head (@ min. supply level)

hvp

s

Vapour pressure Head (@ max. pumping temperature)

hf

s

Friction Head

p

s

h

s

hf

s

hvp

s

NPSH

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Example

The cooling water used for cooling of the reactor during the reaction is

pumped from an open tank. Calculate the NPSHA for the pump given the

following conditions:

Temperature of Water = 30c, Density (r) @ 30C = 995.7 kg / m

3

Vapour Pr @ 30c = 4.241 kPa (abs), Ha = atmospheric pr = 101.325 kPa

Gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s

2

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Example 1

Using the formula: NPSHA = Hts Hvap

Where Hts = total static head

= Atmospheric Pr (Ha) suction lift (Hs)

friction losses (Hf)

= Ha x 1000 2.6 (1 + 0.9 + 0.4 + 0.1)

g x r

= 101.325 x 1000 2.6 2.4

9.81 x 995.7

= 10.38 2.6 2.4

= 5.38m

H

vap

= 4.241 x 1000

9.81 x 995.7

= 0.43m

NPSH

A

= 5.38 0.43

= 4.95m

Add 10% safety factor for value specified to pump supplier:

The NPSH required is thus 4.95/1.1 = 4.5 m

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Example 2

Water temperature - 125 C

Density @ 125 C 939 kg/m

3

Vapour pr @ 125 C = 230 kPa (absolute)

Gauge pr = 130 kPag

Gravitational acceleration = g = 9.81 m/s^2

Suction head (Hs) = 4.0m max, 1.0m min

Pipe friction loss = 1.1m

Valve friction loss = 0.1m

NPSH

A

= Hts - Hvap

Hsmin = 1m

max

Centrifugal Pumps

NPSH Example 2

H

ts

= Ha + Hs - Hf

= (101.325 + 130) x 1000 + 1 (1.1 + 0.1)

9.81 x 939

= 25.1 + 1 1.2

= 24.9 m

H

vap

= 230 x 1000

9.81 x 939

= 25.0 m

NPSH

A

= 24.9 25.0

= -0.1 m

(as NPSH

A

is negative, the pump will start to cavitate when the tank level drops to

minimum level)

To solve this problem? Increase elevation of tank!

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Pumps

Define Liquid Properties: SG, VP, Vis

1

Establish Flow Rates

1

: Normal & Design

Calculate Net Suction Pressure

Calculate NPSH Available

Calculate Net Discharge Pressure at Normal Flow including

Control Valve P

2

Calculate Differential Pressure & Head

Select Efficiency: Calculate Power

1. At pumping temperature

2. Allow of total friction P at Normal Flow for control valve.

Verify control valve P at Design Flow minimum 70 kPa

Pump Calculation Method

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Centrifugal Reciprocating Rotary

Pressure max, bar abs 350 1000 350

Temperature max, C 500 370 400

P max, kPa 200 1400 200

Capacity max, m

3

/h 3600 450 340

Viscocity max Pa.s 0.2 400 400

Efficiency, % range 5080 6090 40-85

Capacity Turndown H M M

Relative Cost L H M

H = High, M = Medium, L = Low

Pumps and Pumping Systems

Cavitation / Low NPSH

Low Suction Pressure

High Discharge Pressure

High SpGr/Viscocity

Capacity Loss

Driver Overload

Typical Operating Problems

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