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CSE-342

B.Eng. (Electrical Engineering)


Muniba Q. Zaman
Communication System II
Lecture 3
Telecommunication Transmission
Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Transmission Media - Overview
Transmission Medium
Physical path between transmitter and receiver
Guided Media
Waves are guided along a solid medium
e.g., copper twisted pair, copper coaxial cable, optical fiber
Unguided Media
Provides means of transmission but does not guide
electromagnetic signals
Employ an antenna for transmission
e.g., atmosphere, outer space, satellites, terrestrial
microwave, broadcast radio etc

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Transmission Media - Overview
Characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal
For guided
Medium is more important
For unguided
Bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important
Key concerns are
Data rate and Distance
Higher data rate and longer distance is better
Design factor
Bandwidth
All other factors remaining constant, higher bandwidth gives higher data rate
Transmission impairments
Attenuation
Interference
Number of receivers
In guided media
More receivers (multi-point) introduce more attenuation


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Open-Wire Pairs
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Twisted Pair
Most common medium
Two separately insulated wires twisted together in a helical manner (like
DNA) and often bundled together
Advantages
Cheap
Easy to work with
Disadvantages
Low data rate
Short range
Applications
Telephone network
Between house and local exchange
Within buildings
To private branch exchange (PBX)
For local area networks (LAN)
10 Mbps or 100 Mbps

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Twisted Pair
Transmission Charateristics
Analog
Amplifiers every 5 km to 6 km
Digital
Use either analog or digital signals
Repeater every 2 km or 3 km
Limited in
Distance
Bandwidth (1 MHz)
Data rate (100 Mbps)
Susceptible to interference and noise

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UTP vs. STP
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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
Ordinary telephone wire
Cheapest
Easiest to install
Suffers from external Electromagnetic (EM) interference
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference
More expensive
Harder to handle (thick, heavy)
UTP Categories
Cat 3
Up to 16 MHz
Voice grade found in most offices
Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm
Cat 4
Up to 20 MHz
Cat 5
Up to 100 MHz
Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings
Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm



Coaxial Cable
Most versatile medium
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*Braided shield is also referred to as the outer conductor
*
Coaxial Cable
Applications
Television distribution
Cable TV
Long distance telephone transmission
Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously
Being replaced by fiber optic
Short distance computer systems links
LANs
Transmission characteristic
Analog
Amplifiers every few km
Closer if higher frequency
Up to 500 MHz
Digital
Repeater every 1 km
Closer for higher data rates
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Thin Ethernet 10 Base 2
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Thick Ethernet - 10 Base 5
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Optical Fiber
Advantages
Greater capacity - data rates of hundreds of Gbps
Smaller size & weight
Lower attenuation
Electromagnetic isolation
Greater repeater spacing
- 10s of km at least
System components:
Transmission medium - fiber optic cable
Light source
LED (cheaper, wider operating temp range, last longer)
Injection laser diode (ILD) (More efficient, greater data rate)
Detector - photodiode

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Optical Fiber - Applications
Telephone Network Applications
Long-haul, metropolitan, rural, and subscriber loop circuits
Local Area Networks
Optical fiber networks
Data rates from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps
Support hundreds (or even thousands) of stations
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Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics
Light Sources
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Cheaper
Wider operating temp range
Last longer
Injection Laser Diode (ILD)
More efficient
Greater data rate
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
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Transmission Medium

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Transmission Medium

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Transmission Medium

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Voice Communication Services
Leased Line : High quality connections. High speed data transmission
available known as conditioned leased line. Risky in case the line is
down. No automatically re-route the call, Point-to-Point connection, Less
reliability
Dial-up Line : Different route available depending on dialing number.
High reliability but uncertain quality connections
Private Branch Exchange [PBX] : internal call never leave the
customers premises. Only external calls are sent to the central office;
therefore few central office trunk are needed. And the customers central
office charges are far less than those associated with Centrex service. But
the customer must purchase or lease the PBX to achieve these economies.
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Data Transmission
An ideal data transmission system gives an output
which is identical to the input.
Three problems in data transmission and long-haul
communication
noise
attenuation (amplification, line loading)
distortion (equalization)
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Noise
Any undesired signal in a communication circuit
It gives an error in the measurement unless it is
removed
It is quantified as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
Common noises in telecommunication system are
white noise, impulse noise and intermodulation noise
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Attenuation
Attenuation distortion is defined as Change in attenuation at any
frequency wrt that of a reference frequency
Energy losses in the transmission medium mean that the amplitude
of the signal is reduced
Reduces the SNR
Reduces the signal level
varies with frequencies over the transmission line approximately
proportional to the square root of the frequency
also increases with temperature and metal conduit
preferred loss in a telephone connection should be in the
neighborhood of 8 dB.
measured in decibels (dB) of signal loss.
For every 3dB signal loss, a signal loses 50 per cent of its remaining
strength
Fluke tester is used for attenuation measurement
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Distortion
Arises when the frequency response of transmission system is
inadequate to deal with the frequencies in the signal.
Caused due to internal characteristics of the channel itself
This distortion is deterministic
Sources:
non-linear characteristic of components
linear nature of the network
Examples of devices causing distortion:
Carbon microphone
Saturation voice frequency amplifiers and
unmatched compandors
linear nature distortion are characterized in the frequency domain
as either amplitude distortion or phase distortion
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Analogue data transmission
Generally done by using conducting wires to feed the transducer output
to the signal processing, recording and/or display unit.
Wires may be simple single strand conductors, or may be co-axial
cables.
Co-axial cables consist of
inner conductor
insulating layer
outer earthing and screening conductor
final insulating layer outside.
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Analogue data transmission
Thickness and purity of both conductors and insulators vary; the cost
varies accordingly.
Reduction of attenuation and noise mean increased cost.
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Effect of noise on transmitted
analogue data
Low levels of noise enable the signal to be detected with very small errors
High levels of noise may totally obscure the signal.
Noise arises from
external sources
noise generated in the conductor itself.
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Effect of noise on transmitted
analogue data
Coaxial cables reduce these problems compared with single wires
Internal noise is related to the size, length and quality of the conductors.
Isolation from external pickup reduces with thicker, better quality
insulation
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Effect of attenuation on transmitted
analogue data
Attenuation is determined by the thickness and quality of the conductor in
the cable.
Also determined by distance (length of cable)
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Effect of distortion on transmitted
analogue data
Distortion effects are related to frequency response
The transmission system deals adequately with the low
frequency
A higher frequency is, however, barely transmitted.
The frequency response of co-axial cable varies with cost.
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Transmission distance
The greater the distance, the more serious all these problems
are
Simple conducting wires may be adequate to carry a signal
over a distance of a metre
More expensive coaxial cable will be required to carry the same
signal to the same display system over a longer distance.
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Near End Crosstalk (NEXT)
Occurs near the transmitter and
creates distortions that affect the signal
on adjacent receive pairs
generated when a transmission line
carrying a strong signal is coupled with
a transmission line carrying a weak
signal
measured in dB, with higher values
being better, for all frequencies
between 0 and 100 MHz at both ends
More trouble some because of a large
difference in power levels between the
transmitted and receive signals
The tighter the twist in the cable, the
more effective the cancellation
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http://www.cabletesting.com
Far End Crosstalk (FEXT)
Cross talk that exists at the receiver end of the cable
refers to unwanted coupling into a received signal
from a transmitter at a distant location
relevant on networks that transmit on multiple pairs in
the same direction in the same time
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The Maximum Data Rate of a
Channel
The maximum data rate of a noiseless channel with a
bandwidth of H and V number of levels is
= 2H log
2
(V) bits per second (bps)
due to H. Nyquist in 1924
hence if V = 2 (binary encoding) and channel
bandwidth = 3000 Hz then maximum data rate is =
2*3000 = 6000 bps
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Transmitting Signals
Major problems:
Attenuation
weakening of signal as it propagates forward
depends on frequency of signal
Noise
unwanted energy or signals from sources other than the
transmitter
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Data transfer in the presence of
noise
Shannons Law:
C = B * log
2
(1 + S/N) where:
C = achievable channel capacity
B= Bandwidth of line (in Hz)
S = Average signal power
N = Average Noise power
S/N = Signal to Noise Ratio
this is usually measured in decibels (dB)
where dB = 10 * log
10
(S/N)
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It is ratio of two electrical quantities such as watt,
volts and amperes
If we pass a signal through a device then it will suffer
loss or achieve gain

Input Signal Output Signal

Ratio = Output / Input
If O/P is > I/P then Gain
If O/P is < I/P then Loss
Gain is represented by +
Loss is represented by -
Decibels (dB)
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Decibel (dB)
It was invented by Bell telecomm USA
Input >-- Amp #1 --- Amp #2 --> Output
A1 = 275 .. A2 = 55
In the example, the total gain factor At = 275 x 55 =
15,125
Aim was to use logs for ease of calculation i.e. Log A1 +
log A2 thus bell was introduced i.e. gain in Bell = Log A
Using Bell meant working to at least two decimal places
rounding things off to one decimal place, meant
introducing error since 4.179 bells is a power gain of
15,101 while 4.2 bells is a power gain of 15,849, yielding
an error of about 5%.
Solution was to express power gain in units which were
equal to one-tenth of a Bell, or in decibels. This simply
meant that the gain in Bells would be multiplied by 10 i.e.
Gain in decibels (dB) = 10 log A
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Decibels (dB)
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Decibels represent:
1. Level (absolute or relative)
2. Ratio (gain or loss)
Y
dB
= 10 log (x) where x is in power units (Watts)
Y
dB
= 10 log (10) = 10 dB
Y
dB
= 10 log (100) = 20 dB
Y
dB
= 10 log (20) = 13 dB
Y
dB
= 10 log (v
2
) for voltage across say 1W resistor
Y
dB
= 20 log (v)
dBm & dBW
dBm is decibel value with reference to one
milli-watt (1 mw)
dBW is decibel value with reference to one
watt (1 W)
dBm = 10 log (P / 1 mw)
dBW = 10 log (P / 1 W)
1 mW = ? dBm
1 W = ? dBW
+30 dBm = ? dBW = ? W
-30 dBW = ? dBm = ? mW
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Examples of dBw and dBm
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1 W

2 W

4 W

8 W

16 W
0 dB
w


3 dB
w

6 dB
w

9 dB
w

12 dB
w
30 dB
m


33 dB
m


36 dB
m


39 dB
m


42 dB
m

Decibels (Ratio)
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dB = 10 log (P
o
/P
i
) power ratio

dB = 20 log (V
o
/V
i
) voltage ratio

dB = 20 log (I
o
/I
i
) current ratio
P
i
V
i
I
i
P
o
V
o
I
o
System
Examples
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dB
i

dB
d
antenna gain with reference to isotropic antenna
(unity gain)
antenna gain with reference to dipole antenna
(2.2 dB
i
)
As an example, a 0.6 m parabolic antenna (dish) operating at 18
GHz will have a nominal gain of 38 dB
i
Doubling the diameter
(1.2) adds 6 dB i.e. 44 dB
i
A 3.0 m parabolic antenna (dish) operating at 1.8 GHz will have
a nominal gain of 32 dB
i
Noise Factor / Figure
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Linear System S
i
/N
i
S
o
/N
o
Noise Factor (f) = (S/N)
i
/ (S/N)
o
Noise Figure (NF) = 10 log ( f )
Note: Signal and Noise are in Power Unit
dBr
It is relative level of signal at any point with respect to
reference point
It would be algebraic sum of gains and losses
between that point and reference point
It is convenient to express signal level in terms of
corresponding level at reference point:

dBmO = dBm (Absolute level) dBr (Reference level)
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dBr

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2 to 4 Wire Conversion
Telephone sets are 4 wire devices i.e. 2 wires for
microphone and two wires for ear phone but
extension of 4 wires from subscriber to exchange is
not cost effective solution therefore 2 wires are used
The connection between exchanges is 4 wire as all
the repeaters are unidirectional
If any 2-wire full duplex analogue line requires
amplification, this can only be done after separating
the send and transmit pairs
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We need a device for conversion of 4 wires signals to
2 wire and vice versa
A Hybrid Transformer is used to convert a 2-wire
circuit to a 4-wire system
Hybrid provides isolation between send and receive
path
Basically, a power splitter


2-wires 2-wires Hybrid Hybrid
Amplifier or Regenerator
2-wires 2-wires
receive transmit
Amplifier
2-wires 2-wires
receive transmit
Hybrid
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Hybrid
If a single amplifier were used, one direction
would be blocked
With two amplifiers but no hybrid, the amplifiers
would simply oscillate known as singing, wiping
out all communications
Hybrid is a transformer with four separate
windings
One is used for 4 wire transmit path
One is used by 4 wire receive path
One is used for 2 wire side
One is used for balancing circuit which is used
for balancing the 2 wire line impedance

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Balance Network (Z
B
)
2-W Line (Z
Line
)
4-wire portion
Send Amplifier
Receive Amplifier
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Working of Hybrid
Output from receive amplifier causes equal voltage to
be induced in secondary windings of T1
Matching NW winding are connected in opposite
Thus equal but opposite current flows in secondary of
T2
If impedance is exactly matched then nothing will be
coupled to transmit path
Input power has been equally shared by 2-wire and
matching NW i.e. 3 db loss has occurred
Once signal is applied from 2 wire side again power
will be equally divided between send and receive
amplifier i.e. 3db loss
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2 to 4 Wire Conversion
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2-Wire and 4-Wire
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Echo
If matching NW impedance does not match with
impedance of 2 wire then part of received signal
will be coupled/reflected back to sender through
trans path
This reflected energy is called echo and it can be
classified as :-
Talker echo :- when talker hears his/her own
voice
Listener echo :- when listener hears talkers
voice twice i.e., the second time voice of talker is
the "listener echo" the echo of the talker 's
voice heard by the listener a second time
Talker echo is more troublesome as it is louder

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Total attenuation from one 2-W to the other is:

L
2
= 6 G
4
dB
where, G4 = net gain on one side of 4-W cct (total amp gain total
line loss)
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Echo
Listener Echo
SymptomListener and talker echo sound similar although the signal strength
of listener echo may be lower. The essential difference between them is who
hears the echo and where it is produced. Listener echo is the component of the
talker echo that leaks through the near-end hybrid and returns again to the
listener causing a delayed softer echo. The listener hears the talker twice.
CauseCommon causes are:
Insufficient loss of the echo signal.
Long echo tail.
Echo cancellers in the gateway adjacent to the near-end hybrid not
activating.
Talker Echo
SymptomTalker echo is the signal which leaks in the far-end hybrid and
returns to the sender (talker). The talker hears an echo of his own voice.
CauseCommon causes are:
Insufficient loss of the echo signal.
Echo cancellers in the gateway adjacent to the far-end hybrid not
activating.
Acoustic echo caused by the listener's phone.


Talker Listener
B+6dB
L
2
Talker Echo:
Loss = B + 2L
2
Listener Echo:
Loss = 2B + 2L
2
Listener/Talker Echo
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Echo Path
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Echo
Attenuation through hybrid transformer from one side of 4-
W circuit to other is called trans-hybrid loss equal to 6 + B
dB
where, B = balance-return loss (BRL), given by


Effect of echo depends on relative echo level and on the
delay
The stronger the echo and the longer the delay, the more
troublesome the echo
The echo can be controlled by
Adding loss on 4 wire side
Improving hybrid return loss
Reducing gain of amplifiers
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dB
Z N
Z N
B

10
log 20
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Echo
There is a limit to which the loss of connection can be
increased
Increasing further loss will decrease loudness of
signal
Maximum value set for this is normally 40 ms
Return trip delay (ms)
Loss (dB)
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Echo
For longer circuits echo suppressors or echo cancellers
are used
Echo suppressor
consists of a voice-operated attenuator,
is fitted in one path of 4 wire & is operated by speech signals of
other side
whenever speech transmitted in one direction, txn in opposite
direction is attenuated, thus interrupting the echo path
one such suppressor (half echo suppressor) at each end of the
cct
Echo canceller
echo canceller employs a digital adaptive filter to set up a
model or characterization of the voice signal
As a voice path passes back through the cancellation system,
the echo canceller compares the signal and the model to cancel
existing echo dynamically 63
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Sidetone
the name given to an effect on 2-wire system (e.g.
basic analogue telephones) where the speaker hears
his own voice in his own earphone while speaking.
Too little sidetone can make speakers think their
telephone is dead, but too much leads them to lower
their voices.
Anti-sidetone circuit is normally incorporated into the
telephone circuitry to control the level of sidetone.
ITU-T recommends sidetone reference equivalents of at
least 17 dB.
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Singing
If both paths of 4-wire circuit are connected directly to
the 2-wire circuit at each end, a signal can circulate
round the complete loop thus created. This will
results in continuous oscillation, known as singing,
unless the sum of the gains in the two direction were
less than zero. To avoid this a transhybrid
transformer (4-wire/2-wire terminating set) is used.
Stability: (related to singing)
-singing path loss Ls=2(B+L2)
-Condition of stability Ls>0
Stability
If the balance return loss is small and gains of
amplifiers are high then net gain may exceed 0 and
singing will occur
Singing can be regarded as excessive echo
Reflection
(Z
B
Z
L
)
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Stability
The net loss of singing path L
s
= 2 (B + L
2
) where B is
balance return loss due to reflection at hybrid and L
2
is
sum of losses between 2-W to 2-W
Thus singing path loss equals
Balance return loss
Sum of 2W to 2W loses in both direction
Stability condition: Ls > 0 , B + L
2
>0 ,G
2
< B (where G
2
= -
L
2
)
Singing point defines maximum gain w/o singing = B
Stability margin defines maximum amount of additional
gain that can be introduced on both sides w/o causing
singing i.e. Ls-2M = 0. Hence M = B + L
2

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Telephone Channel Capacity

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Voice Channel
0-4,000 Hz
Frequency (Hertz)
Voice Bandwidth 300-3,300 Hz
Guard
Band
Guard
Band
0 300 3,300 4,000
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

CO Connectivity
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CO
CO
CO
CO
Hierarchical
Direct Connect
2nd Parallel
Hierarchical
TO
TO
Minimum of two
diverse routes out
of Central Office.
POTS Connectivity
Small Cities have a CO
Big Cities have COs
Hierarchical system, add
High Usage Direct Lines between COs
Tandem (Trunk-to-Trunk) Switches
Minimum of two physically separate routes out of all
switches desired
Best compromise of cost & reliability
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POTS
Items in a typical phone:
microphone & speaker
hybrid
dialing circuitry (DTMF)
on/off hook switch
ring circuitry
Items in a typical CO:
crosspoint switch
hybrids
A/D & D/A converters
echo cancellers
TDM
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Home Phone
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Speaker
Microphone
Hybrid
Dialing
Circuitry
Ring
Circuitry
Wall
Socket
Off
Hook
On
Hook
4 Wire
2 Wire
Home Phone
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Speaker
Microphone
Hybrid
Dialing
Circuitry
Ring
Circuitry
Wall
Socket
Off
Hook
On
Hook
4 Wire
2 Wire
Inbound Audio
Home Phone
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Speaker
Microphone
Hybrid
Dialing
Circuitry
Ring
Circuitry
Wall
Socket
Off
Hook
On
Hook
4 Wire
2 Wire
Sidetone
Outbound
Audio
One Wire
To get audio out of speaker, need a voltage drop across the speaker
inputs
Need two 'wires' to get a voltage drop across a speaker
one wire can be an actual wire
second 'wire' can be the earth
Very Susceptible to static
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Speaker Microphone
Earth Ground
Two Wires
Resistant to static
Susceptible to interference over long distances
Twisting the wires slashes interference
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Speaker
Microphone
Two Wires
Hybrids allow Telco Two Wire lines to carry both
outbound and inbound traffic
short distances
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Speaker
Hybrid
Hybrid
Four Wires
Easier to amplify traffic moving one direction
Telco Four Wire lines
2, one-way, 2 wire connections
Long distance
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Speaker Microphone
Speaker Microphone
Amp
Amp
POTS Connectivity (1920)
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Phone Phone
CO CO
Copper
Local
Loop
Copper
Local
Loop
4 Wire 4 Wire 2 Wire 2 Wire
Analog
Copper
Long
Haul
4 Wire
POTS Connectivity (1970)
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Phone Phone
CO CO
Copper
Local
Loop
Copper
Local
Loop
4 Wire 4 Wire 2 Wire 2 Wire
Copper
Long
Haul
4 Wire
Analog Analog
Digital TDM
64 Kbps
POTS Connectivity (1990)
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Phone Phone
CO CO
Fiber
Optic
Trunk
Copper
Local
Loop
Copper
Local
Loop
4 Wire 4 Wire 2 Wire 2 Wire 4 Wire
Analog Analog
Digital TDM
64 Kbps
Simplified Central Office Switch
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Space
Switch
L
o
c
a
l

L
o
o
p
s

Hybrid
Echo
Canceler
A/D
D/A
TDM
Mux

TDM
deMux

+
T1 Line 2 Wire
4 Wire
Analog Digital
Simplified CO-to-CO connectivity
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Space
Switch
L
o
c
a
l

L
o
o
p
s

Hybrid
Echo
Canceler
A/D
D/A
TDM
Mux

TDM
deMux

+
Space
Switch
L
o
c
a
l

L
o
o
p
s

Hybrid
Echo
Canceler
A/D
D/A
TDM
Mux

TDM
deMux

+
Parts are 4 wire (headset and long haul)
4 wire = two unidirectional signals
unidirectional signals make amplification a lot easier
Parts are 2 wire (local loop)
2 wire = one bi-directional signal
Turn-of-the-century decision to save $$$ and go 2 wire on local loops
Parts are analog (phone & local loop)
About 80% of U.S. Local Loops are copper all-the-way
Parts are digital
(long haul, many CO switches, some local loops)
About 20% of U.S. Local Loops use ISDN or Digital Loop Carriers
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The phone system...
The phone system...
4 Wire to 2 Wire Conversion at Central
Office Hybrids can cause some problems
Singing (Cure: Attenuation)
Echoes (Cure: Echo Canceler)
Analog to Digital Conversion points also cause some problems
CO Switch filters on analog voice lines, necessary to limit noise and
interference on voice circuits, limit modem data speeds to about 33
Kbps
Trend is to an all-digital system
U.S. long haul POTS voice circuits use digital Time Division
Multiplexing
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PC Modems & POTS
Band Pass Filter suppresses energy outside voice
bandwidth (500 - 3,500 Hz)
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Band Pass
Filter
(.5 - 3.5 KHz)
Sampler
F
s
= 8 KHz
Twisted
Pair Cable
Quantize
256 levels
Code
8 bits/sample
64 Kbps
A/D Converter
PC Modems & POTS
PC Bit Stream has a significant amount of energy
below 0.5 KHz
Modems shift the energy into the pass band of the
filter
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A/D Converter
PC
Quantize
256 levels
Code
8 bits/sample
64 Kbps
Band Pass
Filter
(.5 - 3.5 KHz)
Sampler
F
s
= 8 KHz
Twisted
Pair Cable