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Synchronous Machine

The stator is similar in construction that of a induction motor

The rotor can be Salient or Non-Salient (cylindrical rotor)

Field excitation is provided on the rotor by either permanent or

electromagnets with number of poles equal to the poles of the

RMF caused by stator

Non-excited rotors are also possible as in case of reluctance motors

synchronousmachine

Synchronous Machine Construction

(a)CRSM (b) SPSM

synchronousmachine

Concept of synchronous reactance (1)

Like dc machines synchronous machines will also have armature

reaction. However unlike dc machine we do not like to eliminate

it, but try to use it to our benefit.

Essentially, this armature reaction will determine how much

power can be transferred to or from the synchronous machine and

limits the current that is flowing in the synchronous machine and

hence provides inherent short-circuit protection: a great boon

when we are talking about zillions of megawatts of power flow!

synchronousmachine

Concept of synchronous reactance (2)

Suppose we short-circuit a synchronous generator with the field

circuit excited. By Faradays law an emf will be induced in the

stator (armature) which by Lenzs law has to oppose the original

field on the rotor. It means the resulting armature reaction will

induce an opposing emf to the one produced by the main field.

One way to represent this is the following circuit where X

ar

conjures up the effect of armature reaction. This can be proved

as follows: Suppose the original field flux is

f

=

m

cost.

By Fardays and Lenzs law this would produce a voltage

E

f

= E

m

sint. This voltage produce a current and hence flux that

opposes

f,

under short-circuit.

This current then has to of the form

I

sc

=-I

m

cost. Clearly E

f

/jX

ar

= E

m

sint/jX

ar

would give such a current.

synchronousmachine

Equivalent circuit of CRSM (1)

Generator (Appx.)

Motor(Appx.)

Generator (Exact)

Motor(Exact)

Only difference is in current direction; in a generator it flows

out of it, in case of a motor it flows into it.

Machine

Machine

Machine

Machine

synchronousmachine

Equivalent circuit of CRSM (2)

Machine

Machine

X

s

=X

ar

+X

al

(Synchronous reactance)

Z

s

= R

a

+jX

s

(Synchronous impedance)

X

al

is leakage Reactance

R

a

is armature resistance

Generator (Exact)

Motor(Exact)

synchronousmachine

Phasor diagram of CRSM

Note: is +ve for (a) generator and ve for (b) motor

synchronousmachine

Derivation of power equation for CRSM

on the green board

synchronousmachine

Effect of Load Change (Field constant)

Note: E

r

same as E

f

V

a

same as V

t

R

a

has been neglected

synchronousmachine

Effect of Field Change (Load constant)

Question: 1)Why is the loci of stator current and excitation voltage

moves on a straight line?

2) What is happening to power factor as field is changed?

Note: E

r

same as E

f

V

a

same as V

t

R

a

has been neglected

synchronousmachine

V curves

synchronousmachine

Effect of Field Change (Load constant)

for a generator

V

t

E

f1

jI

a1

X

s

jI

a2

X

s

E

f2

I

a1

I

a2

a Power

a Power

synchronousmachine

Conclusion for effect for field change with

constant load on power factor

For motor with increased (decreased)excitation power factor becomes

leading (lagging)

For generator with increased (decreased) excitation power factor

becomes lagging (leading)

Unloaded overexcited synchronous motors are sometimes used

to improve power factor. They are known as synchronous condensers

synchronousmachine

Torque versus Electrical Load Angle

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Delta(Radians)

N

o

r

m

a

l

i

z

e

d

T

o

r

q

u

e

,

P

o

w

e

r

Generator

Motor

Tmax,Pmax

synchronousmachine

Torque versus Speed

synchronousmachine

Example 1

A six-pole 60 Hz synchronous motor is operating with a developed

power of 5 hp and a torque angle of 5

o

. Find the speed and developed

torque. Suppose that the load increases such that the developed torque

doubles. Find the new torque angle. Find the pull-out torque and

maximum developed power for this machine.

synchronousmachine

Example 2

An eight-pole, 240 V-rms, 60 Hz, delta connected synchronous motor

operates with a constant developed power of 50 hp and a torque angle

of 15

o

and unity power factor. Suppose the field current is increased

by 20%. Find the new torque angle and power factor. Is the new power

factor lagging or leading? Assume linear magnetic characteristics.

synchronousmachine

SPSM and the concept of Direct and

Quadrature Axes

Since in the salient pole machine the reluctance of the machine

varies with the position of the pole, flux due to armature reaction

varies with power factor. Thus X

ar

alone is no longer sufficient

for the equivalent circuit.

Reluctance is minimum along polar (direct) axis. Hence component

of the armature reaction acting along this axis produce maximum flux.

Let this component be

ad

.

Reluctance is maximum along the inter-polar (quadrature )axis.

Hence the component of the armature reaction acting along this axis

produce minimum flux. Let this component be

aq

.

synchronousmachine

SPSM and the concept of Direct and

Quadrature Axes (2)

X

d

=X

ad

+X

al

=(d)irect axis synchronous reactance)

X

q

=X

aq

+X

al

= (q)uadrature axis synchronous reactance)

X

ad

= d(irect) axis armature reactance =L

ad

X

aq

= (q)uadrature axis armature reactance=L

aq

X

al

= leakage reactance

ad

=L

ad

I

d

aq

=L

aq

I

q

I

d

= d(irect) axis component of the armature current

I

q

= (q)uadrature axis component of the armature current

I

a

=I

q

jI

d

synchronousmachine

Explaining d-q axes using diagrams

synchronousmachine

Equivalent circuits of SPSM

synchronousmachine

Power Angle Characteristics of SPSM

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