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BASICS CONCEPTS OF PERMUTATIONS AND

COMBINATIONS


Jatinder Singh
Assistant Professor
Department of Mathematics,
S.B.S.B.M.University College, Sardulgarh,
Mansa.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNTING
(a) Addition Principle :- If a collection of things can be separated into m
different types, and if other collection can be separated into different n
types, then there are m + n different types in all.
(b) Multiplication Principle :- If a collection of things can be separated
into m different types, and if each of these types can be separated into k
different subtypes, then there are m×n different types in all.
These two Principles can be extended to different types

1
,
2
,
3
,…….,

Examples :- 1) If a student goes to stationary shop and demand for pens and
pencils and ask the shopkeeper the he will choose either one pencil or one
pen as per his interest. The shopkeeper shows the four varities of pens and
three varities of pencils. In how many ways he can made his selection? The
answer is he has to choose one pen or one pencil. So there are total 4 + 3 = 7
ways according to addition principle.
.

2) If the same student goes to stationary shop and demand for pens and
pencils and ask the shopkeeper the he will choose one pencil and one pen as
per his interest. The shopkeeper shows the four varities of pens and three
varities of pencils. In how many ways he can made his selection? The answer
is he has to choose one pen and one pencil. Then the total possibilities are :-
If
1

2

3

4
are the varities of pens and
1

2

3
are varities of pencils

1

1
,
1

2
,
1

3

2

1
,
2

2
,
2

3

3

1
,
3

2
,
3

3

4

1
,
4

2
,
4

3

Therefore there are 4×3 = 12 ways according to multiplication principle
PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS
Permutation :- A permutation is an arrangement in a definite order of a
number of objects taken some or all at a time.
Combination :- A combiination is group of a number of objects taken some or
all at a time.

Find the number of different 8-letter arrangements that can be made from
the letters of the word DAUGHTER so that
(i) all vowels occur together (ii) all vowels do not occur together.
(i) There are 8 different letters in the word DAUGHTER, in which there are 3
vowels, A, U and E. Since the vowels have to occur together,so we assume
them as a single object (AUE). This single object together with 5 remaining
letters (objects) will be counted as 6 objects. Then we count permutations of
these 6 objects taken all at a time. This number is P(6,6) = 6!. Corresponding
to each of these permutations, we shall have P(3,3) = 3! permutations of the
three vowels A, U, E taken all at a time . Hence, by the multiplication principle
the required number of permutations = 6 ! × 3 ! = 4320.
(ii) If we have to count those permutations in which all vowels are never
together, we first have to find all possible arrangments of 8 letters taken all at
a time, which can be done in P(8,8) = 8! ways. Then, we have to subtract from
this number, the number of permutations in which the vowels are always
together.
Therefore, the required number 8 ! – 6 ! × 3 ! = 36000.

Example :- A committee of 3 persons is to be constituted from a group of 2
men and 3 women. In how many ways can this be done? How many of these
committees would consist of 1 man and 2 women?
Here, order does not matter. Therefore, we need to count combinations.
There will be as many committees as there are combinations of 5 different
persons
taken 3 at a time. Hence, the required number of ways = C(5,3) = 10.
Now, 1 man can be selected from 2 men in C(2,1) = 2 ways and 2 women can
be
selected from 3 women in C(3,2) = 3 ways.
Therefore, the required number of committees = 2 ×3 = 6.

Consider the example :-
How many 4 letter words can be made from letters of word MATHEMATICS ?
Here letters are not distinct so P(11,4) or C(11,4) cannot be used directly. Let
us try to solve it.
In this problem firstly we will select the letters than arranged them.
In above word there are (MM) , (AA) , (TT) , H , E , I , C , S than following cases
arises :-
Case (i) :- all four letters are distinct.
There are 8 distinct letters M , A , T , H , E , I , C , S. selection can be made by
C(8,4) = 70 ways. Further these can be arranged in themselves in 4! ways.
Therefore total words formed = 70 × 4! = 1680.

Case (ii) :- two same and two are distinct.
Same can be selected from any of (MM) , (AA) , (TT) in C(3,1) = 3 ways.
If one is selected say M than distinct letters will be 7 in number
i.e. A , T , H , E , I , C , S in this case and we are to select two letters because
two are already selected. Therefore selection can be made in C(7,2) = 21 ways
And total selection is made in 21 × 3 = 63 ways. Further these can be
arranged in
4!
2!
= 12 ways as two letters are same. Therefore total words
formed = 63 × 12 = 756.
Case (iii) :- two same of first kind and two same of second kind.
Same can be selected from (MM) , (AA) , (TT) in C(3,2) = 3 ways. Further these
can be arranged in
4!
2!2!
= 6 ways . therefore total words formed = 6×3 = 18
Therefore overall letters formed = 1680 + 756 + 18 = 2454.
THANKS