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The Muscular System

B. Pimentel, M.D.
University of Makati – College of Nursing
Functions

Movement – skeletal muscle contractions move the body as a whole or
in parts.

Heat production – muscle cells are numerous and very active, this
results in catabolism producing the majority of heat.

Posture – maintaining body positions such as standing and sitting erect
MAJOR PROPERTIES OF MUSCLE

1. Excitability – ability to be stimulated

2. Contractility – ability to contract or shorten and produce body
movement

3. Extensibility – ability to extend or stretch muscles to their original
length

4. Elasticity – ability to recoil to its original length.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLE TISSUE

TYPES SKELETAL CARDIAC SMOOTH
PRINCIPAL Skeletal Wall of heart   Walls of
LOCATION muscle groupsINVOLUNTARY many hollow
organs

PRINCIPAL Movement ofPumping ofMovement in
FUNCTION bone, heatblood walls of hollow
production, organs
posture
TYPE VOLUNTARY INVOLUNTARY INVOLUNTARY
OF CONTROL
STRUCTURE

Epimysium (facia) – connective tissue sheath, which surrounds each
skeletal muscle
Perimysium – loose connective tissue, which surrounds muscle fiber
bundles
Endomysium – surrounds each muscle fiber
Sarcoplasm – myofibril cytoplasm.
Myofibril – protein fibers that extend from one end of the muscle fiber
to another. Actin and Myosin myofilaments.
STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE

Sarcolemma – plasma membrane of the myofibril
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum – a network of tubules and sacs that is similar
but not identical to E.R.
T-tubules – extend transversely across the sarcoplasm at right angles
to the long axis of the cell. Separate from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Triad – a triplet of tubules with a T-tubule sandwiched between two
sarcoplasmic reticulums. Allows electrical impulse to travel along a
T-tubule to stimulate membranes of adjacent sacs of the sarcoplasmic
reticulum.
STRUCTURE
Membrane Potentials
Resting Membrane Potential

The intracellular surface of the sarcoplasm is negatively charged
compared with that of the extracellular surface of the sarcoplasm.
 Intracellular [K+] is higher vs. extracellular [K+]
 The cell membrane is more permeable to [K+]

Positively charged potassium ions readily diffuse across the membrane
from intra to extracellular spaces, resulting in a –70 to –90 millivolts.
Membrane Potentials
Resting Membrane Potential

Equilibrium is achieved when the tendency of K+ to diffuse is opposed
 The increasing intracellular negative charge
 Shift of K+ concentration gradient
Action Potential
Depolarization

Occurs when the intracellular membrane becomes less negative than
the extracellular membrane.

Gated sodium channels open when the cell is stimulated. This allows
positive sodium ions to diffuse into the cell. Making the intracellular
space less negative.

Once the intracellular membrane becomes positive the gated sodium
ion channels close.
Action Potential
Depolarization
Action Potential
Depolarization
Action Potential
Depolarization
Action Potential
Repolarization

Begins as soon as the sodium ion channels close.

Thus the movement of sodium into the cell ceases and gated potassium
channels open begins moving potassium out of the cell.

The potassium gated channels close when the resting membrane
potential is reached.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

Motor neurons – nerve cells along which action potentials travel to
stimulate muscle fibers

Neuromuscular junction (synapse) – motor neuron axons and its
branches innervating the muscle fibers

Presynaptic terminal – axon terminal that contains synaptic vesicles
containing acetylcholine.

Synaptic cleft – space between pre and post synapse.

Postsynaptic terminal – sarcoplasm membrane opposite the presynaptic
terminal or motor end plate.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
Function of Neuromuscular Junction

1. Action potential arrives at presynaptic terminal, increasing the
permeability of calcium.

2. Calcium enters the presynaptic terminal and initiates the release of
acetylcholine (Ach).

3. Diffusion of Ach across the synaptic cleft and binding to receptor sites
on the motor end plate, causing an increase of sodium permeability of
the sarcoplasm.

4. Resulting in depolarization; once the threshold has been reached an
action potential begins.

5. Ach is broken down by acetylcholinesterase
MUSCLE CONTRACTION

Occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another
Sarcomeres shorten
 Extends from one Z line to another.
 Z line – filamentous network of protein forming a disk like structure for the
attachment of actin myofilaments anchoring them in place.

 I band – from one side of the Z disk to the other. Consists of only actin fibers.

 A band – extends the length of the myosin filaments within a sarcomere the
actin and myosin filaments overlap at both ends of the A band.

 H zone – center of each A band, smaller. Only myosin filaments present.

 M line – is in the middle of the H zone, consists of delicate fibers that attach to
the center of myosin filaments, anchoring them
The Sarcomere
MUSCLE CONTRACTION (The Sliding Filament Model)

Muscle contraction that results in the shortening of the sarcomere
without changing the length of the actin and myosin filaments.

Muscle contracts when myosin crossbridges attach to actin and the
molecule bends
MUSCLE CONTRACTION (The Sliding Filament Model)
What happens when muscle contracts?

The Z lines move closer together

The I band becomes shorter

The A band stays at the same length
Action Potential, Neuromuscular Junction and the Sarcomere
Excitation and Contraction

Nerve impulse → the motor end plate → release of the neurotransmitter
(acetylcholine) → binds to receptors on the motor end plate of the
muscle → initiates an impulse that travels along the sarcolemma,
through the T tubule, to sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum →
calcium is released into the sarcoplasm → it binds to troponin
molecules on the actin filaments → tropomyosin moves to expose
myosin attachment sites on the actin myofilaments → a cross bridge
is formed between when the head of the myosin bind with the actin
myofilaments
Action Potential, Neuromuscular Junction and the Sarcomere
Excitation and Contraction
Action Potential, Neuromuscular Junction and the Sarcomere
Excitation and Contraction

During contraction ATP is broken down to ADP to produce energy to
pull the thin filaments toward the center of each sarcomere

This cycle repeats several times per second, as long as ATP is present
Action Potential, Neuromuscular Junction and the Sarcomere
Excitation and Contraction
Muscle Relaxation
After the impulse is over, the sarcoplasmic reticulum begins actively pumping
calcium back into sacs.

As calcium is stripped from troponin molecules in the actin (thin) filaments,
tropomyosin returns to its position, blocking the active sites of the actin filaments.

Myosin cross bridges are prevented from binding to actin and thus can no longer
sustain contraction.

Since the thick and thin myofilaments are no longer connected, the muscle fiber
returns to its resting length
Muscle Twitch, Summation, Tetanus and Recruitment

Muscle Twitch
Contraction of a muscle in response to a stimulus that
causes an action potential in one or more muscle fibers
 Lag or Latent Phase – the time period between the stimulus of the
motor neuron and the beginning of contraction.
 Stimulus
 Action potential along the axon of the motor neuron
 Release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminal
 Opening of Na channels
 Release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
 Ca binds to troponin
 Tropomyosin exposes myosin binding sites
 Cross bridge formation
Muscle Twitch, Summation, Tetanus and Recruitment
 Contraction Phase – contraction of the muscle
 Cross bridge movement and cycling
 Increase the tension produced by the muscle fibers

 Relaxation Phase – relaxation of the muscle
 Ca diffuses away from the troponin molecules
 Ca is actively transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
 Tropomyosin blocks the myosin binding sites
 Inhibition of cross bridge formation
 Tension decreases
Muscle Twitch, Summation, Tetanus and Recruitment

Summation
Increasing the force of contraction of the muscle fibers within the
muscle

Rapid stimulation

 As the frequency of action potentials increases the frequency of
contraction increases.
Muscle Twitch, Summation, Tetanus and Recruitment

 Incomplete Tetanus – muscle fibers partially relax between
contractions.
 Tetanus – action potentials are produced so quickly that there is no
relaxation.

Build up of Ca in the myofibrils

Ca is released at a higher rate from the sarcoplasmic reticulum that its
uptake
Muscle Twitch, Summation, Tetanus and Recruitment

Recruitment
Increases the number of muscle fibers contacting

 As the number of motor units stimulated increases, the more muscle fibers
are stimulated to contract
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

ATP is the immediate energy source of muscle. It must be synthesized
continuously to sustain muscle contraction.

Creatine Phosphate – resting conditions, energy from aerobic respiration is used
to synthesize creatine phosphate.

 This accumulates in the cell and functions to store energy to synthesize ATP.

 Creatine phosphate stores are quickly depleted during intense muscular
contractions. Sustains maximum contraction for 8 to 10 seconds.
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic
Anaerobic Respiration – absence of Aerobic Respiration – requires oxygen
oxygen breakdown of glucose to and breaks down glucose to
produce 2 ATP molecules and produce ATP, Carbon dioxide, and
lactic acid water.
 Occurs in the mitochondria
 Occurs in the cytoplasm of  Net gain of 38 ATP molecules
cells
per glucose molecule.
 Less efficient than aerobic  Can utilize fatty acids and
respiration but quicker
synthesis of ATP. amino acids to generate ATP
 Used for short periods of
intense exercise, such as
sprinting provides up to 3
minutes of energy.
OXYGEN DEBT/EXCESS

After intense exercise, the rate of aerobic metabolism remains elevated
for a time. The oxygen taken in the body is above that needed for
resting metabolism

This reestablishes ATP and creatine phosphate levels in muscle fibers.
FATIGUE

Psychological fatigue
 Most common type of fatigue

Muscle Fatigue
 ATP is utilized faster than it is produced

 Lactic acid build up

 Force of contractions become weaker
TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
1. Isometric contraction – length of the muscle does not change, but
the tension increases during contraction process. Postural muscles.

2. Isotonic contraction – the amount of tension produced by the
muscle remains constant but the length of the muscle changes.
Voluntary movements.

3. Concentric contractions – isotonic contractions in which muscle
tension increases as the muscle shortens

4. Eccentric contractions – isotonic contractions in which tension is
maintained as the muscle lengthens
TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBERS
Fast and Slow Twitch Fibers

Fast Twitch – low oxidative muscle fibers, respond rapidly to stimuli and
contain myosin molecules that break down ATP more rapidly than
slow twitch.
 Less developed blood supply

 Few myoglobin

 Fewer and smaller mitochondria

 Large stores of glycogen and are well adapted to anaerobic

respiration
 Fatigue occurs quickly
TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBERS
Fast and Slow Twitch Fibers

Slow Twitch – high oxidative muscle fibers. Contract slower as
compared with fast twitch.
 Better developed blood supply

 More mitochondria

 More fatigue resistant

 Aerobic respiration

 Contain large amounts of myoglobin
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Terminologies

Tendon – connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Aponeurosis – a very broad, sheetlike tendon.
Origin – the end of the muscle attached to a fixed or usually proximal
segment.
Insertion – end of the muscle where the attachment to the bone moves.
Agonist – a muscle causing an action during contraction.
Antagonist – a muscle working in opposite direction to an agonist. (i.e.
triceps muscle working against the biceps).
Synergists – muscles that work together to cause a movement.
Prime Mover – one muscle of a synergist group that plays the major role.
Fixator – muscles that stabilize the joints that the muscle
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Nomenclature

Muscles can be named according to their location, size, shape, orientation,
origin and insertion, number of heads, and or function.
Location – pectoralis (chest), gluteus (buttock), and brachial (arm) are a
few examples of name by location.

Size – maximus (large), minimus (small), longus (long) brevis (short).

Shape – deltoid (triangle), quadratus (quadrangle)

Orientation – fascicular orientation, rectus (straight), and oblique.
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Nomenclature

Origin and Insertion – sternocleidomastoid muscle is named for its
origin and insertion.

Number of Heads – biceps (2 heads), triceps (3 heads).

Function – abductor muscle moves bone away from midline,
adductor moves a bone towards the midline, flexor, extensor…
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles of the Head

Facial Expressions
Occipitofrontalis – raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi – closes the eyelids; “crows feet”
Orbicularis oris – pucker the mouth
Buccinator – whistling
Zygomaticus – smiling
Levator labii superioris – sneer
Depressor anguli oris – frowns and pouting
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles of the Neck

Neck Flexion Muscles
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin - manubrium and medial clavicle
Insertion - mastoid process
Action - flexion of head and neck, rotation, and lateral flexion
Palpation - anterolateral side of neck

Rectus capitis anterior, Rectus capitis lateralis, Longus capitis, Longus
colli, 8 pair of hyoid muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles of the Neck

Neck Extension Muscles
Trapezius – extends the head and neck

Splenius capitis (O- vertebral processes, I - occipital bone), Semispinalis
capitis, Splenius cervicis, Rectus capitis posterior major and minor,
Obliquus capitis superior and inferior

Neck Lateral Flexion Muscles
Sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, scalenus anterior, cervical flexors,
cervical extensors
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles of the Neck
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles Moving the Vertebral Column

Trunk Extension Muscles
Erector spinae
1. Iliocostalis
2. Longissimus
3. Spinalis

Deep back muscles – extension,
lateral flexion and rotation of
the vertebral column
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Muscles Moving the Vertebral Column

Trunk Flexion Muscles
1. Rectus Abdominis (parallel to midline)
Origin - crest of pubis
Insertion - cartilage 5,6,7 ribs and xiphoiud process

2. Internal Obliques (high medial to low lateral)
Origin - external surface of lower 8 ribs
Insertion - linea alba
3. External Obliques (high lateral to low medial)
Origin - linea alba and lower 4 ribs
Insertion - iliac crest, lumbordorsal fascia
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Thoracic Muscles

Thoracic Muscles

External intercostals – elevate the ribs
Internal intercostals – depresses the ribs; contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm – major muscle in normal respiration
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Thoracic Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Abdominal Wall Muscles

Linea alba – located midline the abdomen; it is composed of connective
tissue
Rectus abdominis – laterally on each side of the linea alba
Tendinous intersection – traverses the width of the rectus abdominis

Group of abdominal muscle responsible for flexion, rotation or
compression of abdominal contents
1. External oblique
2. Internal oblique
3. Transversus abdominis
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Abdominal Wall Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles

Arm Movements
Pectoralis major – adducts the arm and flexes the shoulder
Origin - clavicle, ribs, sternum
Insertion - lateral humerus
Latissimus dorsi – medially rotates and adducts the arm; extends the
shoulders
Origin - illium, sacrum, T6-L5
Insertion - anterior humerus
Deltoid – major abductor of the upper limb
Origin - clavicle, scapula, lateral acromian
Insertion - deltoid tuberosity
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles

Rotator cuff muscles
1. Infraspinatus
2. Subscapularis
3. Supraspinatus
4. Teres minor
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles
Rotator cuff muscles
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Palpate

Supraspinatus supraspinous greater tubercle abduction deep to deltoid
fossa
Infraspinatus infraspinous greater tubercle abduction deep to deltoid
fossa horizontal

Teres Minor posteriorly greater tubercle horizontal deep to deltoid
lateral scapula abduction,
external rotation

Subscapularis subscapular fossalesser tubercle internal rotation, deep to deltoid
adduction
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles

Forearm Movements
Triceps brachii – primary extensor
of the elbow
Biceps brachii and Brachialis –
primary flexors of the elbow
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Upper Limb Muscles

Wrist and Finger Movements
Retinaculum – fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexors and
extensors
Flexor carpi – flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi – extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum – flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum – extends the fingers
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Wrist and Finger Movements
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Lower Limb Muscles

Thigh Movements Leg Movements
Iliopsoas – flexes the hip Quadriceps femoris – primary
Tensor Facia Latae – a tense, thick extensors of the knee
band of facia on the lateral side Sartorius – flexes the hip and knee;
of the thigh rotates the thigh laterally
Gluteus maximus – extends the Hamstrings – knee flexors
hip, abducts and laterally
rotates the thigh
Gluteus medius – abducts and
medially rotates the thigh
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Lower Limb Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Lower Limb Muscles
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Lower Limb Muscles

Ankle Movement
Gastrocnemius and Soleus – joins
to form the Achilles tendon or
Calcaneal; plantar flexion of the
foot
SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY
Lower Limb Muscles
Resources
Textbook
Essential of Anatomy & Physiology
 Seeley, Stephens and Tate
Regional Atlas of Human Anatomy
 Clemente
Essentials of Human Anatomy
 Burkel
Textbook of Medical Physiology
 Guyton
Basic Histology
 Junqueira, Carneiro and Kelley

On-line Resources
Wayne State University – Academic Resources Library
University of Minnesota – Hematology Center
Medline PLUS
McGraw-Hill (On-line Resource)
Getbodysmart.com
Redcross.org
Thank You!