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NT 2 Lecture 2

EIGRP

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What is EIGRP?
EIGRP is an advanced distance-vector
routing protocol that relies on features
commonly associated with link-state
protocols.
EIGRP uses Link State's partial updates
and neighbor discovery.
EIGRP's advanced features supports IP,
IPX and AppleTalk.
EIGRP uses RTP (Reliable Transport
Protocol) to transport its routing
updates
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IGRP and EIGRP Metric
Calculation - 1
The composite metric is calculated
with the following formula:

By default, k1=k3=1 and
k2=k4=k5=0. The default composite
metric for EIGRP, adjusted for scaling
factors, is as follows:

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IGRP and EIGRP Metric
Calculation - 2

BWmin is in kbps and the sum of delays are in 10s of
microseconds.
Example
The bandwidth and delay for an Ethernet interface
are 10 Mbps and 1ms, respectively.
The calculated EIGRP BW metric is as follows:
 256 × 107/BW = 256 × 107/10,000
 = 256 × 10000
 = 256000

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Using EIGRP with IGRP

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EIGRP Neighbor Discovery -1

EIGRP routers actively establish relationships with their
neighbors, similar to what Link State routers do.
EIGRP routers establish adjacencies with neighbor routers by
using small hello packets.
The Hello protocol uses a multicast address of 224.0.0.10,
and all routers periodically send hellos.

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EIGRP Neighbor Discovery - 2
On hearing hellos, the router creates a table of
its neighbors.
The continued receipt of these packets
maintains the neighbor table
To become a neighbor, the following
conditions must be met:
 The router must hear a hello packet or an ACK from
a neighbor.
 The AS number in the packet header must be the
same as that of the receiving router.
 The neighbor’s metric settings must be the same.
 Each Layer 3 protocol has its own neighbor table.

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Neighbor Discovery - 3

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Neighbor Discovery - 4
By forming adjacencies, EIGRP
routers do the following:
Dynamically learn of new routes
that join their network
Identify routers that become either
unreachable or inoperable
Rediscover routers that had
previously been unreachable
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EIGRP Timers
EIGRP updates are set only when necessary
and are sent only to neighboring routers.
There is no periodic update timer.
EIGRP use hello packets to learn of
neighboring routes.
The holdtime to maintain a neighbor
adjacency is three times the hello time.
For hello is not received with the holdtime,
the neighbor is removed from the table.

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Default Hello Intervals and
Hold Time for EIGRP

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What is in the Neighbor
Table?

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Dual Terminology - 1
AD (Advertised distance) is the metric that
is reported by the neighbor router(s).
FD (Feasible Distance) – Feasible distance
is the metric that is reported by neighbor
router(s), plus the cost associated with the
forwarding link from the local interface to the
neighbor router(s). When multiple paths
exist, the local FD is the lowest-cost metric to
a remote network.
Feasibility Condition – If the AD from a
given neighbor is less than the locally
calculated FD, that neighbor meets the
criteria to become the feasible successor.
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Dual Terminology - 2
Successor - A successor is a neighboring router that
is currently being used for packet forwarding; it
provides the least-cost route to the destination and
is not part of a routing loop
Feasible successor - A feasible successor is a
backup route. Feasible successors provide the next
lowest-cost path without introducing routing loops.
Feasible successor routes can be used in case the
existing route fails. Packets to the destination
network are immediately forwarded to the feasible
successor, which at that point is promoted to the
status of successor

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EIGRP successors and feasible
successors - 1

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EIGRP successors and feasible
successors - 2

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EIGRP successors and feasible
successors - 3

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Dual Example – 1a

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Dual Example – 1b
In the previous slide, EIGRP's composite metric is
replaced by a link cost to simplify calculations.
RTA's topology table includes a list of all routes
advertised by neighbors.
For each network, RTA keeps the real (computed)
cost of getting to that network and also keeps the
advertised cost (reported distance) from its
neighbor.

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Dual Example – 1c

RTY is the successor to network 24, by
virtue of its lowest computed cost 31. This
value is also the FD to Network 24.
RTA follows a three-step process to select a
feasible successor to become a successor
for Network 24:
 Determine which neighbors have a reported
distance (RD) (=AD) to Network 24 that is less
than 31.
 RTX's RD is 30 < 31, meet FC and is a feasible
successor.
 RTZ's RD is 220 > 31, not meet FC, and cannot
be a FS.

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Dual Example – 2a
(a) Is the Destination Network

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Dual Example – 2b
In this example, (a) is the destination
network,
From C point of view, if it goes to (a) via B,
the FD is 3 and the AD is 1. Others entries
are computed in the same manner.
Note in the example that router D does not
have a feasible successor identified. The FD
for router D to router A is 2 and the AD via
router C is 3. Because the AD is larger than
the FD, no feasible successor is placed in
the topology table.

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Dual Example – 2c

Router C has a feasible successor
identified because the AD for the
next hop router is less than the FD
for the successor.
How about router E?

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EIGRP Convergence - 1
In the context of routing protocols,
convergence refers to the speed and ability of
a group of internetworking devices running a
specific routing protocol to agree on the
topology of an internetwork after a change in
that topology.
DUAL results in EIGRP's exceptionally fast
convergence. Why?
The FS provides the capability to make an
immediate switchover to a backup route!

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EIGRP Convergence - 2

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EIGRP Neighbor Tables
The most important table in EIGRP is the neighbor
table and relationships tracked in the neighbor
table are the basis for all the EIGRP routing update
and convergence activity.
The neighbor table contains information about
adjacent neighboring EIGRP routers.
A neighbor table is used to support reliable,
sequenced delivery of packets.
An EIGRP router can maintain multiple neighbor
tables, one for each PDM running (e.g., IP, IPX, and
AppleTalk) routed protocols.

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EIGRP Packet Types - 1
Hello packets assist in the discovery of
EIGRP neighbors. The packets are multicast
to 224.0.0.10.
An acknowledgment packet
acknowledges the reception of an update
packet. An acknowledgment packet is a
hello packet with no data. Acknowledgment
packets are sent to the unicast address of
the sender of the update packet.

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EIGRP Packet Types - 2
Update packets contain the routing information
of destinations. Update packets are unicast to
newly discovered neighbors; otherwise, update
packets are multicast to 224.0.0.10 when a link
metric changes. Update packets are
acknowledged to ensure reliable transmission.
Query packets are sent to find feasible
successors to a destination. Query packets are
always multicast.

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EIGRP Packet Types - 3
Reply packets are sent to
respond to query packets.
 Reply packets provide a feasible
successor to the sender of the query.
 Reply packets are unicast to the
sender of the query packet.

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EIGRP Topology Table -
1
EIGRP uses its topology table to store all the information
it needs to calculate a set of distances and vectors to all
reachable destinations.
EIGRP maintains a separate topology table for each
routed protocol.
EIGRP sorts the topology table so that the successor
routes are at the top, followed by feasible successors.
Entries in the topology table can be in one of two
states: active or passive.
A passive route is one that is stable and available for
use. An active route is a route in the process of being
recomputed by DUAL.

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EIGRP Topology Table - 2

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EIGRP Routing Table
The routing table contains the routes installed by
DUAL as the best loop-free paths to a given
destination
EIGRP will maintain up to four routes per destination.
These routes can be of equal or unequal cost.
EIGRP routers maintain a separate routing table for
each routed protocol.

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Configuring EIGRP
To enable EIGRP and define the autonomous system: 
router(config)# router eigrp autonomous-system-
number
This statement identifies the locally connected
network that should be advertised to EIGRP
neighbors.
router(config-router)# network network-number
When using serial links, it is important to use the
bandwidth on the interface to change the bandwidth
used for calculating routing metrics. If you do not
change the bandwidth for these interfaces EIGRP
assumes the default bandwidth on the link (?) instead
of the true bandwidth.
router(config-if)# bandwidth kilobits
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EIGR Route Summarization - 1
EIGRP automatically summarizes routes.
The summary routes are advertised at the class A,B,
or C boundaries.
Autosummarization occurs when a router is on the
boundary of different major networks.

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EIGRP Route Summarization - 2
However, if you have discontiguous
subnetworks, auto-summarization must be
disabled for routing to work properly.

In here, even though RTC is connected only
to the subnet 2.1.1.0, it will advertise that it
is connected to the entire Class A network,
2.0.0.0 35
EIGRP Route Summarization - 3
By default, EIGRP’s interfaces do not use VLSM.
To turn off auto-summarization, use the following command:
router(config-router)#no auto-summary

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EIGRP Manual Summarization
-1
EIGRP also enables you to manually
configure a summary routes on any
router a per-interface basis.
You first select the interface that
will propagate the route summary.
Then you can define the summary
address with the ip summary-
address eigrp command.

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EIGRP Manual Summarization
-2

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EIGRP Manual Summarization
-3
When configured, RTC will add a summary
route to its table, as follows:

The benefits of EIGRP manual
summarization:
 support future growth in networks;
 preserve bandwidth and CPU utilization.
 flexibility in where apply summarization.

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Unequal Cost Load Balancing
-1

EIGRP also supports unequal-cost
load balancing.
This is achieved by using the
variance command ( the same as
IGRP we have come across in Lab.)

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Unequal Cost Load Balancing
-2

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Unequal Cost Load Balancing
-3
If the variance command was configured with
a variance (multiplier) of 2; then the best
metric is 10 × 2 = 20.
These paths would all load-balance traffic
from Router F to Network A:
F to D to B = 15
F to C to B = 15
F to C to G = 10
One and a half packets would be sent across
the path F to C to G for every one packet sent
across the other two available paths.

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Recap: EIGRP New Technologies over
IGRP

Neighbor discovery and recovery
Reliable Transport Protocol
Dual Finite State Machine
Protocol specific modules

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Recap: EIGRP Advantages
Rapid convergence
Efficient use of bandwidth
 Partial, bounded updates
 Minimal consumption of bandwidth
when the network is stable
Support for VLSM and CIDR
Multiple network-layer support
Independence from routed protocols

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