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 1G: First Generation cellular - analog.

 2G: Second Generation cellular - digital cellular including TDMA, CDMA, and GSM systems.
Most 2G digital phones are voice only phones, but some offer limited data capability.

 2.5G: Enhanced data rate Second Generation - digital cellular systems with data rates of 28kbps - 384kbps.

 3G: The term 3G refers to third generation wireless networks. These networks offer voice, data transfer, and
multimedia content at rates as high as 2 Mbps.

 GSM: Global System for Mobile communications. GSM is used all over Europe, plus many countries in the
Middle East, Asia, Africa, South America, Australia, and North America. GSM's air interface is based on
narrowband TDMA technology, where available frequency bands are divided into time slots, with each user
having access to one time slot at regular intervals.

 CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access; also known as IS-95. This is one of the newer digital technologies in
use in the US, Canada, Australia, and some southeastern Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and South Korea).
CDMA differs from GSM and TDMA by its use of spread spectrum techniques for transmitting voice or data
over the air. Rather than dividing the radio frequency spectrum into separate user channels by frequency
slices or time slots, spread spectrum technology separates users by assigning them digital codes within the
same broad spectrum. Advantages of CDMA include higher user capacity and immunity from interference by
other signals. Used in either 800 MHz or 1900 MHz frequency bands.

Global System
Mobile Communications
What is Group Special Mobile ?

GSM was designed as a future proof standard, able to
provide users with a range of capabilities. The evolution
began from 1982 when members of 11 telephone
companies of the European Telecommunications body -
CEPT, formed a new standard group.

In 1988, after the signing of the GSM MoU by 17
countries the GSM work was transferred to ETSI, a
standards organisation. Since then the membership of the
GSM MoU has grown to 169 countries (401 Networks)
across the World. 3
Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM is capable of operating at 3 frequency bands: 900MHz, 1800
MHz & 1900 MHz. The last 2 are usually known as DCS1800 &

Bandwidth: 200kHz, time multiplexing over 8 slots with frequency
Voice Codec: 13 kbit/sec
Data bit rates: 9.6 kbits/sec
Short Message Service: 160 Characters maximum message length.
Requires a SIM Card.

Objectives of GSM

• A broad offering of Voice & Data Services
• Compatibility with wireline networks
• Automatic Roaming & handover
• Highly efficient use of frequency spectrum
• Support for different type of mobile terminal equipments
• Supplier independence
• Low costs for Infrastructure & terminal equipment
GSM Architecture

Radio Subsystem Network & Switching Operating
Subsystem Subsystem

Base Station Subsystem AuC






Interfacing with external
networks (eg. PSTN)
MS 6
Radio Subsystem

Comprises of the

- Mobile Station(MS)

- Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

- Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Mobile Station

The term refers to the physical equipment of the user. Comprises
of 2 parts -

• Hardware and software components relating to the
radio interface.

• SIM Card

Each Mobile equipment has a 15 digit International Mobile
Equipment Identity number (IMEI)

Subscriber Identity Module

The SIM Card forms the second part of the MS. The subscriber
related information is stored in a non volatile memory of the
SIM Card. The permanent data includes the-
• Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)
• SIM Type
• IC Card Identification - SIM Serial Number
• SIM Service table
• International Mobile Subscriber Identity Number (IMSI)
• Personal Identification Number (PIN)
• Pin Unlocking Key (PUK)
• Authentication Key (Ki)

Subscriber Identity Module

Once the SIM Card is switched on the following dynamic data is
updated -

• Location Information
• Ciphering Key for encoding
• List of Carrier frequencies for cell selection during
handover and call setup
• List of blocked networks
• Home network search

Base Station Subsystem

The BSS comprises of all radio related functions of the GSM
network. Because of the limited transmitter power of the Base
Transceiver Station, coverage is provided only within a specific
geographical area within the network. Thus radio cells are
created & the entire network id distributed into cells. Hence the
name Cellular Communications was derived.

Base Station Subsystem

Comprises of the

- Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

- Base Station Controller (BSC)

Base Station Subsystem

The BTS comprises of the transmitting and receiving facilities,
including antennas and all the signalling related to the radio
interface. Depending on the type of antenna, the BTS supplies
one or several cells. The antenna are separated from each other
by an angle of 120 degrees.

The BSC is responsible for the management of the radio
interface through the BTS, namely for reservation and release of
radio channels as well as handover management. It also
performs the tasks of Paging and signalling functions.
One BSC generally manages several BTSs and is linked
via the MSC.
Network and Switching Subsystem

Acts as a gateway between the radio network and other networks
like the PSTN etc.

Comprises of the -

- Mobile Switching Center (MSC)

- Home Location Register (HLR)

- Visitor Location Register (VLR)

Mobile Switching Center

The MSC is a high performance digital switching center that
carries out the normal switching tasks and manages the
network. Each MSC is usually allocated several BSCs, and in
the area assigned to it, carries out the switching between mobile
users and other PLMN. It also forms a link between the mobile
radio network and the wireline networks.

The MSC is responsible for all the signalling required for
setting up, terminating and maintaining connections as per the
CCSS7 standard (Roaming).

Home Location Register

The HLR is the store for all important information of each
mobile subscriber. It stores all information including

• Telephone Number •Authentication Key
• IMEI Number • Location area Identifier
• Equipment type
• Subscription basis
• Supplementary services

Each mobile subscriber & his related data are registered only
once in the HLR, in which all billing and administrative tasks
are carried out. There is usually only one HLR in a network.
Visitor Location Register

The VLR manages the subscribers who are currently roaming in
the area under control of the MSC. It stores the information
transmitted by the responsible HLR for users under its area thus
allowing the MSC to establish a connection.

The VLR is also responsible for the allocation of the
MSRN & TIMSI. Location area update and call setup functions
are performed by the HLR & VLR. A special process keeps the
VLR updated of the mobile users movement within the MSC
area or change of MSC. The VLR avoids frequent interrogation
of the HLR.

Operation Subsystem

The functions of the OSS are allocated into 3 areas of

- Subscription Management
- Network Operation and maintenance
- Mobile Equipment Management

OSS Comprises of -

- Operations and Maintenance Center (OMC - S & R)
- Authentication Center (AuC)
- Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
OSS - Subscription Management

Subscription management is able to authenticate a GSM user
from the personal data stored in the HLR and provide him the
agreed services. This data provides the call charging basis.
Subscriber Data is stored & managed in the HLR;
information relating to data security in the AuC.

Call Charging: The mobile radio user is charged for services on
the basis of call-tickets. These are used for billing irrespective of
where the call is made in the network. Billing location can be
the MSC where the user is located or the Gateway MSC, where
the communication is connected to the external network. HLR
stores only call related data. Call billing is handled by the OSS
Subscriber management. Tariff data is transmitted between the
MSC and the HLR over the signalling link. 19

The OMC centrally monitors & controls the network elements
and ensures the best possible service quality for a network.
The management functions of the OMC include
administration of subscribers and equipment, billing, generation
of statistical data on state and capacity utilization of network

OMCS - Looks after the switch related operation & maintenance

OMCR - Looks after the radio network related operation &


The AuC contains all the information required to protect the
subscriber’s identity, his mobile communication against
eavesdropping and his right to use the radio services.

Authentication algorithms and encryption codes are
stored in the AuC, and strict rules apply for the access to this

Equipment Management - EIR

Management of mobile equipment concerns information about
owner and equipment identity. It also coordinates the movement
of the equipment including roaming, handover and paging.

EIR is a central database in which subscriber and
equipment numbers are stored. The database contains a white,
grey and black list. The White list contains all the valid IMEI
numbers, the Black list contains the list of stolen or suspended
IMEI numbers and the Grey list contains the list of IMEI’s of
malfunctioning equipment that is not receiving any services.

Call Connect Procedure

Network to Mobile

Paging Request
Channel Request
Immediate Assignment
Paging Response
Network Mobile
Authentication Response
Connection Acknowledgment

Mobility Management

Network to Mobile

• Allocation of new TIMSI - ensures that identity of
mobile user is kept confidential.
• Authentication - to check whether the identity of the
mobile user is valid.
• Identification - The mobile gets a request from the
network to send an identification parameter -
• IMSI Detach - Removal of IMSI, when SIM is
removed from the mobile or mobile is switched off

Mobility Management

Mobile to Network

• Location Update - Updates registration of the location
of a mobile by transmitting LAI

• Periodic Update

• IMSI Attach - Opposite of Detach, indicating the
availability of the mobile to the network.

Call Setup Procedure

PSTN to Mobile



8 7 2
11 12
9 9
6 1
13 13

Call Setup Procedure

Mobile to PSTN


3 4

1 2
7 6

GSM Services

Bearer Services - Packet Data Network service

Teleservice -
- Basic Telephony (Diverts, Barring, Closed User Group)

- Emergency Calls

- Short Message Service
- Point to Point Mobile terminating
- Point to Point Mobile originating
- Mobile Cell Broadcast

- Facsimile
GSM Services

Supplementary Services -
- Call Forwarding
- Call Holding
- Call Conferencing
- Closed User Group
- Call Barring

Support for Value Added Services

Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD)

Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
(CAMEL) 29
General Packet Radio Service

Topics covered
 1.What is GPRS.
 2.To use users specifically need
 3.Key network features.
 4.Routing
 5.Tariff
 6.Applications
 7.Class of mobile.
 8.Configuration

 What is General Packet Radio Service?
Nonvoice value added service that allows information
to be sent and received across a mobile telephone
network .

Enables data "packets" to be transmitted at high
speed, in the same way as on the Internet.

 What is MMS?
Multi media messaging with which we can send
images,audio and video clips with text messages.

 To use GPRS, users specifically

1. a mobile phone or terminal that supports GPRS
2. a subscription to a mobile telephone network that
supports GPRS
3. knowledge of how to send and/ or receive GPRS
information using their specific model of mobile phone,
including software and hardware configuration
4. a destination to send or receive information through
GPRS .could be a mobile number or an internet address

Features :
1. Speed : 8 kbps.
2. Immediacy : facilitates instant connections
whereby information can be sent or received
immediately as the need arises, subject to radio
coverage. No dial-up modem connection is

Key Network Features
overlaying a packet based air interface on the
existing circuit switched GSM network
 SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY : efficient use of
scarce radio resources i.e large numbers of
GPRS users can potentially share the same
bandwidth and be served from a single cell.
 INTERNET AWARE : enables Mobile Internet
functionality .Services like chat,file transfer,web

  Uplink Downlink
Type  (Sending) (Receiving)

GPRS 14 kbps 28-64 kbps

9.6-14 kbps 9.6-14 kbps

Dial-UP 56 kbps 56 kbps

ISDN 64 kbps 64 kbps

Broadband 2 Mbps 2 Mbps

 Chat
maps or graphs.
 Still images :photographs,greeting cards,
 Moving images :video messages ,movie
previews,video conferencing.
 Web browsing
 Audio : Sending audio clips
 Internet email : User gets notification once a
new mail comes

Class of Mobile
 The class indicates the mobile phone capabilities.
Class A
A mobile phone can be connected to both GPRS and GSM
services simultaneously.

Class B
Mobile phone can be attached to both GPRS and GSM
services, using one service at a time. Class B enables
making or receiving a voice call, or sending/receiving an
SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice calls or SMS,
GPRS services are suspended and then resumed
automatically after the call or SMS session has ended.

Class C
Mobile phone are attached to either GPRS or GSM voice
service. You need to switch manually between services.


 Name based: User can store and view multiple telephone numbers, emails,
URLs and addresses under one name (contact)
- First Name and Last Name replaced Name

 Support of low, mid and high tier phonebook
- Fields per contact and number of contacts vary based on tier

 Sorting and searching
- Multi-letter dynamic search
- Sort by first and last name

 Category support
- Support of picture and ring tone

 Distribution list support (email and messaging)

 Support for separate view of phone and SIM/USIM contacts/categories

 Combined view (VF specific)

 Filter of contacts (both phone memory and SIM/USIM) by email, categories

 Copy of contacts from phone memory to SIM/USIM and vice versa

Features (cont…)
Enhanced Detail View
 - User can scroll through detailed view of the contact form while viewing it

Storing of structured data
 - User has a choice to create new contact or edit existing one when saving information from other applications.

Launching pad for several communication application – Calling, messaging, MMS, email and Browser.

Sharing of contact via IrDa, Bluetooth, MMS and Email

Synchronization of phone memory contacts via SyncML, from inside phonebook

1-touch turbo dial management
 - User can assign up to 9 speed dial (key 1 to 9), operator locked

Voice dial and Voice tag management for Speaker dependant call.

Birthday notification for both in/out call

Video telephony (only for 3G)

Name based
 User can create a single contact with multiple telephone numbers,
emails, URLs and Postal address

 User can view tel nos., emails, URLs and postal
address by horizontal scrolling

Low/mid/high tier
Low Tier Mid Tier High Tier

First Name and Last Name First Name and Last Name First Name and Last Name
Nickname Nickname Nickname
Up to 3 phone numbers Up to 5 phone numbers Up to 7 phone numbers
1 e-mail address Up to 2 e-mail addresses Up to 2 e-mail addresses
1 postal address 1 postal address Up to 2 postal addresses
1 URL Up to 2 URLs
Birthday Notes

Minimum: 500 contacts Minimum: 700 contacts
Minimum: 300 contacts
Maximum: depends on usage, but no more Maximum: depends on usage, but no more
Maximum: depends on usage, but no
than 1500 than 2000
more than 1000

Category, ring tone, picture ID

• Minimum case occurs when every single field in every contact is filled with maximum number
of allowed characters
• Maximum number of contacts depends on usage, thus legacy definition of maximum number of
contacts supported no longer applies. Memory allocation within phonebook is dynamic

Low/mid/high tier (cont…)
SIM Contact USIM Contact
Name Name
1 phone number Nickname
Main Number (without type)
Up to 3 Additional Numbers (with
support for types)
Up to 2 e-mail addresses

Maximum: 254 contacts Maximum: 508 contacts

 Number of contacts, support of additional phone numbers, categories, and e-mail
depends on particular implementation of USIM (standard allows for significant flexibility)

Sorting and searching
User can choose to sort by First Name or Last Name
Display Name concept

– Display Name is what is shown in the Summary View
– Combination of First/Last or Last/First names is Display Name depending on sort
– If user entered Nickname, it automatically becomes Display Name
– If user did not enter name, TRS defines hierarchy of what is displayed

Search is a multi-letter dynamic jump-to algorithm

– Cursor jumps to closest matching contact dynamically adjusting with each letter
– Centered or deleted in the search window
– List is not sub-filtered and is only performed on Display Name
– Search window only appears when search is invoked
– Search can be done within all Summary Views and Pickers

 Acts as grouping mechanism
– Maximum of 10 categories can be stored on phone
– General is mandatory and other default categories are
Business, Personal, VIP
– For 3G, if USIM supports categories, up to 10 are
– Category can be pre-set or user defined
– Category stored on the phone can have a picture ID and
ring tone associated with it
– Individual contact or distribution list can only belong to one
– Categories are managed through “Manage Contacts” ->
“Edit Categories”

 Fields of categories
– Name, members, Ringer ID, Picture ID

Distribution list
 E-mail and message distribution lists are supported

 Used for outgoing communication only

 Each distribution list can be associated with a

 For sort and search purposes, distribution lists are
treated as contacts

 Distribution lists are not synchronized, copied, or

Separate view for phone and
Phone memory
summary view

 Picture and text list

 One line summary view

Combined View

 The feature is flex controlled.

 Setup option

– Option is seen if Combined View is flexed ON

– By default, it is Off

– Selecting Phone & SIM Card option enables the combined

Filter by Email and category
 Filter

– Filtering is possible either via * and # from summary
view or via “Filter” menu

– User can filter by existing categories and contacts with

– Filters are not sticky. Every time phonebook is entered,
default view corresponds to the storage setting

Copy (phone memory <->
• Single, multiple, or all contacts can be selected for copying

• Contact is treated as a whole for copying purposes. Separate pieces of
information associated with a contact cannot be copied individually.
• Copying from phone to SIM
– First Name and Last Name are concatenated according to sort setting
– Multiple numbers associated with the same contact on the phone are copied to
SIM as separate contacts with the same name
• Copying from phone to USIM
– First Name and Last Name are concatenated
– Multiple contacts with the same name are created only when contact stored on
phone has more phone numbers or e-mails than USIM supports
• Copying from SIM to phone
– The name is copied into either first name or last name, depending on sort setting
– Phone numbers with the same name are collected under one number on the
• Copying from USIM to phone
– Types assigned to phone numbers on USIM are transferred to phone when
– A new contact is always created on the phone, even if other contacts with the
same name exist

Detailed View

 Phone contact

 SIM contact
- No picture

 Additional options than
summary view
- Deleting individual entries of the contact

Detailed View (Cont…)

 Detailed view of Distribution lists

 Detailed view of category

Structured data
 Structure data interface

– Add/Replace/Modify
– Stores on NVM/SIM based on Storage device setting
– Supports storing following information
 Phone Numbers (Calling, SMS/MMS/EMAIL,
 Email (SMS/MMS/Email)
 URL (Browser)
 Picture (Camera, Pictures)
 Ring Tones (Audio)

 Quick Form

Launching of
• Phonebook as a launch pad for other communication
– Telephony, messaging, e-mail, browser, post card app and camera can
be launched directly from phonebook
– Single or multiple contacts can be selected to initiate communications
– User can act on highlighted piece of information in summary or detailed

Sharing of Contact

• Contacts can be sent and received via MMS, E-mail, Bluetooth
and IrDa

- Contacts are exchanged as vCards

- Support for single vCard exhange (receive and send)
- Incoming vCards are always stored as new contact, even if another contact
with same Display Name exists
- Selection (pickers) of contacts is optimized to guide the user through the
process and provide information as to what is stored in each contact


• Synchronization via SyncML is supported.

• Synchronization can be launched from phonebook

• Only contacts stored on phone memory can be

1-touch Dial (speed dial)

 Help to quickly access a phone number from
idle screen and initiate a voice call to that
number. It can be achieved by long key press.

 One-touch speed dial assignments shall be
limited to 9 (keys 1 through 9)

 Operator Locked, Operator Flexed and User

Voice Dial
 Speaker dependent
- Voice tag is stored in the

 Speaker independent

Voice Dial (cont…)

 Options

– Edit Voice Dial

– Erase

– Erase All

Incoming and outgoing call
 Picture caller ID for incoming Call (if
picture is assigned to a contact or to
the category it belongs)

 Birthday notification for in/out call

Video telephony
 Video telephony shall only by available on
3G handsets.

 Any telephone number can be made VT

 VT call can be originated by the options or
by a dedicated key.


UI behavior

Status Icon (Memory Full)

Inbox Folder (Messages Full)

UI behavior

Status Icon (Memory Full)

Inbox Folder (Messages Full)

This is a special situation when there
are messages available in the SIM
card. In this case, there were 25
messages available in the SIM card
(999 + 25 messages).

Feature ID Remark
DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_UC This flex bit is used to determine if Single composer to
_AVAILABLE create SMS and MMS messages is available. When the
value is ON, single composition for SMS and MMS-SMIL
will follow. If OFF, then flow sequence as defined for
10427 will be followed and different composers shall
be invoked.
DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_UC This value determines Number of text characters
_SMS_TO_MMS_CHARS_ needed to transition from SMS to MMS message in
BOUNDARY Unified Composer. Range will be 1-765 and the default
value will be 450
DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_SM Sending of Delivery report for outgoing SMS shall be
S_READ_RECEIPT_AVAIL flex controlled and based on the flex value message
ABLE type shall be decided to be SMS or MMS. If Delivery
Report for SMS is Flexed ON then message will be SMS
and if it is flexed off then message will become MMS.

DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_MS Sending of Subject in an outgoing SMS shall be flex
G_SMS_EMS_SUBJECT_A controlled and based on the flex value message type
VAILABLE shall be decided to be SMS or MMS. If Subject for SMS
is Flexed ON then message will be SMS and if it is 65
flexed off then message will become MMS.
Testing Teams – Getting Started
 Sanity Team/Build
 Integration Team
 System Test Team
 Field Test Team
 Interoperability Team

 Thank You