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Newton’s Law

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Newton’s Laws

✦ Newton’s First Law

◆ Law of Inertia

**✦ Newton’s Second Law
**

◆ F = ma

**✦ Newton’s Third Law
**

◆ Action Reaction

✦ Law of Universal

Gravitation Gmm'

F= 2

r

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Mass

✦ …is measured in kilograms.

✦ …is the measure of the inertia of an object.

**✦ Inertia is the natural tendency of a body resist
**

changes in motion.

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Force

✦ …the agency of change.

✦ …changes the velocity.

✦ …is a vector quantity.

✦ ...measured in Newton’s.

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Newton’s First Law

✦ Law of Inertia

**✦ “A body remains at rest or moves in a
**

straight line at a constant speed unless

acted upon by a force.”

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Newton’s First Law

✦ No mention of chemical composition

✦ No mention of terrestrial or celestial

realms

✦ Force required when object changes

motion

✦ Acceleration is the observable

consequence of forces acting

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Newton’s Second Law

The Sum of the Forces acting

on a body is proportional to

the acceleration that the body

experiences

Σ F∝a

Σ F = (mass) a

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F = ma

Net Force ∑ Fx = ma x

∑ Fy = ma y

∑ Fz = ma z

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Newton’s Third Law

✦ Action-Reaction

**✦ For every action force
**

there is an equal and

opposite reaction force

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The Law of Gravity

✦ Every mass exerts a force of attraction on

every other mass.

✦ The math…

Gmm'

F= 2

r

✦G = 6.67 × 10-11 N·m2/kg2

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Gravity Questions

✦ Did the Moon exert a gravitational force on

the Apollo astronauts?

**✦ What kind of objects can exert a
**

gravitational force on other objects?

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Gravity Questions

✦ The constant G is a rather small number.

What kind of objects can exert strong

gravitational forces?

**✦ If the distance between two objects in space is
**

doubled, then what happens to the

gravitational force between them?

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Weight

✦ The weight of an object FW is the

gravitational force acting downward on the

object.

✦ FW = m g

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Tension

(Tensile Force)

**✦ Tension is the force in a string, chain or
**

tendon that is applied tending to stretch it.

✦ FT

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Normal Force

✦ The normal force on an object that is being

supported by a surface is the component of

the supporting force that is perpendicular to

the surface.

✦ FN

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Coefficient of Friction

Kinetic Friction

• Ff = µ k FN

✦ Static Friction

• Ff ≤ µ s FN

✦ In most cases, µ k < µ s.

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