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CELL ORGANELLES

Cell: The structural and functional unit of life (10microM – 0.2microM).
organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is
usually separately enclosed within its own lipid membrane.
Endoplasmic reticulum-first seen by Keith R. Porter, Albert Claude, and
Ernest F. Fullam in 1945
network of tubules, vesicles and sacs (flattened cisternae) that are interconnected.
The Ribosomes sit on the outer surfaces of the sacs (or cisternae). They resemble
small beads sitting in rosettes or in a linear pattern.
rough endoplasmic reticulum which gets its name from the presence of
ribosomes on its surface.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
specialized functions:
•protein translation
•folding and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane
•or to be secreted (exocytosed) from the cell
•sequestration of calcium
•production and storage of glycogen, steroids, and other macromolecules (SER)
Basic structure and composition of the ER membrane is similar to the plasma
membrane
RER - Rough endoplasmic reticulum bears the ribosomes during protein synthesis.
The newly synthesized proteins are sequestered in sacs, called cisternae .
The system then sends the proteins via small vesicles to the Golgi Complex , or, in
the case of membrane proteins, it inserts them into the membrane.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is studded with protein-
manufacturing ribosomes
The ribosomes only bind to the ER once it begins to synthesize a protein
The membrane of the RER is continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear envelope
Synthesis of all types of protein
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesis of lipids and steroids, metabolism of carbohydrates, regulation of calcium
concentration, drug detoxification, attachment of receptors on cell membrane
proteins, and steroid metabolism
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), is a special type of smooth ER found in smooth and
striated muscle
the SR stores and pumps calcium ions. The SR contains large stores of calcium,
which it sequesters and then releases when the muscle cell is stimulated
Ribosomes - ribonucleoprotein factories in which proteins are synthesized.
70S Ribosomes
•In prokaryotes
•Sedimentation Coefficient Size - 64S-72S (average 69S)
Subunits - Small 30S and large 50S
•RNA - 16S RNA in 30S subunit, 23S and 58 RNA in 50S subunit
80S Ribosome
- In eukaryotes (algae, fungi, higher plants and animals)
- 79-85S in fungi, 80S in mammals.
- 4 molecules of RN A :16S-18S RNA in 40S subunit.
- 25S-29S, 5.8S and 5S RNA in 60S subunit.
Ribosomes catalyze the joining of the amino acid monomers directed by the
mRNA sequence

messenger RNA (mRNA) codons are read by the anticodons of adaptor, transfer
RNAs (tRNAs) that carry codon-specific amino acids

Amino-acyl tRNA synthetases attach amino acids to the appropriate tRNAs

These amino acids are added to a growing protein chain by peptide bond
formation in the heart of the ribosome.
Initiation

The
initiator tRNA is attracted to the region (carrying a methionine. It binds to the
triplet code AUG.

This then attracts the large ribosomal subunit which will bind to the small subunit. it
has an A site and a P site.

These are different binding sites for the tRNAs.