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The Cell

What Cells Do?

Cells are the basic units of all living
Cells make up bones, muscles, skin,
and blood.
Cells make up leaves, roots, stems,
and flowers.
As the organism grows, the cells must
Cell reproduction is called mitosis.
Cells: Prokaryote vs Eukaryote
Animal Cell Vs Plant Cell
Structure Animal cells Plant cells
cell membrane Yes yes
nucleus Yes yes
nucleolus yes yes
ribosomes yes yes
ER yes yes
Golgi yes yes
centrioles yes no
cell wall no yes
mitochondria yes yes
cholorplasts no yes
One big vacuole no yes
vacuole Usually no yes
• cell membrane and cell wall
• Nucleus
• Mitochondria
• Endoplasmic reticulum
• Golgi body
• Chloroplast
• Lysosomes
Plant Cell wall
The nucleus is bounded
by double membrane,
the Nuclear Envelope,
that is continuous with
the ER (RER).
Structure -non-membraneous
matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid)
and protein
Function - instructions in DNA
are copied here
- works with ribosomes in the
synthesis of protein

The openings in the
Nuclear Envelope
that allow the passage
of material in and
out of the nucleus
are called
Nuclear Pores
Small Molecules can diffuse freely through the Nuclear Pore,
Larger molecules require active transport

Arrows: red = anterograde transport steps
blue = retrograde transport steps
green = endocytic transport steps
Lysosomes are
a specialized
compartment of
the secretory pathway
that acts as a
A specific sugar acts as a sorting signal to target proteins to
the lysosome
Mitochondrial structure

• Two membranes
• Inner membrane invaginated
• Numbers of mitochondria per cell
vary but usually 100s/cell

Matrix contains the TCA cycle
(and other) soluble enzymes

Inner membrane contains
metabolite transporters and
the electron transport chain
Overview of
Mitochondria have their own DNA and Ribosomes
Mitochondria have some of their own DNA, ribosomes, and can make many
of their own proteins. The DNA is circular and lies in the matrix in structures
called "nucleoids". Each nucleoid may contain 4-5 copies of the
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).

Chloroplast structure
• Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher
plant cells containing chlorophyll, hence provide the green
• A chloroplast is bounded by two membranes enclosing a fluid-
filled stroma that contains enzymes.
• Within the stroma are other membrane structures - the
thylakoids and grana (singular = granum) where
photosynthesis takes place.
• Membranes inside the stroma are organized into thylakoids
that house chlorophyll.
• Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and carbohydrates are made
in the stroma.
e RuBisCO

Stro ma

Ch loro p lats

Photosystem I I Cytoc hrom e 6bf / PhotosystemI ATP sy
Lu mne


Mitoch o nria

Com pl
exI Com pl
ex II Com pl
ex III Com pl
ex VI Com pl
ex V
Interm emran
b eSp ace
A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac. The membrane surrounding the plant cell
vacuole is called the tonoplast.
In animal cells, vacuoles are generally small.
A vacuole is a membrane organelle which is present in all plant cells. Vacuoles are
essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with fluid such as water or
various enzymes, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been

The majority of vacuoles are formed through the fusion of multiple membrane
vesicles. The organelle has no basic shape or size, instead varying its structure
according to the needs of the cell – hence dynamic in shape.

When a plant is well-watered, water collects in cell vacuoles producing rigidity in
the plant.
Vacuoles tend to be large in plant cells and play a role in turgor pressure.
In general, vacuole functions include:
•Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell
•Containing waste products
•Containing small molecules
•Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure within the cell
•Exporting unwanted substances from the cell
•Vacuoles have the additional function of storing food
Vacuoles of certain specialized cells contain such interesting products as
rubber and opium.
Other molecules stored in vacuoles are involved in the interactions of the plant
with animals or with other plants.
Eg. Pigment (colours) for insect attraction - flower petals.
Defense chemicals - poisonous alkaloids, etc.
Centriole Structure - nine triplets of microtubules form one centriole
- two centrioles form one centrosome
The centrosome, also called the "microtubule organizing center", is an area in the cell
where microtubles are produced.
Function - forms spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during cell division
Within an animal cell centrosome there is a pair of small organelles, the centrioles.
each made up of a ring of nine groups of microtubules.
There are three fused microtubules in each group. The two centrioles are arranged such
that one is perpendicular to the other.
During animal cell division, the centrosome divides and the centrioles replicate.
The result is two centrosomes, each with its own pair of centrioles. The two
centrosomes move to opposite ends of the nucleus, and from each centrosome,
microtubules grow into a "spindle" which is responsible for separating replicated
chromosomes into the two daughter cells.