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1. Hydrological cycle
2. Drainage Basin
3. Water Balance
4. Storm Hydrograph
5. Flooding
Hydrological cycle
What is hydrology?

What is hydrological

Define all the terms

Is a hydrological cycle an
Opened or closed system?

Why is it called a system?
Hydrology and Hydrological cycle

(1) Hydrology : study of water

(2) Hydrological cycle: continuous
movement of water from land, sea and
air, back to land and it continues.
Why is it called a system?

The Hydrological cycle is called a system
because it has a set of components which
are links to one another, inputs, outputs and
process (transfer) and storage.




Hydrological cycle is a closed system. Why?
1. Water circulates continuously & the
processes is fuel by energy from the sun

2. There is no gain or loses in the cycle

3. There is a fixed amount of water.
Water movement in H.C

transpiration evaporation
Aeration zone stemflow
Surface storage
Zone A Infiltration

Percolation SOIL
Water table Through flow

BEDROCK seepage
Zone B
Stream flow
Aeration zone: zone between soil moisture zone and capillary zone
above water table.

Water-table: it separates Ground water zones that lies below and
Aeration zone /capillay fringe lines

Ground water zone: Precipitation that succeeds in moving from the
soil layer down into the underlying bedrock will at some point reach an
area of permanent saturation that is known as the groundwater zone
• Precipitation: Form major inputs into the system, for example
rainfall and snow.

• Groundwater flow/baseflow: water transferred slowly laterally
below water table.

• Infiltration: The maximum rate at which water can pass
through the soil.

• Percolation: Water reaches underlying soil or rock layers,
which tend to be more compact (slow movement) create
groundwater storage.

• Throughflow: Water that flow laterally parallel to the earth’s
• Interflow: The water, derived from precipitation, that
infiltrates the soil surface and then moves laterally
through the upper layers of soil above the water table
until it reaches a stream channel or returns to the surface
at some point downslope from its point of infiltration.

• Evaporation: physical process by which moisture loss into
atmosphere from water surfaces, including vegetation,
soil due to sun’s heat and effects of air movement.

• Throughfall: Water reaches the ground when it drops off
the leaves.

• Stemflow: Water reaches the ground when it flows down
the trunk.
• Transpiration: biological process by which water is
lost from a plant through stomata in its leaves.

• Interception: the first raindrops of a rainfall event
will fall on vegetation which shelters the underlying
ground. (interception storage)

• Overlandflow: Excess water which flow over earth
surface when precipitation is very heavy or when
soil becomes saturated.

• Seepage: slow movement of water through the soil.

• Evapotranspiration: Moisture which is loss directly
into atmosphere from water surface by process of
evaporation and by process of transpiration from
Water movement throughout
drainage basin.
• Look at the diagram:
1. List down input & output

2.Which are the storages &

3. How does water from
surface storage reaches
groundwater storage?

4. Name the flow marked A
and B.

5. Define terms shown in
• Soil moisture storage: amount of water held in the soil at one time.

• Interception storage: first raindrops of a rainfall event that fall on
vegetation which shelters the underlying ground. (water collected in
leaves of trees)

• Surface storage storage: rainfall that are not intercepted by
vegetation reaches the ground surface and fill in small surface
depression and excess water will overflow as run-off.

• Ground water storage: water which is held in pores and cervices
and its underlying bedrock.
1. Name the flows shown
as A, B & C.

2. Describe what is meant by

3.Describe and explain the
occurrence of the flows A,
B and C.

Flow of water in a cross section of soil and bedrock
• Flow A – overland flow (water that flow over the earth
Condition to occur: Heavy rainfall / the soil
becomes saturated, excess water flow
away the surface.

• Flow B –throughflow (horizontal movement of water
within soil layer.
Condition to occur:permeability of soil decreases with
increase in depth of soil (base of Aeration zone) and
when the ground is saturated.

• Flow C – baseflow/groundwater flow.(water that is
transferred laterally.
Condition to occur: when the water table (top of
groundwater saturation) rises above the
streambed, thus groundwater discharged into
Drainage basin
A. What is a drainage basin?
B. Is a drainage basin a closed/opened
Drainage basin
Drainage basin: the area that is drained by a
river and its tributaries.

It is an opened system. Because:
1. It has a series of inputs, processes and
Water balance
1. Briefly define
the term water balance.

2. Write an equation for water

4. Label A, B, C & D and define
terms; soil moisture
budget, soil moisture surplus,
field capacity, soil moisture

4. Importance of water balance

5. When do positive/negative
water balance occur?
Storm hydrograph 1. Why are some areas in
Brunei flooded?

2. What is river discharge?

3. Name the graph drawn to
a river discharge at a given
point & time.

3. What is a storm

4. Importance of a storm

5. Define terms; lag time,
Baseflow, falling/recession
Limb, rising limb, throughflow
Factors influencing shape of

1. Size of drainage basin

2. Soil types-sandy/clayey

• Geology-permeable
or impermeable

4. Gradient-steep/gentle

5. Vegetation cover

6. Urbanisation

•clue-look at infiltration rate, run-off
lead to high/low discharge & shorter
or longer lag time (time taken for
The river to fill up with water)
Catchments of rivers X & Y hydrographs over
24 hours of the two rivers.

Using both diagram explain why the
discharge of the two rivers are different

Explain how each of these influence Describe the differences between
storm hydrograph: the discharges of rivers X and Y in
Drainage basin shape, geology, response to the rainfall
rainfall intensity, drainage density
 What is flooding?

 Why occur?

 How to predict & Method of prevention?

 Students to read and find out from internet / textbook
case studies ; UK and Bangladesh:

1. Cause; Physical &human causes

2. Flood management & problems
What is flooding?
A body of water that rises to overflow land not
normally submerged.

Why does it occur?
1. During & after torrential rainfall.
•Very heavy rainfall, often produced by convectional
thunderstorms, tropical cyclones or monsoons, lead to flash
•But also inability of drainage system to with huge amount
of water. (natural/unnatural)

2. Costal flooding:
• Low lying areas vulnerable to flooding.
•Heavy rainfall and storm surges.
•Tsunami (sudden displacement of ocean floor which sends
waves out in all directions).
3. River flooding:
River channel no longer able to contain the water flowing within it.
Excess water sweeps over banks and onto adjacent floodplain.

Factors that can increase river flooding:

1. Heavy & prolonged rainfall

2. A reduction in channel size.

3. The silting of channels, by excessive soil erosion

4. Action of landslips in displacing water in lakes or blocking

5. An increase in storm flow due to urbanisation
Factors that can increase river flooding:

6. A reduction in size of floodplain by development.

7. Blocking of bridges & culvert entrances by debris
transported by river.

8. Failure of flood defence structures such as dams &

9. Drainage basin: steep slope, impermeable bedrock,
Saturated or frozen soil, and deforestation encourage
rapid transfer of water to river channel.
• Explain how river floods might be
predicted. Giving examples, describe the
methods which may be used to reduce the
effects of flooding.
• Describe the main features of river flood
plains and explain why flood plains may
present problems for human settlements.
Human activities of flow
• Suggest how human activities might affect flows
within a river channel.
• How can changes in land use affect flows and
stores in a drainage basin?
• How can the abstraction (removal) and the
storage of water by humans affect flows
and stores within a drainage basin.
• Explain how urbanisation can affect river
channel flows.