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Manufacturing of

Nitrobenzene
Nitration of Benzene
Reaction : C6H6 + HNO3→ C6H5NO2 + H2O
Process description
 Hot Sulfuric acid C
S
o n
c e n t r a
u l f u r Bi c A
at 90°C is run
from the heat-
insulated storage
tank (B) into one A 2 A 3 A 4
A 1
of a battery of
nitrators (A1 to
A4).
 Under vigorous N i t r i c C o n c e n
a c i d S u l f u Br i c
agitation, S t o N r ai t g r e i c A c i d l i n e
sufficient 63
percent nitric acid
is added to the
nitrator to A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4
produce a mixed
containing 4
percent HNO3.
 Sufficient benzene is
C o n
c e n
then delivered from its B e n
i
z e
N t
n
r i c
e S u l f uB r i
a c i d
storage scale tank to S t o r a
S t o
g
N
e
r ia t g r e i c A c i d l i n e
react with all the nitric
acid in the reactor.
Upon completion of the
reaction, which takes
about 10 min, the A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4
agitation is topped andB e n z e n e l i n e
the charge permitted
to settle.
 The crude i N t r i c C o n
c e
B e n
z e n e S u l f uB r
supernatant S
a c
t o r a
S t o
g
N
i d
e
r ia t g r e i c A c i d l i n e
nitrobenzene is
drawn off through
side outlets (C) on
the nitrator and C C C C
A 2 A 3 A 4
sent to the B e n z e n e
A
l i n
1
e
neutralizer.
 The spent acid, B e n
N
z e
i t r i c
n e
C o n c e n t r a t e d
ac i d S u l f u rB i c A c i d
which is free of nitric S t o r a g
S t o
e
Nr a i g t r e i c A c i d l i n e

acid but contains
small amounts of
nitrobenzene, is C
A
C
1 A
C
2 A
C
3 A 4
B e n z e n e l i n e
drawn off in
operating sequence D 1 D 2 D 3 D 4
at the outlets (D1 to S p e n t A c i d

D4) located at the H e a t

base of the nitrators.
V a p o u r
 The spent acid is first S e p a r a t o r

directed to the acid
heater (E) and then N i t r i c C o n c e n t r a t e d
delivered to the vapourS t o r S a a t cgo i erN d a i g t re
B e n z e n e
i c A c i d
S u l f u rB i c A c i d
l i n e
separator. The
evaporator effectively
removes the water of C C C C
H
R
e a t e d
e s i d u a l
A 2 A 3 A 4
nitration and returns B e n z e n e l i An e 1
the sulfuric acid to the
system at its original D 1 D 2 D 3 D 4
strength. S p e n t A c i d

H e a t
C o n d e n s e r

 The small
quantity of
V a p o u r
S e p a r a t o r

nitrobenzene N i t r i c C o n c e n t r a t e d

found with the
B e n z e n e S u l f u r i c BA c i d
a c i d
S t o r a g e
S t o r a N g ei t r i c A c i d l i n e

water in the H e a t e d

condenser is
C C C C R e s i d u a l A c i d
A 1 A 2 A 3 A 4
B e n z e n e l i n e

separated and D 1 D 2 D 3 D 4

added to the S p e n t A c i d

crude charge.
H e a t e r