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PREPERATION

OF
TRI NITRO TOULENE(TNT)

BY MIXED
ACID
(HNO3+H2SO4)
PROCESS DISCRIPTION
 The Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
(CSTR) Process of trinitro toluene(TNT)
can be configured to react toluene and
mixed acid(HNO3+H2SO­4­).
 The default configuration reacts Toluene
(reactant A) with mixed acid (reactant B),
an endothermic rxn, to produce TNT
(product C)
 Production of mononitro toluene
and dinitro toluene are the side
rxns
 Reactants A and B are fed to the
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
(CSTR) where they are
completely mixed with a
motorized agitator.
 Reactant A and B feedstock assume to
come from storage tanks.
 The reactor is sized to convert most of
reactant A to product. The feed molar
ratio of reactant B to reactant A is
maintained at 1:3 according to the
equation considered for this rxn.
 The product streams of MNT, DNT and
TNT are taken through a series of
continuous stirred tank reactors where as
spent acid which also formed during the
process is separated out, purified, and
recycled back to the reactor through
different techniques
PROCESS
INSTRUMENTATION
STEPS

INVOLVE IN THE
PREPERATION
OF

TNT
 The reactants A and B are introduced
from the source through valves and their
flow and level can be measured by flow
and level sensors.
 Since level measurement has direct
influence on pressure and temperature
so they both are measured and indicated
by TI and PI respectively.
 The feed block valve can be opened and
closed, when the fluid attains the specific
level.
 The reactor contents are mixed by a
motorized agitator which can be turned on
and off with switch and whose speed can
be controlled with controller
 Reactor temperature is indicated by TIC,
which controls the reactor temperature by
modulating the cooling and heating flows
to the reactor jacket respectively.
 Total flow through the reactor j is indicated
by FI.
 Reactor pressure is controlled by PIC, which
modulates the reactor effluent flow, indicated by
FI. The reactor effluent block valve can be
opened and closed with switch HV. PI indicates
product discharge pressure.
 The above all operations are linked with
controller and can monitored in control room.
LEVEL CONTROL
OF

PROCESS
WITH P N ID
Toluene and mixed acid is sent into 1st tank
reactor where two ultra sonic level sensor
are present, one is at the top other is at
the bottom
 Level sensor are present, one is at the top
other is at the bottom. when level of
stream reaches the top level at preset
value of set point, the sensor comes in to
action, it senses the value of level, which
can be seen on level indicator then this
manipulated variable value goes to level
transmitter , which converts this value in to
standared signals.
 Level transmitter sends this signals to
controller, controller sends signal to final
control element(valves) and final control
element stops the flow of incoming feed
for a time being and agitation starts.
 After 15min when MNT is formed,
agitation stops. Then we leaves system for
at least half hour to settles down spent
acid which is removed from the bottom.
 After removing spent acid, out put valves
opens and MNT drains off in to an other
reactor. when stream just reaches the set
value, it is sensed by lower sensor and
transmitted towards controller which sends
signals to I/P converter and again input
valves open and this process continues till
the end the process.
PIPING
AND
INSTRUMENTAL
DIAGRAM
CREATED BY: S.M ARIF