You are on page 1of 52

Evaluating the Performance and Cost

of Infusion
Ramesh Watson
What will we cover today?
 Introduction of DIAB
 Brief from Client to DIAB
 Past and current global DIAB infusion projects
 Project recommendations
 Weight Study
 Proposed hull laminates
 Cycle time study
 Process study
 Cost study
 Implementation plan

 DIAB marketing support
 How to market benefits of sandwich and infusion construction

 SUMMARY
Who is DIAB
 1200 employees globally
 World leader in sandwich structural cores
 #1 in foam structural core manufacturing capacity
 #2 in Balsa manufacturing capacity
 #1 in sandwich technology
 #1 in core infusion technology

 Brands include
 Divinycell®
 ProBalsaTM
 DiviletteTM
 DIAB Core Infusion TechnologyTM
 DIAB TechnologiesTM
Brief from Client to DIAB
 Client will give DIAB all the necessary data required for
the 36ft Motor Yacht Hull and would like DIAB to:
 Estimate what the current hand laminated hull should weigh

 Put forward a proposal on converting manufacturing process to
INFUSION using DIAB Core Infusion TechnologyTM .
 Propose structural and laminate redesign for INFUSION for hull.

 Propose infusion strategy, materials selection, build/labour time
estimates, build/labour/materials cost estimate.

 When approved, Client will work with DIAB under contract
to implement and supply technology, training and
materials.
Global DIAB infusion customers
“DIAB has converted more production boat
manufacturers to infusion than any other company”
 Company
 Azimut

 Gobbi

 Sunseeker

 Fiart

 Sealine

 Nimbus

 NuMarine
Company:AZIMUT
 Location: Italy
 Range: 39 to 116ft
 No.of employees: 1000
 Models infused: AZ40
AZIMUT:

 DIAB involvement:
 Redesign of laminates and structure from single-skin hull to a
fully cored hull.
 Training of production staff

 Production implementation

 AZ40 Model now in production

 Marketing and dealer training support (never marketed cored
hull)
 Supply of pre-cut infusion core kits

 Implement infusion of other models in range eg. 42, 50, 55, 62,
65ft
AZIMUT: Why infusion?

Employee benefits:
 Solve OH&S issues

 Improve skills of staff

Environment benefits:
 Reduce VOC emissions

Brand benefits:
 Improved quality and repeatability

 Improved performance and marketability
AZIMUT: Why infusion?

Financial benefits:
 Improve staff retention

 45% faster than hand lamination on 40 to 55ft range

 25% labour reduction on 40 to 55ft range

 Lift valuation of company
AZIMUT: 55ft deck
Company:Gobbi
 Location: Italy
 Range: 39 to 55ft
 No.of employees: 350
 Models infused: 39 Atlantis
Company:SUNSEEKER
 Location: England
 Range: 28 to 105ft
 No.of employees: 1400
 Models infused: 65ft (Hull and Deck)
Company:Nimbus
 Location: Sweden
 Range: 28 to 42ft
 Boats per year: 50 of Nova 35
 Models infused: Nova 35 (Hull)
Company:SEALINE
 Location: England
 Range: 25 to 60ft
 Boats per year: 400
 No.of employees: 700
 Models infused: S29 (Hull)
Company:FIART
 Location: Italy
 Range: 22 to 50ft
 Boats per year: 500
 Model infused: 38ft Genius (Hull)
36ft Motor Yacht Hull

 Findings and recommendations
 Proposed hull laminates
 Weight Study
 Cycle time study
 Process study
 Cost study
 Implementation plan
Laminate Comparison
PART ORIGINAL HAND LAMINATE DIAB INFUSION LAMINATE

Hull Bottom
900 CSM 900 Sprayed Rovings
600 CSM 750 Triaxial
1868 DUOMAT 600 Biaxial
600 CSM 26mm Divinycell H100
1868 DUOMAT 1050 Biaxial
900 CSM 750 Triaxial

Hull Side
900 CSM 900 Sprayed Rovings
600 CSM 750 Triaxial
2.5mm COREMAT 600 Biaxial
600 CSM 15mm Divinycell H80
600 CSM 1050 Biaxial
800 QUAD 750 Triaxial
600 CSM
600 CSM
2.5mm COREMAT
600 CSM

Transom
900 CSM 1050 Biaxial
900 CSM 1050 Biaxial
800 WR 750 Triaxial
900 CSM 600 Biaxial
800 WR 1050 Biaxial
600 CSM 1050 Biaxial
19mm PLY 40mm Divinycell H130
600 CSM 40mm Divinycell H200 inserts
19mm PLY 1050 Biaxial
900 CSM 1050 Biaxial
1050 Biaxial
750 Triaxial
1050 Biaxial
1050 Biaxial
Laminate Comparison

PART ORIGINAL HAND LAMINATE DIAB INFUSION LAMINATE

Keel
900 CSM 900 Sprayed Rovings
600 CSM 750 Triaxial
1868 DUOMAT 600 Biaxial
600 CSM 600 CFM
1868 DUOMAT 1050 Biaxial
900 CSM 600 CFM
3368 50% Overlaps 1050 Biaxial
600 CFM
1050 Biaxial
600 CSM
1050 Biaxial
600 CFM
1050 Biaxial
600 CFM
1050 Biaxial
750 Triaxial
600 CFM

Bulkheads
1200 CSM 800 Biaxial
12mm PLY 15mm Divinycell H80
1200 CSM 800 Biaxial
Preliminary Weight Estimate

Original Hand Laminate

1643 kg DIAB estimate
(1760kg actual avg)
Preliminary Weight Estimate

DIAB Core Infusion
Laminate
1024 kg
Preliminary Weight Estimate – A Global
Comparison
DIAB Core Infusion Laminate
1024 kg

Original Hand Laminate

Weight difference: 1643 kg

1643 – 1024 = 619 kg
(38% reduction)
17 components removed
New Longitudinal Girder Structure

New
Longitudinal
Girder Structure
Structural Arrangement – Proposed
Longitudinal Girders

 Dispose transverse floors

 Structural efficiency
 Less weight for given strength
 Provides direct support to panels AND contributes to the
longitudinal strength
 Transverse strength provided by bulkheads and decks

 Structural continuity
 Minimises abrupt changes in stress levels

 Utilisation of space
 Less interference
Preliminary Weight Estimate – A Part For
Part Overview

Hull Hull
Bottom Keel Bulkheads Side Transom
Preliminary Weight Estimate – A Part For
Part Comparison
Weight Comparison of Hull Panels

450

400

350

300
Weight [kg]

250

200

150

100

50

0
Hull bottom Hull side Transom Keel Bulkheads
Original Hand Laminate 341.10 420.00 140.89 66.54 186.84
DIAB Infusion Laminate 247.66 247.56 92.52 73.03 64.86

Reduction 27% 41% 34% +10% 65%
Preliminary Weight Estimate – A Part For
Part Comparison
Weight Comparison of Panel Components

1400

1200

1000
Weight [kg]

800

600

400

200

0
Total Glass Resin Core material
Original Hand Laminate 1155.37 359.77 585.06 173.22
DIAB Infusion Laminate 725.64 288.38 273.37 126.56

Reduction 37% 20% 53% 27%
Weight Saving Benefits – Performance
Overview
Original: DIAB Infusion:
∆ = 9.50 tonnes (- 619 kg) ∆ = 8.88 tonnes
P = 472 kW (total installed) P = 441 kW (total required)

2 x 239 kW 2 x 239 kW
MerCruiser @ 100% MCR MerCruiser @ 85% MCR

2 x 239 kW
V = 35.0 knots
MerCruiser @ 100% MCR

V = 37.4 knots
Weight Saving Benefits – Performance
Overview
Cummins MerCruiser 4.2L EI 320

250 80

70
200
60

50 85% MCR
150
100% MCR

l/hr
kW

40
Power
100
30 Fuel

20
50
10

0 0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
RPM
Weight Saving Benefits – Performance
Overview

Original: DIAB Infusion:
70 L/hr @ 3900 RPM, 236kW 40 L/hr @ 3300 RPM, 220kW

90% Tank Capacity Per Engine = 360 L

Range: Range:
333 km @ 35 knots 583 km @ 35 knots
Weight Saving Benefits – Summary

Less Weight means:

 Lower fuel consumption

 Longer range

 More speed

 Quieter operation

 Better acceleration

 Better maneuverability

 Boat planes quicker
Design Rules – A Brief Outline

Minimum Requirements

Part AS4132 DNV ISO DIAB

Outer skin laminate g/m2 1580 2400 1260 2250

Inner skin laminate g/m2 1264 1600 882 1800

Safety Factors
Core type -- H130 -- H100
Part AS4132 DNV ISO DIAB

Laminate S.F. 3.5 3.34 2 AS4132

Core S.F. 2.9 2.5 2 AS4132
Process And Application – Original Hand
Lay-up Day 1
Stage 1 2a 2b 3a 3b 4 5a 5b 6

                 

                 

Time 30 45 90 60 90 20 90 90 90
Men 1 1 0 3 0 1 3 0 3

1 Preparation of mould 5a Port topside, bottom, keel and entire
2a Gelcoat transom laminate B applied

2b Wait for gelcoat to dry 5b Wait for port side to dry
6 Starboard topside, bottom and keel
3a Application of tie layer lamination
3b Wait for tie lay to dry

4 Grinding of dags off the laminate
Process And Application – Original Hand
Lay-up Day 2
Stage 7a 7b 8 9

Time 90 90 90 30
Men 3 0 3 2

7a Starboard side 2nd laminate
7b Wait for starboard side to dry
8 Port side 2nd laminate
9 Bogging keel and strakes
Process And Application – DIAB Infusion -
Day 1
Stage 1 2a 2b 3a 3b 4 5

Time 30 45 90 60 90 20 285
Men 1 1 0 3 0 1 2

1 Preparation of mould 3b Wait for tie lay to dry
2a Gelcoat 4 Grinding of dags off the laminate
2b Wait for gelcoat to dry 5 Load kitted fabric for outer skin
3a Application of tie layer
Process And Application – DIAB Infusion –
Day 2
Stage 6 7 8a 8b 8c 9 10

Time 240 320 60 60 45 60 30
Men 2 2 2 4 4 3 2

6 Load kitted core materials 8c Drop test and leak finding, set up
resin
7 Load kitted girders and fabrics
8a Set out reusable resin feed and vacuum 9 Start infusion and fill part
lines 10 Remove bag and lines
8b Fit pre-fab vacuum bag to mould and
connect to catch pots and pump system
Processing And Application – The Bottom
Line
Build time for hand laminate process
= 23.5 man hours (2 days)

Build time for DIAB infusion process
= 28.4 man hours (2 days)
Processing And Application – Future
Optimisation

Tie Layer Obsolescence
= Deduct 2.5 man hours

Optimal Infusion Time
= Deduct 0.3 man hours

Optimal Setup Time
= Unlimited
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - The Setup
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - Open Resin
Lines
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - 8.29 mins (35%
filled)
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - 14.3 mins (50.2%
filled)
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - 18.4 mins (75.1%
filled)
Polyworx Infusion Simulation - 42.1 mins
(Complete)
Cost Study
 Assumptions
 Used provided cycle and labour times for current hull
 Used material costs provided by Distributors
 Used 5% wastage and labour @ $60/hr
 Construction up to hull shell and bulkhead components
 No rework costs for hand lay-up hull included
 No consumables for hand lay-up and infusion processes included

Current hand lay-up hull= ~$5,000
DIAB infusion hull= ~$13,500
Cost difference= ~$8,500
Weight difference= 619kg
Cost Study – The important questions
 How do you manage the cost differential between existing
fabrication method and infusion method?
 Revise cost-to-weight targets for this model? What are acceptable trade-offs?
 Revise material selection to achieve cost for weight target?
 Reduce engine specification to maintain price point?

 Utilise integrated benefits in the market place for differentiation?
 Lower running costs
 Better performance (power-to-weight ratio, maneuverability)
 Better build quality
 Better end-user comfort
Market differentiation
Features and benefits of Divinycell® sandwich construction to
the end-user/owner:

 Lighter weight construction allows either:
 Reduced fuel usage for same power (lower fuel cost/greater range)
 Greater fuel capacity (improved range)
 Greater thermal and acoustic insulation. Eliminates condensation.
Reduces heating and cooling energy requirements, while providing
greater comfort to the user.
 Larger span between inside frame work, means more usable volume.
 Improved safety from hull impact penetration due to double-skin
construction.
 Additional in-built buoyancy provided, adding to safety.
 Eliminates ‘structural timber-rot”, therefore improving long-term
retained value of the vessel for the owner.
Implementation Plan - Hull
 Next steps:
 Classification decision (Client)
 Cost/performance targets (Client)
 Cost/performance engineering (Client /DIAB)
 Factory setup (Client /DIAB)
 Materials qualification (Client /DIAB)
 Team training: Stage 1 (Client /DIAB)
 Team training: Stage 2 (Client /DIAB)
 Infuse hull#1 (Client /DIAB)
 Implement plan for other parts (Client /DIAB)
 Dealer training
Single Skin Infusion – An Brief Overview

 Use the hull bottom panel for example

 Benchmark against DIAB Infusion laminate

 Offer two options for Single Skin Infusion
Single Skin Infusion – An Brief Overview

DIAB Infusion Laminate
- Hull Bottom

900 g/m2Sprayed
Rovings Results
750 g/m2Triaxial Panel Size 1200 x 600 mm

600 g/m2Biaxial Total Thickness 31.00 mm
Panel Weight 10.97 kg/m2
26 mmDivinycell
H100 Mid-panel 2.86 mm
Deflection
1050 g/m2Biaxial

750 g/m2Triaxial
Single Skin Infusion – An Brief Overview

Option A – Reduced Panel
Size
900 g/m2Sprayed Rovings
450 g/m2CFM
750 g/m2Triaxial Results
450 g/m2CFM Panel Size 600 x 600 mm
1050 g/m2Biaxial Total Thickness 9.91 mm
Panel Weight 15.76 kg/m2
450 g/m2CFM
Mid-panel 10.92 mm
600 g/m Biaxial
2
Deflection
450 g/m2CFM
1050 g/m2Biaxial

450 g/m2CFM
750 g/m2Triaxial
450 g/m2CFM
Single Skin Infusion – An Brief Overview

Option B – Equivalent Panel Size
900 g/m2Sprayed Rovings
450 g/m2CFM
750 g/m2Triaxial
450 g/m2CFM Results
750 g/m2Triaxial
Panel Size 1200 x 600 mm
450 g/m2CFM
1050 g/m2Biaxial Total Thickness 12.46 mm
450 g/m2CFM Panel Weight 19.91 kg/m2
600 g/m2Biaxial
Mid-panel 10.49 mm
450 g/m2CFM
Deflection
1050 g/m2Biaxial
450 g/m2CFM
750 g/m2Triaxial
450 g/m2CFM
750 g/m2Triaxial
450 g/m2CFM
Single Skin Infusion – Summary

Single Skin Infusion means:

 More glass required to achieve required thickness

 Additional weight from extra stiffeners (Option A)

 Heavier panel

 Greater deflection

 Engineering overkill