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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

REVIEW
• Ei guys sorry gumawa nlng akong
review kasi mejo pressed for time… I
tried to make it as self-study-able as
possible and merong mga questions
in between (yung answer nasa next
slide)… if you have questions text me
nlng or ask on tues morning (or ask
Bea). Pero it would be best if you
referred to a book. Hope this helps
anyway and I hope hope we get
higher grades this time 
• Pituitary (neurohypophysis, adenohypophysis)
– Pars distalis, pars intermedialis; pars nervosa
– Chromophobes, acidophils, basophils; Herring body,
pituicytes
– Rathke’s pouch, infundibulum
• Adrenal Gland
– Cortex, medulla
– Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis
• Thyroid Gland
– Thyroid follicles, C cells (parafollicular cells), colloid
• Parathyroid Gland
– Adipose, oxyphil cell, chief cell
• Endocrine Pancreas
– Islets of Langerhans, Beta cell (insulin), Alpha
cell(glucagon)
• Pineal Gland
Hypophysis – pituitary gland
• Located in the diencephalon
• Comprised of adenohypophysis
(anterior pituitary) and
neurohypophysis
• Infundibulum: connects pituitary to
hypothalamus

Pituitary
• Adenohypophysis comprised of pars distalis
and pars intermedia
– Pars distalis: secretes growth hormone (GH),
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),
adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-
stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing
hormone (LH) and prolactin
– Pars intermedia: secretes melanocyte
stimulating hormone (MSH)
– Pars tuberalis: thin extension in contact with
infundibulum
• Neurohypophysis comprised of pars nervosa,
infundibular stalk and median eminence
– Pars nervosa (posterior pituitary) : stores ADH
and oxytocin
• ADH and oxytocin not synthesized in pars
nervosa; secreted by hypothalamus
Hypophysis – pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis (ant.

Pituitary)
• Pars distalis
 – darker staining
• Pars intermedia
– in between pars
distalis and
pars nervosa
– Narrow band of
darker staining
cells along
right hand
margin of slit

Slit remnant of Rathke’s

pouch

Neurohypophysis (post.

Pituitary)
• Pars nervosa
• Pars
nervos
a
• Pars
interme
dia
• Pars
distalis
Pars
distal
Pars is
nervosa Pars
intermed
ia
Adenohypophysis –pars
distalis
• Pars distalis
• Secretory Cells of
pars distalis
– Chromophils (A):
darker staining,
dark cytoplasm
• Basophils: v. dark
staining
nucleus (dark
staining
cytoplasm)
• Acidophils: dark
staining
cytoplasm
– Chromophobes(B):
Secretory cells are arranged in
hardlybystain
clumps separated a fine(only
reticular fiber CT ( thin black
found
lines ), where in anterior
the capillaries lie
Chromophobes
Chromophils and their
secretions
• chromophil
A cid o psh ils
–S o m a to tro p h ic
ce ll ( G H )
–M a m m o tro p h ic
ce ll ( Pro la ctin )
pnemonics:
GPA" (g rowth hormone and
p rolactin are secreted by
the a cidophils)
Basophils
–Gonadotrophic
cell (FSH, LH)
–Thyrotropic cell
(TSH)
–Cotricotrophic
cell
(ACTH)
B-FLAT" (b asophils secrete F SH,
Pars distalis
acidophil
 b a so p h il

chromophobe
Question: In this picture of the pars distalis,
what type of secretory epithelial cell are
denoted by arrow?
Red: Basophil
(other cells are acidophils – yellow;
chromophobes – orange)
Question: In this picture of the pars distalis,
what type of secretory epithelial cell is
labeled 'a'?
Chromophobe (no stain) -other chromophobes
 yellow arrow
(other cells are b- basophil; c- acidophil)
Question: What hormones do these cells
secrete?
Prolactin and Growth hormone (mammotropic &
somatotropic)
(other cells: blue – chromophobe, yellow:
basophil)
Capillary
• NOTE:
endocrine
glands are
highly
vasculariz
ed (since
secretions
go to blood)
• Encircled:
nucleus of
endothelial
cell
Question: Identify (ID) cell. ID
gland
Chromophobe
pars distalis – hypothalamus
other structures (basophil – purple stain and acidophil – pink stain)
encircled – blood vessel with RBC
Pars
distal
Pars is
nervosa Pars
intermed
ia
Pars intermedia
• May be cystic 
Pars
intermedia
fused
with/within
pars distalis
(purple arrow)
• Lumen of
rathke’s pouch
disappear
• Split in right
(green) 
fixation
artifact
Question: Identify gland
Identify space at tip of arrow
Pituitary gland
cystic pars intermedia
other structures (notice lighter pars nervosa with pituicytes; pars
distalis with dark staining basophils and acidophils and light staining
chromophobes)

Pars
Pars distalis
nervosa
Pars
distal
Pars is
nervosa Pars
intermed
ia
Posterior pituitary functions
• Stores and releases 2 hormones that
are produced in the hypothalamus:
– Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH/vasopressin):
– Promotes the retention of H20 by the
kidneys.
» Less H20 is excreted in the
urine.
• Oxytocin:
– Stimulates contractions of the uterus
during parturition.
– Stimulates contractions of the
mammary gland alveoli.
» Milk-ejection reflex.

Neurohypophysis – pars
nervosa
• Cells of pars nervosa
– Pituicytes
(C):neuroglial-like;
– Herring bodies:
cellular projections
which store
neurotransmitters
 accumulation of
secretion within the
axon of neurons
whose cell bodies lie
in the hypothalamus
of the brain
• no nuclei
– Nuclei of endothelial
Pars nervosa

pituicytes
Question : ID gland. ID
structures
 Post. Pituitary – pars nervosa
Herring body
ID gland. ID structures
pituicyte nucleus

Nucleus of endothelial cell of fenestrated capillary
Question : ID gland. ID
pointed structure
Post. Pituitary; Herring body
Question: ID gland. ID pointed
structure
Pituicyte (round/oval nuclei)
Thyroid Gland
• Largest of the pure endocrine glands
• Composed of many spherical hollow sacs
(thyroid follicles) surrounded by cells
(follicular cells/principal cells)
• Follicles are filled with a colloid
• Follicular cells use the thyroglobulin and
iodide stored in the colloid to produce
primary thyroid hormones (ex. T3 and T4)
• In between follicles are parafollicular cells
which secrete calcitonin
• Only gland which stores its hormonal
secretion extracellularly before releasing
into bloodstream

Thyroid Gland
Thyroid follicles
Functions of T3
• Stimulates protein synthesis.
• Promotes maturation of nervous system.
• Stimulates rate of cellular respiration by:
– Production of uncoupling proteins.
– Increase active transport by Na+/K+ pumps.
– Lower cellular [ATP].
• Increases metabolic heat.
• Increases metabolic rate.
– Stimulates increased consumption of
glucose, fatty acids and other molecules.

Thyroid Gland
 Thyroid follicle
Follicular/ principal

cells: simple cuboidal
cells (actively
synthesizing), simple
squamous cells
(inactive stage)
 -line the follicle
 -lesser
cytoplasm compared
to parafollicular cells
Colloid : pink, contains

thyroglobulin and
iodine (hormone
precursors)

Parafollicular cells
Parafollicular
cells
 -”C” cells
 -cells
outside of
follicle
 -produce
calcitonin
Question: What is this
homogenous substance?
Colloid filled with thyroglobulin – glycoprotein precursor of thyroid
hormone
other structures (follicle cells -green, parafollicular -purple
(calcitonin), black – capillary)
Parathyroid Gland
Parathyroid Glands
• Parathyroid (A)
embedded in
thyroid (B)
• Notice thyroid
follicles filled with
colloid (lower half)
• Notice the absence
of follicles in
parathyroid tissue
(upper half)
• Parathyroid cells
usually darker
staining (due to
Some functions
of PTH:
Single most

important
hormone in the
control of blood
[Ca2+ ].

inc renal tubular
absorption of
Ca
inc intestinal Ca

absorp

• Notice that
the
parathyroi
d gland
contains
blood
vessels
and
adipocytes
• Notice that
Chief cells
appear as
bands/
ribbons or
cords
(yellow
scribble in
Cells of Parathyroid
C h ie f ce lls ( w ith in
g re e n a rro w )
- secrete
Pa ra th yro id
h o rm o n e ( PT H )
-more numerous

O xyp h ilce lls ( w ith in
b lu e a rro w )
-smaller , darker
n u cle u s
-less numerous
th a n ch ie f ce lls
-more cytoplasm
( usually pink
sta in )
-function not
cle a r
Question: ID gland and cell
Parathyroid tissue
C h ie f ce ll ( m o re
n u m e ro u s, se cre te
PTH )

O xyp h ilce ll ( le ss
n u m e ro u s a n d
la rg e r)
Oxyphil cells ( bigger
cytoplasm )

Adipocytes

chief cells
Adrenal Gland
• Encapsulated
• Comprised of a cortex and medulla
– Cortex originates from mesoderm and
medulla from the neural crest
– Cortex further subdivided into zona
glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and
zona reticularis
– Cortex does not receive neural
stimulation (must be hormonally
stimulated via ACTH)

General parts of Adrenal
Gland
• Capsule (A):
• Cortex (B): divided
into three zones
within
areolar/reticular
CT framework
• Medulla (C):
Adrenal Gland
Adrenal Gland: Cortical
Division
Question: ID gland. ID
layer
A d re n a l m e d u lla
Z o n u la g lo m e ru lo sa
Zona glomerulosa
– Beneath capsule
– Cells are composed
of columnar cells
arranged in
small clusters
– Cells have heavily
stained nuclei
and basophilic
cytoplasm
– Fairly dark and
quite narrow
– involved in
electrolyte
regulation via
secretion of
aldosterone and
Z. Glomerulosa arranged in
clusters (red)
encircled in yellow: ang walang kamatayang endothelial cell
nucleus
Question: ID gland. Id
layer

W h a t d o e s it
se cre te ?
Adrenal gland
zona glomerulosa

secretes mineral
corticoids
(aldosterone)
Zona Fasciculata
• Zona fasciculata
– Center of
adrenal cortex
– Widest, palest
layer
– Identified by
arrangement
of vacuolated
cells in
vertical
columns or
strips
– Cells appear pale
and foamy
looking
because of
dissolved lipid
of their
secretions
Zona fasciculata
encircled in yellow: endothelial cells of
capillary
• Note
columna
r
arrange
ment of
cells
(vertical,
parallel
to each
other
with
capillarie
Zona Reticularis
• Innermost
cortical layer
• cells are
somewhat
unorganized
(anastomosing
cords)
• involved in sex
hormones (sex
steroids)

Question: ID
gland. ID layers
• Adrenal gland
• Zona reticularis
and medullary
layer
Adrenal Medulla
• Lighter than
cortex
• Site of
epinephrin
e and
norepineph
rine
production
• Cells:
ganglion
cells (in
blue arrow)
Chromaffin cell (secrete
catecholamines)
Functions of adrenal
medulla
• Innervated by preganglionic
sympathetic axons (SNS)
– Increase respiratory rate.
– Increase HR and cardiac output.
– Vasoconstrict blood vessels, thus
increasing venous return.
– Stimulate glycogenolysis.
– Stimulate lipolysis.

Question: Why does the venous blood
draining the cortex to the medulla have a
high concentration of glucocorticoids?
Glucocorticoids are needed for the synthesis of
phenyl ethanolamine N methylene  a key
enzyme in the synthesis of nor epinephrine
Pancreas
• Accessory gland for digestion
• Endocrine function: insulin and
glucagon
• Islets of Langerhans (A):
endocrine portion of
pancreas
– Lighter staining
compared to exocrine
acinar ducts (produce
cells for the digestive
system)
– Appear in patches
throughout pancreas
– types of cells
• alpha cells secrete
glucagon (outer)
• beta cells secrete
insulin (inner)
– types of cells
• alpha
cells
secrete
glucago
n
( usuall
y stain
red
and
found
in
periph
ery
outer)
• beta cells
secrete
insulin
(usually
stain
blue
Pineal Gland
• Projection of the roof of
the diencephalon with a
small recess of the third
ventricle extending to its
stalk
• Covered by pia mater
• Hormone produced is
melatonin
• Hormone production :
greatest in the dark
• Comprised of
– Pinealocytes & glial cells
– Pineal sand : increases
Pineal Gland
• Pinealocyte (region of
orange arrow)
– Major cell type
– Nuclei round with
prominent nucleoli
– Secrete melatonin
• Glial /interstitial cell
– Nuclei stain more
deeply
• Brain sand
– Aggregations of Ca+
Brain sand