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2010
CDMA 2000
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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Introduction to Mobile Communication

Why communication systems
communication systems structure
Terminals
Network
Transmission media
Why wireless
History of wireless communication
Introduction to mobile systems
Multiple Access Techniques
Wireless Challenges
Cellular System Concepts


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Why communication systems

What is communication systems?

Why communication systems?

Examples of communication systems


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Communication system architecture
Structure of communication systems

Terminals (televisions , radios, phones ,..etc)

Networks (television networks , PSTN , mobile networks .etc)

Transmission media
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Why Wireless?
source Destination
Transmission medium
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Why Wireless? (cont.)
The kinds of transmission medium :

1- Twisted-pair:
It is very low bandwidth and it is easily tapped either physically or by
monitoring its electromagnetic radiation

2- Coaxial cable:
It is greater bandwidth than twisted-pair but it is very expensive.

3- optical fibers:
It is very high bandwidth , very high bit rate and inherently transmission
medium.






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Why Wireless? (cont.)
Although, On a wired transmission link (copper or fiber optic), the characteristics
of the medium are very well controlled and easily predicted

It still fixed and limit the mobility of the user

While the wireless (Radio) telecommunication bridged the distances between
people who wish to Communicate while they move.

So, we will use the radio waves to transmit and receive.

But first we need to know the properties of these waves.





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History of wireless communication
18381866 Telegraphy: Morse perfects his system; Stein hill finds that the earth
can be used for a current path; commercial service is initiated
1864 Maxwells equations predict electromagnetic radiation.
18871907 Wireless telegraphy :
Heinrich Hertz verifies Maxwells theory.
Demonstrations by Marconi and Popov; Marconi patents complete wireless
telegraph system (1897). 19231938 Television: Mechanical image-formation
system demonstrated; DuMont and others perfect vacuum cathode-ray tubes;
field tests and experimental broadcasting begin.
1936 Armstrongs paper states the case of frequency modulation (FM) radio.
1937 Alec Reeves conceives pulse code modulation (PCM).
19381945 Radar and microwave systems developed during World War II; FM
used extensively for military communications.
1962 Satellite communication begins with Telstar I.


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History of wireless communication (cont.)
19681969 Digitalization of telephone network begins.

19701975 PCM standards developed by CCITT.

19751985 High-capacity optical systems developed; the breakthrough of optical
technology and fully integrated switching systems.

19801985 The first generation of modern cellular mobile networks put into
service. But it was all based on analog system:
1981 NMT-450 in Northern Europe
1983 AMPS in the United States.
1985 TACS in Europe and China
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Introduction to mobile systems
What is mobile systems

Difference between mobile systems and PSTN

The first generation of modern cellular mobile networks ( based on analog
system)
1981 NMT-450 in Northern Europe
1983 AMPS in the United States.
1985 TACS in Europe and China

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Introduction to mobile systems (2G)


1985 Standardization for second generation digital cellular systems is initialized.

1992 GSM900 in World Wide.

1993 GSM1800 in Europe.

1994 GSM1900 was firstly commercial.

Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second-generation digital cellular
telephone system.

GSM became the world's leading and fastest growing mobile standard, spanning
over 174 countries, serving more than one in ten of the world's population.
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Difference between 1G and 2G mobile networks
The main difference between 1G networks and 2G networks is
1 G systems was analog but 2 G systems was digital

The analog mobile systems have main restrictions of:
the limited capacity,
voice-only services
high operational cost.
different systems are incompatible in terms of equipment and operation, e.g
NMT and TACS.

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Difference between 1G and 2G mobile networks
Capacity
While with digital systems such as GSM,
the available frequency spectrum is used more efficiently, leading to
increased capacity
reductions in associated costs for network operators, equipment
suppliers and subscribers.

Services
Analog mobile systems were originally designed for voice
digital mobile systems can support voice, data and a range of
additional services such as:
a short message service
call forwarding
ISDN compatible.

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Introduction to mobile systems (2.5G)
GSM offers circuit-switched with good voice quality, but it is providing data rates
of 9.6 kbps which is too slow.

In 1999 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) reuses the existing GSM
infrastructure to provide higher data rate

It was lunched to increase the data rate to 115 kbps by:
using the packet-switched in data transmission
Defining new coding scheme.

In 2001 Evolved Data rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE) offers data rate of 384
kbps by using new modulation scheme(8psk)

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Introduction to mobile systems (North America)
In 1993 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a second-
generation digital cellular telephone system that was first deployed.
CDMAOne describes a complete wireless system based on the
TIA/EIA IS-95 CDMA standard, including IS-95A and IS-95B
revisions.
IS 95A provides data rate up to 9.6Kbps/14.4Kbps
IS 95B Provides data rate up to 115.2Kbps
IS 95B is categorized as 2.5 G

CDMAOne provides a family of related services including cellular
and fixed wireless (wireless local loop).

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3G Systems

In 2000 the ITU-T was responsible for the IMT-2000 specification, which is meant
to be a guideline for every 3G standard

Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) is the marketing name for
the 3G has two standardization bodies:

1- 3GPP which uses the W-CDMA technology.

2- 3GPP2 which uses the CDMA2000 technology.
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WCDMA as a 3G Approach
The 3G solution for GSM is called WCDMA (Wideband CDMA).

WCDMA requires a new radio spectrum as it operates in ultra wide 5-MHz
radio channels.

WCDMA meets the IMT-2000 requirements of 384 kbps outdoors and 2 Mbps
indoors.

The earliest deployment was by NTT DoCoMo.

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CDMA2000 as a 3G Approach
CDMA2000 represents a family of technologies that includes:
CDMA2000 1X
CDMA2000 1XEV.
CDMA2000 1X can double the voice capacity of CDMAOne networks and
delivers peak packet data speeds of 307 kbps in mobile environments.
CDMA2000 1xEV includes:
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO delivers peak data speeds of 2.4Mbps and
supports applications such as MP3 transfers and video conferencing
CDMA2000 1xEV-DV provides integrated voice and simultaneous high-
speed packet data multimedia services at speeds of up to 3.09 Mbps.
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Greater than 2 Mbps User Data Rate
10 Different Frequency Bands
CDMA Low Power (PSD) Results in:
* Low Detection Probability
*Less Susceptible to Jamming
IMT-2000
CDMA2000
IS-95 W-CDMA
GSM
2 Mbps Global Roaming with a single handset
3G Systems & IMT2000
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Migration to 3G
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Multiple Access Techniques


But how will we use this radio frequencies to serve all users.

Meaning of multiple access techniques

Benefits of multiple access techniques

Why we must use multiple techniques


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Multiple Access Techniques

Strength
f1 f2 f3
Frequency
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
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Multiple Access Techniques
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Strength
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Multiple Access Techniques
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

Frequency
Strength
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FDMA, TDMA, vs CDMA
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Wireless Challenges
To provide coverage for a large service area of a mobile network we
have two Options:

(A) Install one transceiver with high radio power at the center of the service
area

Drawbacks:
The mobile equipments used in this network should have high output
power in order to be able to transmit signals across the coverage area So,
Powerful transmitters & huge equipment are required.
The usage of the radio resources would be limited, So, Capacity is limited
to the frequency band allocated.

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Wireless Challenges
(B) Divide the service area into smaller areas (cells)
Advantages:
Each cell as well as the mobile handsets will have relatively small power
transceivers.
The frequency spectrum might be reused in two far
separated cells. This yields:
1- Unlimited capacity of the system.
2- Good interference characteristics

So, The solution is going to
Cellular Systems

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Cellular System Concepts

The Area to be covered is divided into
small cells.
So,
Low Transmission power.
Smaller equipment size.
Capacity of the system can be
increased,
Ex.: In the figure:
Capacity of one big cell =
Capacity of the band Capacity of cellular design = 7 * Capacity of one big cell.
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Cellular System Concepts Frequency reuse
Reuse Pattern(Cluster):

Cells are grouped into Clusters
Available Band is distributed among the cells of the
cluster
Each frequency is reused after the same distance D
Reuse Plan:
(D/R)= 3N
N is the number of cells in a cluster .
Where R is the cell radius
5
2
3
4
7
1
6
5
N=7 Cell Cluster N=7 Cell Cluster
7 Cell Reuse Plan 7 Cell Reuse Plan
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7
1
6
5
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7
1
6
5
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5
D
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For more efficient use of available spectrum and hence
enhancing the system capacity ,each cell is divided into
three sectors of 120
o

In each sector a directional antenna is used whose
narrow beams allow reusing the channels more often

Sectorization is suitable to use in dense urban areas
Cellular System Concepts Sectorization
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Directional Antenna
Cellular System Concepts Sectorization
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Omni Antenna
Cellular System Concepts Omni Sector
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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Definition of Coverage Areas
Location area
MSC area
PLMN area
Service area
Sector
area
Cell area
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CDMA2000 1x network
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The Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Consists of the radio transmitters, receivers and the antenna system required to
provide the coverage area for one cell.

Records and passes to the BSC the Signal strength measurements

Converts the CDMA radio signals into a format that can be recognized by the
BSC.

Channel coding and interleaving

Spreading and despreading

Realization of diversity

Demodulation

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The Base Station Controller (BSC)
Manages the Radio Communication with the mobile station over the air
interface.

Supervises the transmission network and the operation of each BTS

The BSC is the central node within a BSS and co-ordinates the actions of
Base Stations. (i.e. The BSC controls a major part of the radio network)

BTS configuration: This involves the allocation of codes to channel
combinations and power levels for each cell according to available equipment.

Cell Description Data (e.g. cell identity, maximum and minimum output
powers in the cell).

control the power control process
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The Base Station Controller (BSC)
Handling of MS connections :

During Call Set Up
Paging:
Signaling set-up
Assignment of traffic channel

During a Call:
Dynamic power control in MS and BTS
Locating

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The Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC)
The primary node in a CDMA network is the MSC. It is the node, which
controls calls both to MSs and from MSs. The primary functions of an MSC
include the following:

Administers its Base Station Controllers BSC(s).
Switches calls to/from mobile subscribers.
Records charging and accounting details
Provides the gateway functionality to other networks.
Service provisioning.
Control of connected BSCs.
Provides the gateway functionality to other networks.

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Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC):

Gateway functionality enables an MSC to interrogate a HLR in order to route a
mobile terminating call. It is not used in calls from MSs to any terminal other than
another MS.


For example, if a person connected to the PSTN wants to make a call to a CDMA
mobile subscriber, then the PSTN exchange will access the CDMA network by
first connecting the call to a GMSC

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Home Location Register (HLR)
The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile
subscriptions belonging to a specific operator.

It acts as a permanent store for a persons subscription information until that
subscription is cancelled.

The primary functions of the HLR include:
Stores for each mobile subscriber:
Basic subscriber categories.
Supplementary services.
Current location.
Allowed/barred services.
Authentication data.
Subscription database management
Controls the routing of mobile terminated calls and SMS.

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Visitor Location Register (VLR)
The role of a VLR in a CDMA network is to act as a temporary storage location for
subscription information for MSs, which are within a particular MSC service area.

Thus, there is one VLR for each MSC service area. This means that the MSC
does not
have to contact the HLR (which may be located in another country) every time
the
subscriber uses a service or changes its status.

The VLR may be integrated with the MSC.

For the duration when the MS is within one MSC service area, then the VLR
contains a
complete copy of the necessary subscription details, including the following
information:
Identity numbers for the subscriber
Supplementary service information (e.g. Does the subscriber has call waiting
activated or not)
Activity of MS (e.g. idle or busy)
Current Location Area of MS


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Short Message Center (MC or SC)
As an independent entity in the CDMA cellular mobile communication system

the short message center works in coordination with other entities such as MSC
and HLR

Functions of SMC
to implement the reception, storing and transfer of the short messages from
CDMA cellular mobile communication system subscribers,
and store subscriber-related short message data.
Manages the resend of the SMS
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1x Packet Data Service
Compared with IS-95, in order for the CDMA2000 user data service to access, the
CDMA2000-1X core network should be added with:

PDSN,
HA (providing Mobile IP service)
AAA;
these three functional entities are the cdma2000-1X access network should
be added with PCF functional entity.

These new devices are required by the packet data service transmission to
provide high-speed access to the Internet, videophone, and e-commerce to the
users in the 3G mobile communication system.
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System Architecture

R-P Interface, A10/A11


AAA
HA
PDSN
Firewall
BSC/PCF BTS
Billing
System
IP Network
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As a access gateway , PDSN(packet data service node) provides the
CDMA2000 mobile station with services for Internet access or Intranet
access. PDSN acts as an interface between Radio Network and Packet
Data Network.
Provides the mobile station with Simple IP access service or Mobile IP
access service. In Simple IP, PDSN acts as a Network access server,
while in Mobile IP, PDSN acts as Foreign Agent(FA) for Mobile Station.
At the CDMA2000 1x stage, the maximum access rate available for each
subscriber is 153.6kbps
PDSN acts as a client of AAA server.
PDSN
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AAA authenticates the script file information of the subscribers, authorizes data
services, and Collects accounting information from PDSN, completes
accounting.

Authentication
simple IP and mobile IP.
Authorization
subscriber configuration information.
Accounting
collecting billing data(both radio specific and IP network specific) for each
packet data call.

AAA
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Simple IP Access
- Similar to the network access through dialing-up modem on the fixed
telephone .
- Assigning dynamic IP addresses and accomplishing the data communication
with MS as the calling party .

Mobile IP Access
- Providing a route mechanism in the internet. Assigning MS fixed addresses to
connect any sub-networks
- Accomplishing the data communication with MS as the calling party or the
called party, and holding data communication when MS handoff between
different PPP link.




Access Method
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Parameters Involved
In a CDMA system, the following parameters are defined to identify
a user and his location:
MIN/IMSI
MDN
ESN
SID/NID
LAI
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MIN/IMSI
Mobile subscriber identity/international mobile subscriber identity
For example, 0907550001/460030907550001
Not more than 15 digits
3 digits 2 digits
IMSI
MCC MNC
MSIN
NMSI
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MDN
CC
+
MAC
+
H
0
H
1
H
2
H
3
+
ABCD
International mobile subscriber DN
National valid mobile subscriber number
Mobile directory number
For example, 8613307550001
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ESN
A unique Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is used to identify single
MS. An ESN includes 32 bits and has the following structure:

31......24 23......18 17......0 bit
Manufacturers number retained equipment SN
For example, FD 03 78 0A (the 10th Motorola 378 mobile phone)
The equipment serial number is allocated by a manufacturer.
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SID/NID
MSCID (Exchange Identity)
= System Identity (SID) + Exchange number (SWIN)
is used to represent a certain set of equipment in an
NSS network. For example,
Unicom CDMA Shenzhen MSC is labeled as 3755+01
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LAI = Location Area Identity
LAI
PAGING message is broadcast within a local area, the size of which
depends on traffic, paging bearer capability, signaling flow , etc.
Format: MCC+MNC+LAC
MCC: Mobile Country Code, 3 digits. For example, China is 460.
MNC: Mobile Network Code, 2 digits. For example, the MNC of Unicom
is 03.
LAC: Location Area Code, a 2-byte-long hexadecimal BCD code. 0000
cannot be used with FFFE.
For example, 460030100
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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CDMA interface techniques
What is interface?

Functions of interfaces

Why we need such technologies
To provide a high-speed, low delay multiplexing and switching network to any
type of user traffic, such as voice support, data,or video applications

Examples for switching techniques used
ATM
SS7




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What is ATM?
ATM for Telecommunications is Asynchronous Transfer Mode,
(not Automatic Teller Machine!).
ATM is a technology that has transport, switching, network
management, and customer services built into it right from the
start.
In general, ATM means that traffic is carried in small, fixed-
length packets called cells.
A technology that integrates advantages of circuit switch and
packet switch.
ATM can support any type of user services, such as voice, data,
or video service.

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ATM Overview
53byte fixed length cell= 5Bytes cell header+48Bytes
payload.
ATM must set up virtual connection before
communication.
ATM network will confer with terminal on parameter
of QoS before the connection is set up.
Contract
5-Bytes
Header
48-Bytes
Payload
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ATMs Advantage
Integration of various services such as voice, image, video, data and
multimedia.
Standardization of network structures and components. This results in
cost savings for network providers.
Transmission that is independent of the medium used PDH, SDH,
SONET and other media can be used to transport ATM cells.
ATM is scaleable, i.e. the bandwidth can be adapted extremely flexibly to
meet user requirements.
Guaranteed transmission quality to match the service required by the
user (quality of service, QoS).
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Connectionless & Connection-oriented
Connectionless: Every packet is
transferred from different routes, so
the receiving order of packets
doesnt possibly depend on the
sending order.
Connection-oriented : All packets
are transferred from the same
route , so the receiving order of
packets depends on the sending
order. Time delay is fixed.
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Traditional Switch Models Characteristic
- Circuit Switching
Data is sent from the same route, so time delay is fixed
High-speed switching
Fixed rate
- Packet Switching
Support multi-rate switching
Take full advantage of bandwidth/waste of bandwidth
Time delay is not fixed
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ATM Cell
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ATM Cell
GFC ( Generic Flow Control): It is intended for control of a possible bus
system at the user interface and is not used at the moment.
VPI ( Virtual Path Identifier): The VPI contains the second part of the
addressing instructions and is of higher priority than the VCI.
VCI ( Virtual Channel Identifier): VCI in each case indicates a path section
between switching centers or between the switching center and the
subscriber.
PTI ( Payload Type Identifier): Indicates the type of data in the information
field.
CLP ( Cell Loss Priority): Determines whether a cell can be preferentially
deleted or not in the case of a transmission bottleneck.
HEC ( Header Error Control): Provided in order to control and, to some
extent, correct errors in the header data that may occur. The HEC is used to
synchronize the receiver to the start of the cell.
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VP and VC
Why two fields?
think VPI as a bundle of virtual
channels. (256 VPI on one link)
the individual virtual channels
have unique VCIs. The VCI values
may be reused in each virtual path.
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ATM Virtual Connection
UNI cell
VPI =1
VCI =1
UNI cell
VPI =20
VCI =30
NNI cell
VPI =26
VCI =44
NNI cell
VPI =6
VCI =44
NNI cell
VPI =2
VCI =44
1
2
3






1
2
3
1
3
2
2
3 1
ATM Virtual Connection



Port VPI VCI
1 26 44
2 2 44



Port VPI VCI
1 2 44
2 6 44
Port VPI VCI
2 6 44
3 20 30
Port VPI VCI
1 1 1
2 26 44
A B
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Cells
Voice
Data
Video
Connection oriented
Fast packet switching
Statistical multiplexer
Supports voice, data and video service
Provides QoS
Features of ATM
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ATM Sublayer Model
ATM Protocol Stack Model
OSI Reference Model
User
PMD
TC
PHY
ATM
AAL
CS
SAR
Interface
manage
ment
7 Application
6 Presentation
5 Session
4 Transport
3 Network
2 Data link
1 Physical
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Two sublayers:

Transmission Convergence Sublayer (TC)
transmission frame generation/recovery
Processing HEC
cell delimiting
transmission frame adaptation

Physical Medium Dependent Sublayer (PMD)
Link coding
Network physical medium
Function of ATM Physical Layer
AAL
ATM
PHY
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Cell switch
Quality of Service
Processing the cell header
Types of payload
Multiplexing /Demultiplexing of different
connection cell
Function of ATM Layer
AAL
ATM
PHY
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Support services for user
Segment and reassemble
Complete the change between User-
PDU and ATM payload
Function of AAL layer
AAL
ATM
PHY
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Function of ATM AAL Overview
Function of ATM AAL:
Provide a high-speed,
low delay multiplexing
and switching network
to support any type of
user service, such as
voice, data, or video
applications.
ATM Payload
Constant
Bit Rate
Data
Bursts
Variable
Bit Rate
ATM Cell
Multiplexing
AAL SDU
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TCP/IP Process
App Data TCP Header
TCP header App Data IP Header
IP Header TCP Header App Data LLC
SAR-SDU#1 SAR-SDU#2 SAR-SDU#3 SAR-PDU#4 SAR-PDU#5
TCP
IP
SNAP/LLC
AAL5
CS
SAR
ATM
PHY
Cell header will be added to SAR-PDU, whose VPI and VCI depends on
the map table of IP address to PVC/SVC. Then ,the cells will be sent to
Physical Layer.
Perform the transmission of ATM cells via physical media.
LLC IP Header TCP Header App Data PAD CPCS-PDU Tail
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INARP in IPOAPVC Mode
Terminal A IP:192 .168 .1 .1
ATM Network
Terminal B IP:192 .168 .1 .2
PVC
* Any IPOA terminal that wants to communicate with other terminal must know
the destination IP address. But how to know the IP address? PVC connecting
the source and destination terminals should be set up first. For example:
Terminal A must set up a PVC to B in order to know the IP address of B.
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Network Interfaces
Main interfaces
1- Um interface (air interface)
It is defined as the communication interface between MS and BTS
It is physical linking is realized through radio link

2- A interface
It is defined as the communication Interface between NSS and BSS (MSC
and BSC)
It is physical liking is realized using standard 2.04 Mbit/s (E1) PCM digital
transmission link
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Network Interfaces
Network subsystem Interface
1- B interface:
It is defined between VLR ad MSC
It is used by MSC to ask VLR for information about the location of MS, or
to update MS location
2- C interface
It is defined between HLR and MSC
It is used for route selection and management information (billing)

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Network Interfaces
Network subsystem Interface
3- D interface
It is defined between HLR and VLR
It is used for exchanging the information about MS location and
Subscriber management
The VLR is integrated with MSC and HLR is integrated with AC. So, the
physical linking of D-interface is realizing through the standard 2.048
Mbits/s
4 - E interface
It is defined as the interface among different MSCs of controlling adjacent
areas [Handoff]
it is physical linking is realized through the standard 2.048 Mbits/s PCM
digital transmission link.
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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Multiple Access Technologies
User 1 User 2 User 3
Time
Frequency
FDMA
User 1
User 2
User 3
Time
Frequency
TDMA
Time
Frequency
Code
CDMA
User3
User2
User1
Based on codes, all users obtain traffic
channels at the same time and on the same
frequency band, for example, WCDMA and
CDMA2000
Traffic channels on different frequency bands are
allocated to different users, for example, AMPS
and TACS
Traffic channels at different points of time are
allocated to different users, for example, DAMPS and
GSM
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Advantages of CDMA
Advantages of CDMA
The coverage radius is 2 times of standard
GSM.

Coverage of 1000 km2: GSM needs 200
BTS's, while CDMA requires only 50.

Under the same coverage conditions, the
number of BTS 's is greatly decreased
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Simple project design &
convenient capacity expansion
1
3
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GSM: N=4
Frequency reuse
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Simple Network Planning
CDMA: N=1
Frequency reuse
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Green Handset
Systems
Mean
transmission
power
Max transmission
power
GSM 125 mW 2W
CDMA 2 mW 200mW

Low transmission power:
Accurate power control, handoff
control, voice activation
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Voice quality
64k
PCM
present
GSM
8k
CDMA
13k
CDMA
8k EVRC
CDMA
High Quality Voice(1)
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CDMA principles
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CDMA principles
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CDMA principles
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CDMA Principals
The core idea that makes CDMA possible was first explained by Claude
Shannon, a Bell Labs research mathematician

Shannon's work relates amount of information carried, channel
bandwidth, signal-to-noise-ratio, and detection error probability
It shows the theoretical upper limit attainable

In 1948 Claude Shannon published his landmark paper on information
theory, A Mathematical Theory of Communication.

He observed that "the fundamental problem of communication is that
of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message
selected at another point." His paper so clearly established the
foundations of information theory that his framework and terminology are
standard today.
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CDMA Principals

SHANNONS CAPACITY EQUATION


C = Bw log
2
[ 1 + S/N ]

Bw = bandwidth of the signal in Hertz
C = channel capacity in bits/second
S = signal power
N = noise power

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Spread Spectrum
By a small amount of analysis in Shannon equation we can see that the:
bandwidth of the signal (Bw) is inversely proportional to the signal power









This result can be used to serve more than one user by the same frequency in the
same time by generating a new dimension to discriminate between the different
users and make the spreading process
So, the question is how to make the spreading process

f
Sf
The spectrum before spreading
information
f0
The spectrum after spreading
information
f0
Sf
f
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Two Types of Spread Spectrum
Direct Sequence
narrowband input from a user is coded (spread) by a user-unique
broadband code, then transmitted
broadband signal is received; receiver knows, applies users code,
recovers users data
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) CDMA IS the method used in
IS-95 commercial systems

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DSSS Spreading: Time-Domain View
At Originating Site:
Input A: Users Data @ 19,200 bits/second
Input B: Walsh Code #23@ 1.2288 Mcps
Output: Spread spectrum signal

via air interface
At Destination Site:
Input A: Received spread spectrum signal
Input B: Walsh Code #23 @ 1.2288 Mcps
Output: Users Data @ 19,200 bits/second just
as originally sent

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DSSS Spreading: Frequency-Domain View
information
pulse interference White noise
The improvement of
time-domain
information rate means
that the bandwidth of
spectrum-domain
information is spread.
The Y-coordinate is energy density.
The spectrum before despreading
information
Interference noise
Sf
f0
f
f0
The spectrum after despreading
information
Interference noise
Sf
f
f
Sf
The spectrum before spreading
information
f0
The spectrum after spreading
information
f0
Sf
f
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Spread Spectrum
Processing Gain (CDMA Spreading Gain)

Processing gain is the ratio of a spreading rate to a data rate.

Consider a user with a 9600 bps vocoder talking on a CDMA signal
1,228,800 Hz wide.

So, the processing gain is 1,228,800/9600 = 128.

The processing gain in IS-95 system is 128, about 21dB.

The processing gain is calculated as follows:
10 x log
10
128 = 21db

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Spread Spectrum
Principle of Using Multiple Codes
Using several multiple codes improves the system because they are
independent
Spreading
Sequence
A
Spreading
Sequence
B
Spreading
Sequence
C
Spreading
Sequence
C
Spreading
Sequence
B
Spreading
Sequence
A
Input
Data
X
Recovered
Data
X
X+A X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B X+A
Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams
ORIGINATING SITE DESTINATION
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Advantages of Spread Spectrum

Give the ability of multiple access

Avoid interference arising from jamming signal or multi-path effects.

Covert operation: Difficult to detect

Achieve Privacy: Difficult to demodulate, (Noise like signal.)

Impossible to Eavesdrops on the signal expect using the same code
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Definitions
Forward link: the direction from a base station to a mobile station
Reverse link: the direction from a mobile station to a base station









CDMA channel: Code Channels are characterized (made unique) by
mathematical codes (stream of 1s and 0s)
45 or 80 MHz
CDMA CHANNEL
CDMA
Reverse
Channel 1.25 MHz
CDMA
Forward
Channel 1.25 MHz
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Walsh Code
64 Sequences, each 64 chips long
A chip is a binary digit (0 or 1)
Each Walsh Code is Orthogonal to all other Walsh Codes
This means that it is possible to recognize and therefore extract a
particular Walsh code from a mixture of other Walsh codes which are
filtered out in the process
In forward direction, each symbol is spread with Walsh code
Walsh code is used to distinguish the user in forward link
For IS95A/B, in the reverse, every 6 symbols correspond to one Walsh code.
For example, if the symbol input is 110011,the output after spreading is
W
51
64
(110011=51).
For CDMA2000, in the reverse, Walsh function is used to define the type of
channel (RC 3-9)

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Walsh Code
W
2n
=
W
n W
n
W
n
W
n
W
1
=0
W
2
=
0 0
0 1
W
4
=
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
Walsh code
How to generate Walsh code?
Its simple to generate the codes, or theyre small enough to use from ROM

W
i
m
represents i
th
(row) Walsh function of length m.

For example, W
2
4
is 0101 in the Matrix W
4

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Walsh Code
Two same-length binary strings are orthogonal if the result of XORing them has
the same number of 0s as 1s


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M- sequence
In CDMA system, user information is encrypted by means of scrambling. The
scramble code used here is M-sequence.
Shown in the figure is an M-sequence generator made up of a shifting register
sequence with certain feed bake.
The period of the output sequence is 2
N
-1 (N being the number of shifting
registers). That is to say, the shifting register sequence resumes to the initial
status when every 2
N
-1 pieces of codes are output.

Out
0 0 1
1 1
0
Out
0 0 1
1 1
0
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Short code
The short code is a binary M-sequence with 15 shift register.
Short code is PN sequence with period of 2
15
- 1

chips
Sequence with different time offsets are used to distinguish different
sectors
Minimum PN sequence offset used is 64 chips, that is to say, 512 PN offsets
are available to identify the CDMA sectors (2
15
/64=512).
the two sequences scramble the information on the I and Q phase channels
PNa
PNc
PNb
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Long code
The long code is a PN sequence with a period of 2
42
-1 chips
Each mobile station uses a unique User Long Code Sequence generated by:
Long Code State Register makes long code at system reference timing, to
the 42-bit
A Mask Register holds a user-specific unique pattern of bits (32-bit ESN+10-
bit for operator)
Each clock pulse drives the Long Code State Register to its next state
State register and Mask register contents are added in the Summer
Summer contents are modulo-2 added to produce just a single bit output
The output bits are the Long Code, but shifted to the users unique offset
Generated at 1.2288 Mcps, this sequence requires 41 days, 10 hours, 12 minutes
and 19.4 seconds to complete.



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Long code
Out
0 0 1
1 1
0
Long Code Register
(@ 1.2288 MCPS)
Public Long Code Mask
(STATIC)
User Long Code
Sequence
(@1.2288 MCPS)

1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 P E R M U T E D E S N
AND
=
S U M
Modulo-2 Addition
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Coding Process on CDMA Forward Channels
WALSH
19
BTS
Pilot Walsh 0
Walsh 19
Paging Walsh 1
Walsh 6
Walsh 11
Walsh 20
Sync Walsh 32
Walsh 42
Walsh 37
Walsh 41
Walsh 56
Walsh 60
Walsh 55
PN OFFSET 116 BTS
PN OFFSET 226 BTS
PN OFFSET 510 BTS
S

PN
372
x
x
x
PN OFFSET
ANALOG
SUM/MUX
PN OFFSET 372
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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Effects on Radio Communication
Signal degradation can be classified by type :

Path Loss
During distance covered by the radio signal, it is called Free space
path loss , it can be calculated by LFS = 32.44 + 20 log F (MHz) +
20 log d (Km)
Signal attenuation
Resulting from shadowing effects introduced by the obstacles between
transmitter and receiver
Fading of the signal
Caused by numerous effects all of which are related to the Radio
propagation phenomenon
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Effects on Radio Communication
the Radio propagation phenomenon
Reflection
Propagating wave impinges on an object which is large compared to
wavelength
E.g., the surface of the Earth, buildings, walls, etc.
Diffraction
Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with
sharp irregular edge
Waves bend around the obstacle, even when LOS does not exist
Scattering
Objects smaller than the wavelength of the propagating wave
E.g., foliage, street signs, lamp posts
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Fading Problems
1. Shadowing (Normal fading):
The reason for shadowing is the presence of obstacles like large hills or
buildings in the path between the site and the mobile.
The signal strength received fluctuates around a mean value while changing
the mobile position resulting in undesirable beats in the speech signal.

2. Rayleigh Fading (Multi-path Fading):
The received signal is coming from different paths due to a series of
reflection on many obstacles. The difference in paths leads to a difference in
paths of the received components.

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Effects on Radio Communication
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Fading Problems
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Fading Problems Solutions

1. Increase the fading Margin

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Fading Problems Solutions

2. Antenna diversity (Space Diversity)
The cell transceiver will use two receiving antennas instead of one. They
will be separated by a distance of about (10* ), and they will receive radio
signals independently, so they will be affected differently by the fading dips
and the better signal received will then be selected.

Received Signal Strength
Distance
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Fading Problems Solutions
Space diversity
That means we can use two antennas for receiving instead of one
antenna to avoid the fading of the signal at a certain receiving point

The RAKE Receivers
To avoid the multi-path effect there are several RAKE Receivers in
the mobile station and the base station where the signals which
arrives at mobile station at different time will be demodulated
separately and will be given a different time delay so as to keep them
in phase and the Mobile station will perform vector adding of these
signals
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d
1

d
2

t t t
d
3

transmission receiving
Raker combination
noise
Rake Receiver
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The Principle of RAKE Receiver
The RAKE technology can overcome the multi-path fading and enhance
the receive performance of the system.
Receive set
Correlator 1
Correlator 2
Correlator 3
Searcher correlator
Calculate the
time delay and
signal strength

Combiner The combined
signal
t
t
s(t) s(t)
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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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CDMA air interface
What is air interface

Defines the technology between MS and BTS

Carries most of the characteristics of the mobile systems features

Determines the capacity and quality of the system

RNP and RNO depends mainly on air interface parameters

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CDMA frequency assignment
Band Class
uplinkMHz DownlinkMHz
0
824849 869894
1
18501910 19301990
2
872915 917960
3
832870 887925
4
17501780 18401870
5
412460 420493
6
19201980 21102170
7
746764 776794
5

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CDMA frequency assignment
There are 8 band classes stipulated in the IS-2000 for the working
frequency band of the CDMA2000:

1. Band Class0: Corresponding to the North America cellular
frequency band, also in use in China, Hong Kong,
Australia, North Korea and Taiwan.
2. Band Class1: Corresponding to the PCS frequency band in North
America.
3. Band Class2: Corresponding to the TACS frequency band.
4. Band Class3: Corresponding to the JTACS frequency band.
5. Band Class4: Corresponding to the PCS frequency band in South
Korea.
6. Band Class5: Corresponding to the NMT-450 frequency band.
(Nordic Mobile Telephone)
7. Band Class6: Corresponding to the IMT-2000 frequency band.
8. Band Class7: Corresponding to the 700MHz cellular frequency
band in North America.
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General CDMA System Model
Information stream (transmission)
Interleaving
Source
decoding
deinterleaving
Source
coding
Interleaving
deinterleaving
Scrambling
Unscrambling
Spreading
Despreading
Modulation
Demodulation
Radio
frequency
transmitting
Radio
frequency
receive
Information stream (reception)
channel
coding
channel
decoding
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Analog to Digital converter

In CDMA system the signal is sampled by 8KHZ (or 8 K sample per second) with
each sample using 13 bits with linear quantization, which gives an input data rate
of 104 Kbps.

Then it is broken into 20ms frames.

But because the air resource in a wireless system is very precious, a more
effective coding mode is needed to use a rate as low as possible in the case
where voice quality is guaranteed which is the function of source coding.
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Source Coding
Source Coding in CDMA is done by Vocoder
vocoder is such a device the main principles of it are to extract some voice feature
parameters when a person speaks and transmit these feature parameters to the
peer party. Then, the peer party will recover the voice with these parameters
based on the promise between the two parties.
Meanwhile, the codes transmitted from the transmit end to the receive end and
describing voice feature parameters vary with:
speech activity
total bit error rate.
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Source Coding
Where this Vocoder has two rates:
8K QCELP (Rate Set 1: 9600, 4800, 2400 and 120 bps)
13K QCELP (Rate Set 2: 14400, 7200, 3600 and 1800 bps)
The third voice code is the Extended Variable Rate Coder (EVRC) which has
a full rate output of 8Kbps in QCELP but has voce quality very closer to the
13Kbps in QCELP
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Channel Encoding
Convolutional code or TURBO code is used while a channel is encoded
Constraint length = shift register number+1.
Encoding efficiency = the input bits number / the output symbols number.
Convolutional encoder
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The direction of the data stream
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 1 2 8 7 3 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
i
n
t
e
r
l
e
a
v
i
n
g

It can be seen from the figure that the data are read row by row into an
interleaver at the transmit end, read column by column out (this process
is called interleaving) and propagated after other modulation process .

Then, the data enter the interleaver at the receive end row by row and
are read out column by column (this process is called de-interleaving)
Interleaving
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6 Symbols

6464
matrix
64
i
w
( )
2 0 1 2 3 4 5 D D D D D D i =
0101..01
Walsh function of order 64
Spreading
The forward channel is channelized by a Walsh code and the reverse channel
by a long code.
In the reverse, every 6 bits from the encoder output corresponds to one
Walsh code.That is to say, every 6 symbols are spread into 64 chips.
In the forward, each bit from the encoder output corresponds to a Walsh
code.That is to say,each symbol is spread into 64 chips.
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OQPSK
QPSK
Modulation
The forward channel modulated by means of QPSK.

The reverse channel by means of OQPSK can reduce the fluctuation range
of modulated signals.

For OQPSK As opposed to the data modulated by I pilot PN sequence, the
data modulated by Q pilot PN sequence has the delay of half a PN chip
(406.901ns).

Thus, the maximum phase change of four-phase modulation is 90 degrees
instead of 180-degree mutation.

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Modulation-QPSK
I
Q
I channel PN sequence
1.2288Mcps
Q channel PN sequence
1.2288Mcps
Baseband
filter
Baseband
filter
Cos(2pf
c
t)
Sin(2pf
c
t)
I(t)
Q(t)
s(t)
A
1.2288Mcps: the PN chip rate of the system
.
After being spread, all the forward channels in the same carrier are modulated by
means of QPSK (OQPSK in the reverse), converted into simulation signals and
transmitted after clustering.
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Channel structure in IS-95A

Introduction to channels


Forward and reverse channels


Types of channels (physical , logical)

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Types of Channel in IS-95A
Forward channel
Forward Pilot Channel
Forward Sync Channel
Forward Paging Channel
Forward Traffic Channel (including power control subchannel)

Reverse channel
Access Channel
Reverse Traffic Channel
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Pilot Channel
Used by the mobile station for initial system acquisition
Transmitted constantly by the base station
The same Short PN sequences are shared by all base stations
Each base station is differentiated by a phase offset of 64 bits
Provides tracking of:
Timing reference
Phase reference
Separation by phase provides for extremely high reuse within one CDMA
channel frequency
Acquisition by mobile stations by using :
Short duration of Pilot PN sequence
Uuencoded nature of pilot signal
Facilitates mobile station-assisted handoffs
Used to identify handoff candidates
Key factor in performing soft handoffs
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Pilot Channel Generation
The Walsh function zero spreading sequence is applied to the Pilot

The use of short PN sequence offsets allows for up to 512 (2
15
/64) distinct Pilots
per CDMA channel ( frequency carrier)

The PN offset index value (0-511 inclusive) for a given pilot PN sequence is
multiplied by 64 to determine the actual offset
Example: 15 (offset index) x 64 = 960 PN chips
Result: The start of the pilot PN sequence will be delayed
960 chips x 0.8138 microseconds per chip = 781.25 microsecond
Pilot
Channel
(All 0s)
1.2288

Mcps
I PN
Q PN
Walsh
Function 0
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Pilot Channel Acquisition procedure
What is pilot acquisition?
Pilot Channel Acquisition procedure
The mobile station starts generating the I and Q PN short sequences by itself
and correlating them with the received composite signal at every possible
offset.
In less than 15 seconds (typically 2 to 4 seconds) all possibilities (32,768) are
checked.
The mobile station remembers the offsets for which it gets the best correlation
(where the E
b
/N
0
is the best.)
The mobile station locks on the best pilot (at the offset that results in the best
E
b
/N
0
), and identifies the pattern for defining the start of the short sequences
Now the mobile station is ready to start de-correlating the SYNCH channel
with a Walsh code.

0001 0001 0001 0001 0001 0001
Pilot Channel
(Walsh Code 0)
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Sync Channel
Used to provide essential system parameters
It used Walsh function number 32
Used during system acquisition stage
Bit rate is 1200 bps
Simplifies the acquisition of the Sync Channel once the Pilot
Channel has been acquired
Mobile Station re-synchronizes at the end of every call
Now the mobile enters the idle state
(Acquired Pilot)
Sync Channel
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Sync. Message Parameters

System ID (SID) 16-bit unsigned integer identifying the system

Network ID (NID) 16-bit unsigned integer identifying the network
within the system (defined by the owner of the SID)

Pilot PN Sequence Offset Index (PILOT_PN) Set to the pilot PN
offset for the base station (in units of 64 chips), assigned by the
network planner

Long Code State (LC_STATE) Provides the mobile station with
the base station long code state at the time given by the SYS_TIME
field, generated dynamically


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Sync. Message Parameters

System Time (SYS_TIME) GPS system-wide time as 320 ms after the end of
the last superframe containing any part of this message, minus the pilot PN offset,
in units of 80 ms, generated dynamically

Paging Channel Data Rate (PRAT) The data rate of the paging channel for this
system, determined by the network planner
00 if 9600 bps
01 if 4800 bps

CDMA Frequency Assignment (CDMA_FREQ)

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Sync Channel Generation
1200 bps
Walsh Function 32
1.2288 Mcps
I PN
Convolutional
Encoder and
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
R = 1/2 K=9
Modulation
Symbols
4800 sps 4800 sps
Bits Chips
Q PN
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Paging Channels
The Paging Channel uses Walsh function 1

Two rates are supported: 9600 and 4800 bps

The paging channel message:
System parameters message
Access parameters message
Neighbors list message
CDMA channels list message

The functions of a paging channel:
Paging mobile stations and responding access channels
Assigning traffic channel
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Paging Channels Generation
9600 bps

4800 bps
Walsh
function
1.2288

Mcps
Q PN
1.2288
Mcps
19.2

Ksps
19.2
Ksps

Paging Channel
Address Mask
R = 1/2 K=9
Decimator
Convolutional
Encoder &
Repetition
I PN
Block
Interleaving
Scrambling
Long PN Code
Generator
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CDMA Forward Traffic Channel

Used for the transmission of user and signaling information to a specific
mobile station during a call.

Maximum number of traffic channels: 64 minus one Pilot channel, one
Sync channel, and 1 - 7 Paging channel.
This leaves each CDMA frequency with at least 55 traffic channels.
Unused paging channels can provide up to 6 additional channels.

Now we will talk about the generation of the traffic channel procedure in
details
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Forward Traffic Channel
8 kb Vocoding Generation
Walsh
function
Power
Control
Bit
I PN
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
(Vocoder)
Convolutional
Encoding and
Repetition
1.2288
Mcps
Long PN Code
Generation
800 Hz
R =1/2,K=9
Q PN
Decimator Decimator
User Address
Mask
(ESN-based)
19.2
ksps
1.2288
Mcps
Scrambling
bits symbols chips
19.2
ksps
CHANNEL ELEMENT
M
U
X
Block
Interleaving
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Rate 1/2, k=9 Convolutional Encoding
Symbols generated as the information bits transit through the encoder, are
related to all the bits currently in the register.
Each information bit contributes to multiple symbols.
Pattern of inter-relationships helps detect and correct errors.
The length of shift register is called constraint (K=9) length.
The longer the register, the better coding can correct bursty errors
Here, two symbols are generated for every bit input (Rate 1/2).
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Full Rate Block Interleave
The 384 modulation symbols in a frame are input into a 24 by 16 block interleave array and read down
by columns, from left to right
Adjacent symbols are now separated in time This separation combats the effect of fast fading
A burst of errors could effect the area in red above and after the frame is written into the block de-
interleave function at the mobile we see the errors are spread out instead of being in consecutive order.
Symbols are
Written In
Symbols are
Read Out
1 25 49 73 97 121 145 169 193 217 241 265 289 313 337 361
2 26 50 74 98 122 146 170 194 218 242 266 290 314 338 362
3 27 51 75 99 123 147 171 195 219 243 267 291 315 339 363
4 28 52 76 100 124 148 172 196 220 244 268 292 316 340 364
5 29 53 77 101 125 149 173 197 221 245 269 293 317 341 365
6 30 54 78 102 126 150 174 198 222 246 270 294 318 342 366
7 31 55 79 103 127 151 175 199 223 247 271 295 319 343 367
8 32 56 80 104 128 152 176 200 224 248 272 296 320 344 368
9 33 57 81 105 129 153 177 201 225 249 273 297 321 345 369
10 34 58 82 106 130 154 178 202 226 250 274 298 322 346 370
11 35 59 83 107 131 155 179 203 227 251 275 299 323 347 371
12 36 60 84 108 132 156 180 204 228 252 276 300 324 348 372
13 37 61 85 109 133 157 181 205 229 253 277 301 325 349 373
14 38 62 86 110 134 158 182 206 230 254 278 302 326 350 374
15 39 63 87 111 135 159 183 207 231 255 279 303 327 351 375
16 40 64 88 112 136 160 184 208 232 256 280 304 328 352 376
17 41 65 89 113 137 161 185 209 233 257 281 305 329 353 377
18 42 66 90 114 138 162 186 210 234 258 282 306 330 354 378
19 43 67 91 115 139 163 187 211 235 259 283 307 331 355 379
20 44 68 92 116 140 164 188 212 236 260 284 308 332 356 380
21 45 69 93 117 141 165 189 213 237 261 285 309 333 357 381
22 46 70 94 118 142 166 190 214 238 262 286 310 334 358 382
23 47 71 95 119 143 167 191 215 239 263 287 311 335 359 383
24 48 72 96 120 144 168 192 216 240 264 288 312 336 360 384
16 Columns
2
4

R
o
w
s

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Data Scrambling

Every 64
th
PN chip is modulo-2 added to a symbol
Randomize transmitted data
Effects of all 1s or 0s' traffic (impulse-like) is reduced as the stream of
ones or zeros will cause that the receiver may loss the synchronization
with the transmitter as there is any changes in transmitted data
Eliminates probability of Pilot Reuse Error
Mobile might demodulate a distant cell with same PN offset
Block
Interleaver
Long
Code PN
Generator
19.2 Ksps
Modulation
Symbols
User Address
Mask (ESN)
Decimator
Divide
by 64
19.2
Ksps
1.2288
Mcps
19.2
Ksps
To Power
Control Mux
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Power Control Sub-channel
A power control sub-channel is transmitted continuously every 1.25ms (or
800HZ)
BTS instruct MS to change its power level by +1dB. A 0 power control bit
requests the MS to increase its power. A 1 power control bit instruct the MS
to decrease its power
Each power control bit has a bit time of two of data bit (for Rate set 1)
A puncturing technique: The 1/(64*24) long code is used to randomize the
position of the power control bit
19.2 Ksps
from Block
Interleaver
1.2288 Mcps
User Long
Code
Decimator
Scrambled
Modulation
Symbol or
Power
Control Bit
19.2
Ksps
Decimator
Data Scrambling
M
U
X
800 bpS Mux
Timing
Power Control
Bit (800 bps)
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Composite I and Q
Each channel card has a combiner and
works in a serial array to combine the I
and Q signals for all forward channels
in a partition sector or cell.

The base band I and Q signals for all
channel cards are sent to the CORE
module to be multiplexed together
based on the PN offset.

This ensures that a mobile station does
not mistakenly decode the signal from a
channel with the same Walsh code from
the wrong base station.
Pilot
Channel
Walsh
Code
Sync
Channel
Walsh
Code
Paging
Channel(s)
Walsh
Code
Forward Traffic
Channel(s)
Walsh
Code
I PN Code
Q PN Code
Composite
I
Composite
Q
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Quadrature Phase Shift Key (QPSK) Modulation
QPSK output = I

cos ( 2 p f
c
t ) + Q sin (2 p f
c
t )

: XOR
S : Analog sum
: Base band x Carrier
Every
Channel
Walsh
code
Q PN Code
I PN Code
Base band
filter
Base band
filter
cos ( 2 pf
c
t )
sin (2 pf
c
t )
S
S
S





G
a
i
n

C
o
n
t
r
o
l

Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Reverse Traffic Channels

Used when a call is in progress to send:
Voice traffic from the subscriber
Response to commands/queries from the base station
Requests to the base station

Supports variable data rate operation for:
8 Kbps vocoder
Rate Set 1 - 9600, 4800, 2400 and 1200 bps
13 Kbps vocoder
Rate Set 2 - 14400, 7200, 3600, 1800 bps

Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Reverse Traffic Channels
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps

28.8
ksps
R=1/3,K=9
1.2288
Mcps
User Address
Mask
Long
PN Code
Generator
28.8
ksps

Orthogonal
Modulation
Data Burst
Randomizer
307.2
kcps
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN
(no offset)
I PN
(no offset)
D
1/2 PN
Chip
Delay
Direct
Sequence
Spreading
Convolutional
Encoder &
Repetition
Block
Interleaver
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Rate 1/3 Convolutional Encoder
+
+
+
g
0
g
1
g
2
Information bits
(INPUT)
Code Symbols
(OUTPUT)
Code Symbols
(OUTPUT)
Code Symbols
(OUTPUT)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Block Interleaving
28.8 ksps
From Coding
& Symbol
Repetition
28.8 ksps to
Orthogonal
Modulation
Input Array
(Normal
Sequence)
32 x 18
Output Array
(Reordered
Sequence)
32 x 18
The 576 modulation symbols in a frame are input into a 32 by 18 block
interleave array read down by columns, from left to right
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
64-ary Orthogonal Modulation
For every six symbols in, 64 Walsh Chips are output
Six symbols are converted to a decimal number from 0-63
The Walsh code that corresponds to the decimal number becomes the output

1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Symbols
35 44 Walsh Lookup Table
WalshChip withina WalshFunction
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1
8 9 0 1
1 1 1 1
2 3 4 5
1 1 1 1
6 7 8 9
2 2 2 2
0 1 2 3
2 2 2 2
4 5 6 7
2 2 3 3
8 9 0 1
3 3 3 3
2 3 4 5
3 3 3 3
6 7 8 9
4 4 4 4
0 1 2 3
4 4 4 4
4 5 6 7
4 4 5 5
8 9 0 1
5 5 5 5
2 3 4 5
5 5 5 5
6 7 8 9
6 6 6 6
0 1 2 3
0
1
2
3
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
4
5
6
7
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
8
9
10
11
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
12
13
14
15
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
W
a
l
s
16
17
18
19
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
h
F
u
20
21
22
23
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
n
c
t
i
24
25
26
27
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
o
n

I
28
29
30
31
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
n
d
e
x
32
33
34
35
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
36
37
38
39
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
40
41
42
43
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
44
45
46
47
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
48
49
50
51
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
52
53
54
55
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
56
57
58
59
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
60
61
62
63
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0 1 . . . 1 1 0 1 0
64 Chip Pattern of
Walsh Code # 35
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Direct Sequence Spreading
Output of the randomizer is direct sequence spread by the long code
The mobile station can use one of two unique long code masks:
A public long code mask based on the ESN
A private long code mask

1.2288
Mcps
User Address
Mask
Long
Code PN
Generator
Data Burst
Randomizer
307.2
kcps
To Quadrature
Spreading
1.2288
Mcps
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Offset Quadrature Spreading & Baseband Filtering
The channel is spread by a pilot PN sequence with a zero offset
Baseband filtering ensures that the waveform is contained within the
required frequency limits
Baseband signals converted to radio frequency (RF) in the 800 MHz or
1900 MHz range
1.2288
Mcps
I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence
1.2288 Mcps
PN
I
Q
I
Q
cos(
2
p f
c
t)
sin(2 p f
c
t)
PN chip
1.2288
Mcps
From
Data Burst
Randomizer
RF Converters
D
1/2 PN Chip
Time Delay
Baseband
Filter
Baseband
Filter
Cos(2f
c
t)
sin(2f
c
t)
Copy Rights LEGEND Co. 2010
Access Channels
Used by the mobile station to:
Initiate communication with the base station
Respond to Paging Channel messages

Has a fixed data rate of 4800 bps

Each Access Channel is associated with only one Paging Channel

Up to 32 access channels (0-31) are supported per Paging Channel

Message attempts are randomized to reduce probability of collision

Two message types:
A response message (in response to a base station message)
A request message (sent autonomously by the mobile station)


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Access Channel Generation
28.8
ksps
Convolutional
Encoder &
Repetition
R = 1/3
1.2288
Mcps
Access Channel
Long Code Mask
Long PN Code
Generator
28.8
ksps
Orthogonal
Modulation
307.2
kcps
1.2288
Mcps
Q PN (No Offset)
I PN (No Offset)
D
1/2 PN
Chip
Delay
Block
Interleaver
Access Channel
Information
(88 bits/Frame)
4.8 kpbs
Direct
Sequence
Spreading
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Summarization of Initialization of the Mobile Station
Search for the CDMA carrier, acquire the pilot channel and synchronize the short
code.
Receive the synchronous channel message containing the LC_STATE,
SYS_TIME, P_RAT.
Acquire timing and synchronize with the system.
Monitor the paging channel and receive the system message.
The mobile station can register and be taken as the calling party or called party.

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Difference between IS95A and IS-95B
What is IS95B?

IS-95B is based on and compatible completely with IS-95A.

The main difference :

Increase the supplemental code channels to enhance the data rate. A
single user can be assigned less than 8 code channels (1 FCH + 7
SCCH)the highest data rate being 76.8 (rate set 1) / 115.2kbps (rate
set 2).

Soft handoff with relative thresholds

MS-aided hard handoff
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Overview of CDMA 1X
Completely compatible IS-95A/B
Adding multiple channels to
improve the system performance
Channel bandwidth:
1.23MHz
Maximum rate
supported:307.2kbps
Voice code:
8K/13K
QCELP 8K EVRC
Forward transmit
diversity mode:
OTD, STS
Modulation mode
Reverse HPSK:
Forward QPSK
Power control:
forward/reverse
power control
Channel code:
Convolutional code
and TURBO code
Demodulation
mode: pilot-aided
coherent
demodulation
CDMA
20001X
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CDMA2000 1x
Introduction to CDMA2000 1x


Migration from IS95A to CDMA2000x


New features in CDMA2000x


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Turbo Code
Use a Turbo code during the transmission of a large data packet.

Characteristics of the Turbo code:

The input information shall be encoded twice and the two output codes can
exchange information with each other during decoding.
The symbol is protected not only by the neighborhood check bits, but
by the other check bits.

The performance of a Turbo code is superior to that of a convolutional code.
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Variable Walsh Codes
64
4
8
16
32
1
2
9600 19200 38400 76800 153600 307200 614400
Data rate -bps-
W
0
1
=0
W
0
2
=00
W
1
2
=01
W
0
4
=0000
W
2
4
=0011
W
1
4
=0101
W
3
4
=0110
W
0
8
=00000000
W
4
8
=00001111
W
2
8
=00110011
W
6
8
=00111100
W
1
8
=01010101
W
5
8
=01011010
W
3
8
=01100110
W
7
8
=01101001
( W
0
16
,W
8
16
)
( W
4
16
,W
12
16
)
( W
2
16
,W
14
16
)
( W
6
16
,W
14
16
)
( W
1
16
,W
9
16
)
( W
5
16
,W
13
16
)
( W
3
16
,W
11
16
)
( W
7
16
,W
15
16
)
The different Walsh codes
corresponding to different data rates
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Reverse HPSK Modulation

The CDMA 1X adopts forward QPSK modulation like the IS-95 system, but
adopts HPSK modulation in the reverse.

HPSK ( Hybrid PSK ), namely, OCQPSK ( Orthogonal Complex QPSK ). The
functions are as follows:
Reduce the linear requirement for the power amplification of a mobile
station.
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Transmission Diversity
The forward transmission diversity types of
CDMA2000 1X
TD(Transmit Diversity)
OTD(Orthogonal Transmit Diversity)
The data stream is divided into two parts, which will
be spread by the orthogonal code sequence.
STS(Space Time Spreading)
All the forward code channels are transmitted on the
multi-antennas.
Spread with the supplementary Walsh code or with
pseudo-randomization code.
Non-TD
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Transmission Diversity
The Transmission Diversity Technology enhances the receive
performance of a terminal.
OTD/STS
Path 1
Path 2
Transmission
diversity
processing
Data stream
Data stream 1
Data stream 2
Restoring data stream
Antenna 2
Antenna 1
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Advantages of the CDMA20001x Standards

Increased mobile standby battery life (via Quick Paging Channel)

Total backward compatibility to reuse switch and call processing features

No need to change any RF infrastructure

2-3 dB better coverage

High speed packet data capabilities
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CDMA 2000 1XRtt
New Channel Structure
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CDMA2000 1x Rtt Channel
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Forward Supplemental Channel (F-SCH)
Assigned for high-speed packet data (>9.6 kbps) in the forward
direction; (FCH is always assigned to each call)
Up to 2 F-SCH can be assigned to a single mobile
SCH cannot exist without having a fundamental channel
established
F-SCH supports Walsh code lengths of 4 - 1024 depending on data
rate and chip rate
SCH-1
File transfer at 144 kbps
FCH
Voice, power control and link continuity
Mobile 1
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Reverse Supplemental Channel (R-SCH)
Used for high-speed packet data (>9.6 kbps)
Difference between F-SCH and R-SCH is in Walsh code based spreading

F-SCH supports Walsh code lengths of 4 to 128 (1xRTT) or 1024
(3xRTT) depending on data rate and chip rate
R-SCH uses either a 2-digit or 4-digit Walsh code; rate matching done
by repetition of encoded and interleaved symbols
Walsh code allocation sequence is pre-determined and common to
all mobiles
Users are differentiated using long PN code with user mask
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Reverse Pilot Channel (R-PICH)

Mobile transmits well-known pattern (pilot)

Allows base station to do timing corrections without having to guess
where mobile is (in search window)

Mobile can transmit at lower power, reducing interference to others
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Quick Paging Channel (F-QPCH)
More efficient monitoring of paging channel by mobile, enhancement to slotted paging
Mobile monitors QPCH to determine if there is a page forthcoming on paging channel
in its slot (looks at 1-bit paging indicator)
If no flag, then mobile goes back to sleep; if flag, then mobile monitors appropriate slot
and decodes general page message
Without QPCH, mobile must monitor regular paging channel slot and decode several
fields to determine whether page is for it or not; this drains mobile batteries quickly
The main purpose of QPCH is to save mobile battery life.
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F-CPCCH

Common Power Control Channel tightly controls power of mobiles accessing the
system using R-EACH or RCCCH

One CPCCH can transmit power control data for up to 24

reverse channels (each is either an R-EACH or an RCCCH) 12 channels of
power control on the I channel, 12 on the Q channel

The CPCCH increases system capacity by better control of mobile power during
access mode

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F-BCH and F-CCCH

Broadcast Channel F-BCH
40 ms frames with slots of 40, 80, or 160 ms
Carries only Overhead messages transmitted at 19.2, 9.6, or 4.8 kbps

Common Control Channel
Uses 20, 10, or 5 ms frames
Transmits signaling messages at 9.6, 19.2, or 38.4 kbps
Handles all other signaling directed to mobiles
Free to operate at higher data rates to improve throughput

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F-FACH
What is F-CACH ?

F-CACH modes:

Power Controlled access mode
F-CACH provides fast acknowledgments to mobiles during access for
power control
Reservation Access Mode
Transmits an abbreviated address for each mobile that is allowed to
transmit on the R-CCC . This reduces collisions during the access
process

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Course Outlines
Introduction to mobile communication
CDMA network architecture
CDMA network interfaces
CDMA principles
Transmission problems
CDMA air interface
CDMA key technologies
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CDMA key technologies

Power control

Handoff
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Why Power Control?
All CDMA users occupy the same
frequency at the same time!
Frequency and time are not used as
discriminators.
CDMA operates by using CODES to
discriminate between users.
CDMA interference comes mainly
from nearby users
Each user is a small voice in a
roaring crowd -- but with a uniquely
recoverable code.
Transmit power on all users must be
tightly controlled so their signals
reach the base station at the same
signal level and at the absolute
minimum power level necessary to
ensure acceptable service quality

Figure of Merit: E
b
/N
o

(energy per chip [bit] /
interference [noise] spectral
density)
CDMA: E
b
/N
o
~6to7 dB
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Reverse Open Loop
The mobile station makes a coarse initial estimation of the required transmit
power, based upon the total received power.

Problems with Reverse Open Loop Power Control:
Assumes same exact path loss in both directions; therefore, cannot
account for asymmetrical path loss
Estimates are based on total power received; therefore the power received
from other cell sites by mobile station introduces inaccuracies
Mobile BTS
Reverse Open Loop
Power Control
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Reverse Closed Loop Power Control
Compensates for asymmetries between the forward and reverse paths
Consists of power up (0) & power down (1) commands sent to the
mobile stations, based upon their signal strength measured at the Base
Station and compared to a specified threshold
Each command requests a 1dB increase or decrease of the mobile
station transmit power
Transmitted 800 times per second, always at full power
Allows to compensate for the effects of fast fading
Mobile BTS
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint
or
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
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Reverse Outer Loop Power Control
Most gradual form of reverse link power control
Set point is varied according to the FER on the Reverse Traffic Channel
(determined at the Base Station Controller)
Sampled at a rate of 50 frames per second (20 ms / frame)
Set point adjusted every 1-2 seconds
FER
Mobile BTS
BSC
Reverse Outer
Loop Power
Control
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint
or
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
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Forward Traffic Channel Power Control
The base station slowly decreases power to each mobile station.

As the FER (determined at the mobile station) increases, the mobile
station requests a Forward Traffic Channel power increase.
FER
Mobile BTS
BSC
Adjust Fwd.
power
Forward Link Power Control
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Summary of All Power Control Mechanisms
All types of power control work together to minimizes power consumption
at the mobile stations, and increases the overall capacity of the system
transmit power.
FER
FER
Mobile BTS
BSC
Signal Strength
Measurement
Setpoint
or
Adjust Fwd.
power
Reverse Outer
Loop Power
Control
Reverse Closed Loop
Power Control
Forward Link Power Control
Reverse Open Loop
Power Control
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Handoffs
Handoff is the process by which a mobile station maintains
communications with the Mobile Telephone Switching center(MSC), when
traveling from the coverage area of one base station to that of another.

Handoffs keep the call established during the following conditions:
Subscriber crosses the boundaries of a cell
Subscriber experiences noise or other interference above a specified
threshold
A base station component experiences an out-of-service condition
during a call
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CDMA Handoffs
CDMA Handoffs
Make-before-break
Directed by the mobile not the base station
Undetectable by user
Improves call quality
Handoffs consist of the following phases:
Initiation (trigger), Target Selection, and Completion (execution)
Cell Site
B
Cell Site
A
Cell Site
A
Cell Site
B
CDMA
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CDMA Handoffs (cont.)


During
a Call
Idle Handoff
Soft Handoff
Softer Handoff
CDMA-to-CDMA Handoff
Inter-System Soft Handoff
CDMA-to-Analog Handoff


While in the
Idle State
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Soft Handoff
Soft Handoff: the mobile station starts communications with a
target base station without interrupting communications with the
current serving base station.
Can involve up to three cells simultaneously and use all signals
Mobile station combines the frames from each cell
Cell Site
B
Cell Site
A
PSTN
MTX
B
S
C
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Softer Handoff
Handoff is between sectors of the same cell
Communications are maintained across both sectors until the mobile
station transition has completed
May happen frequently
MSC is aware but does not participate
All activities are managed by the cell site
Signals received at both sectors can be combined for improved quality
alpha
beta
gamma
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Inter-System Soft Handoffs
Mobile Station starts communications with a new cell controlled by a
different BSC while still communicating with the cell controlled by the
source BSC
Soft Handoffs over Hard Handoffs
Fewer border cell
MSC
BSC
CIS
T1 or E1 Links
MSC
BSC
CIS
A
f1
D
f1
B
f1
E
f1
C
f1
F
f1
U
f1
X
f1
V
f1
Y
f1
W
f1
Z
f1
CDMA Soft Handoff
ISSHO CDMA Hard Handoff
T1 or E1 Links
TIA/EIA-41D
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Hard Handoff
Between cells operating on different frequencies
Between cells that could be on the same frequency, but which are
subordinated to different MSC
A
(
1
)
PSTN
MSC
BSC
B
(
2
)
A
PSTN
MSC
BSC
B
MSC
BSC
T1 or E1 Links
TIA/EIA-41D
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Pilot Sets
Pilot sets:
Active Set: Pilots associated with the forward traffic channels
assigned to the mobile station (max 6 pilots)
Candidate Set: Pilots not currently in the Active Set, but received
by the mobile with sufficient strength to indicate that the
corresponding Traffic Channels can be successfully demodulated
(max 5 pilots)
Neighbor Set: Pilots not currently on the Active or Candidate Sets,
that are likely handoff candidates (at least 20 pilots)
Remaining Set: All other possible pilots in the current system on
the current CDMA frequency assignment
All pilots in a set have the same frequency assignment
These sets can be updated during handoff by the base station
Pilot Sets
1. Active
2. Candidate
3. Neighbor
4. Remaining

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Pilot Set Initialization

Candidate
Remaining
Active
Neighbor
Pilot whose Paging Channel
is being monitored or
associated with the assigned
Forward Traffic Channel
Pilots specified in the most
recently received Extended
Neighbor List Message
(AGE set at NGHBR_MAX_AGE)
Empty
Any other possible pilot
in the system

(While in the Idle or in an Active Call)
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Pilot Set Maintenance
Candidate
Remaining
Active
Neighbor
Pilots listed the most
recently received Extended
Handoff Direction Msg
Pilots specified in the most
recently received Neighbor
List Update Message
(or whose AGE is still less
than NGHBR_MAX_AGE)
Pilots whose strength
exceeds T_ADD
Any other possible pilot
in the system
(While in an Active Call)
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Pilot Strength Measurement Message (PSMM)
The Pilot Strength Measurement Message is used by the mobile
station to direct the base station in the handoff process.
Mobile station reports the strength of the pilots associated with forward
traffic channels currently being demodulated (and whether it would like to
continue to receive traffic from them), as well as pilots from the neighbor
and remaining list which are being received with sufficient strength so that
traffic could be demodulated from them successfully.
A
B
C
Pilot Channel
Timing
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Pilot Search Windows
A search window is a range of PN offsets (in chips) where the mobile station searches
for usable multipath components of the pilots in a set
Usable means that multipath components can be used for demodulation
of an associated traffic channel
Search Window for pilots in the Active and Candidate Set:
Search Window for pilots in the Neighbor Set:
Search Window for pilots in the Remaining Set:
Earliest arriving usable multipath component of the pilot
pilot PN offset
pilot PN offset
SRCH_WIN_N
SRCH_WIN_A
SRCH_WIN_R
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Pilot
Strength

Pilot Strength
exceeds T_ADD
EHOD message received,
Pilot Dropped into Neighbor Set,
EHOC message sent,
NLU message received
Time
Pilot strength drops below T_DROP,
Drop Timer started
T_TDROP
T_ADD
T_DROP
EHOD message received, Pilot Added to Active Set,
EHOC message sent, NLU message received
N C N A
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Drop Timer expires
PSMM sent (request to add) ,
Pilot added to Candidate Set
PSMM Sent (request to remove)
Soft Handoff Signaling
T_ADD: pilot detection threshold
T_DROP: pilot drop threshold
T_TDROP: drop timer value
Prevents unnecessary transmissions of PSMM when a mobile station
experiences a fade
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