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Presented by : Er.

GPS
Garvit Garg
What Is Precision Farming
• Application of information technology
to manage spatial and temporal
variability associated with all aspects
of agricultural production.

• It offers the promise of increasing


productivity, while decreasing
production costs and minimizing the
environmental impact of farming
Objectives of Precision
Farming
• Agronomical perspective: adjustment of cultural
practices to take into account the real needs of the crop
(e.g., better fertilization management)  
• Technical perspective: better time management at the
farm level (e.g. planification of agricultural activity)
• Environmental perspective: reduction of agricultural
impacts (better estimation of crop nitrogen needs implying
limitation of nitrogen run-off)
• Economical perspective: increase of the output and/or
reduction of the input, increase of efficiency (e.g., lower
cost of nitrogen fertilization practice)
Need for Precision
Farming
• The productivity levels of many major
crops are far below than expectation
• We have not achieved even the lowest
level of potential productivity of Indian
high yielding varieties, whereas the
world’s highest productive country have
crop yield levels significantly higher than
the upper limit of the potential of Indian
HYV’s.
• Food crisis: Growth rate of population is
higher then growth rate of production.
• Stagnation in agricultural production
Precision Farming System
Overview
• Brain of the system is a geographic
information system (GIS)which will form the
knowledge base and decision making parts of
the precision farming system
• Technical and economic decisions related to
the farming operation will be governed by
this knowledge based GIS. A GIS will be made
up of layers of related information, and the
GIS will allow a quantitative study of the
relationships between the layers
Feasibility Analysis of
precision Framing
Area of India = 329 million ha
Area covered by one reference of GPS =200 Km radius
Area of GPS = 3.14*(200)^2 sq Km
=125600 sq km
= 12.56 million ha
Total no of GPS reference station required for the country =
329/12.56=26
Cost of a single GPS = Rs 40 Lakhs
Total cost of entire infrastructure = Rs 10.4 crore
Contribution of agriculture to GDP of India for 2008 =568230 crore
Amount spend for R & D =0.3 % of GDP =1704.69 Crores
Percentage of amount required from R & D = (10.4/1704.69)*100
= 0.61%
Precision Farming System
Overview
• Field topography  
• Soil types
• Surface drainage
• Sub-surface drainage
• Soil testing results
• Rainfall
• Irrigation
Precision Farming System
Overview
• The GIS will then allow a study of the
relationship between these layers of
information to determine cause and effect and
to base decisions upon this knowledge.
• Examples
• Sub soiling depth may be dependent on field
location.
• Seeding rates may vary according to field
location, which may depend on factors such as
topography and soil type.
Geographic Information
Systems
Geographic Information
Systems
• We can describe
any element of our
world in two ways:
Attribute
Location Information:
Information: What is it?
Where is it?
Species: Oak
Height: 15m
Age: 75 Yrs
51°N, 112°W
Describing Our World
GIS - Links Data Sets
• GIS software links the
location data and the
attribute data:
GIS - Analysis
GIS software can answer Attribute
questions about our Questions:
What provinces have more
world: than 1.5 million people?

Spatial Questions:
What provinces border
Saskatchewan?
Piper aircraft used for Precision
farming
HySpex system (VNIR and
SWIR) mounted in the airplane
The HySpex VNIR-1600
camera
Transmission network
Obstacles to adoption of precision
farming

• Small farm size


• Lack of success stories 
• Heterogeneity of cropping systems and
market imperfections
• Land ownership, infrastructure and
institutional constraints
• Lack of local technical expertise
• Knowledge and technical gaps
• Data availability, quality and costs
Status of Precision Farming
in India
• Tata Kisan Kendra: The concept of precision
farming being implemented by the TKKs has the
potential to catapult rural India from the bullock-
cart age into the new era of satellites and IT.
• Some of the research institutes such as Indian
Space Applications Centre (ISRO), M.S.
Swaminathan Research Foundation,
Chennai, Indian Agricultural Research
Institute, New Delhi, and Project Directorate
of Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram,
had started working in this direction and in soon it
will help the Indian farmers harvest the fruits of
frontier technologies without compromising on the
quality of land.
Opportunities in India
• In the major agricultural states of Punjab,
Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat there
are more than 20 per cent of agricultural
lands have operational holding size of
more than 4 ha.
• Many horticultural crops in India, which
are high profit making crops, offer wide
scope for precision farming.
• Funding new hardware, software and
consulting industries related to precision
farming gradually widening.  
Suggestions
• Guidance from the public and private
sectors, and agricultural associations
• Farmers will not adopt precision farming
unless it brings in more or at least similar
profit as compared to traditional practice
• Adoption would be improved if it can be
shown to reduce the risk
• Precision farming cannot be convincing if
only environmental benefits are
emphasized