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# HT MOTOR PROTECTION

## MOTOR FAILURE RATES

Electrical related failures 33%

Mechanical Related failures - 31%

Environmental maintenance & other
related problems 36%
ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
Overload protection

Earth fault protection

Locked rotor protection

Start/Stall protection

Number of starts limitation

Protection In Stage-III Mill PA FD
Inverse time over load relay
Y Y Y
Instantaneous Over Current
Y N Y
Definite Time Overload
N N N
Earth Fault
N N N
Sensitive Earth Fault
Y Y Y
Locked rotor protection
N N Y
Differential relay
N Y N

50
R

Y

B
TO
DDCMIS
SPAR
E
51I
1
51i
1
51i
2
50L
R
50
A
50N
2
T
R
Y
B
SURGE
ARREST
ER
VACCUM CIRCUIT BREAKER

When a motor is started, it draws a current well in excess of full
load rating throughout the period that the motor takes to run-up to
speed. While the motor starting current reduces somewhat as motor
speed increases.

When ever a motor stall whilst running, or fail to start, due to
excessive loading, the motor will draw a current equal to its locked
rotor current. It is not therefore possible to distinguish between a
stall condition and a healthy start solely on the basis of the current
drawn. Discrimination between the two conditions must be made
based on the duration of the current drawn.
LOCKED ROTOR PROTECTION
STALL PROTECTION

Start time => safe stall time:
since the time delay required is longer than the maximum time that the
motor can be allowed to carry starting current safely. An additional
means of detection of rotor movement, indicating a safe start, is
required. A speed-sensing switch usually provides this function.
SENSITIVE/ INSTANTANEOUS EARTH FAULT RELAY

Here we calculate fault between one phase and ground

Fault Impedance =11.2ohm

Fault current = 3E/(X1+X2+X0+3Xf)= 3(6.6K)/(8.6+8.6+3(11.2)) = 390A

If = 300 app

Since earth fault current must be less than 300A

CT secondary = 300/150 = 2A

INSTANTANEOUS E/F RELAY
SENSITIVE E/F RELAY
INVERSE TIME OVER CURRENT RELAY
Alarm at 105%

And tripping at 110%

Rated current = 126.5A

Trip at = 126.5*110% =139.15A

CT primary = 139.15A

CT secondary = 139.15/150 =0.92A

Current setting = 92%
INSTANTANEOUS O/C RELAY

Short circuit current = 40KA app.
CT secondary = 40KA/150 = 267A
Normal current = 126.5A

Current setting =126.5*700% = 885A

CT secondary = 885/150 = 5.9A

Current setting = 600% but it is set for 800%

NUMBER OF STARTS LIMITATION
Any motor has a restriction on the number of starts that are
allowed in a defined period.

Starting should be blocked if the permitted number of starts is
exceeded.

The situation is complicated by the fact the number of
permitted hot starts in a given period is less than the number of
cold starts, due to the differing initial temperatures of the motor.

To allow the motor to cool down between starts, a time delay
may be specified between consecutive starts
DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION

THNK U