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COMMUNICATION

Tue AYDIN
COMMUNICATION

Communication is the
process of sending and
receiving messages
between parties
Basic Model Of Communication
THE NATURE OF
COMMUNICATION
1-Senders and Receivers
2-Transmitters and Receptor
3-Messages and Channels
4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding
5-Feedback
Senders & Receivers
Each have goals and objectives
The sender may want to change the
receivers mind
The receiver may not want to have his
mind changed
Transmitters and Receptors
is the equipment by which
information is sent

Information can be sent
verbally and nonverbally
Messages and Channels
are the vehicles by which information
is communicated.

direct expressions
symbolic representations

Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding
Decoding is the process of translating messages
from their symbolic form into interpretations
that can be understood.
Meanings are the facts, ideas, feelings,
reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin
individuals, and act as a set of filters through
which the decoded messages are interpreted.
Encoding is the process by which messages are
put into symbolic form

Feedback

is the process by which the receiver
reacts to the senders message

It is necessary to let the sender know
that the message was
(a) actually received,
(b) encoded,
(c) ascribed with the same meaning that the
sender intended
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
COMMUNICATION

It is impossible to avoid
communicating
Communication is largely nonverbal
Context affects communication
Meanings are in people, not in words

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
COMMUNICATION (contd)

Communication is irreversible
Noise affects communication
Communication is circular
Creating common goal is essential
Communication has effects
VERBAL AND NONVERBAL
MESSAGES
Basic ways in which people send
and receive messages

Verbal Messages
Messages sent verbally are messsages
expressed in words

The science of semantics
Nonverbal Messages
About 65 percent of the meanings people
get from a communication

Voice
Physical Movements
Space

your lips tell me no,no but there is
yes,yes in your eyes
ADAPTING MESSSAGES TO
PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE
increase the probabilty that
communication will be successful
Language
Format
Style

Language

Appropriate language is the language
that has been adapted to the
receiver while retaining a naturalness
with respect to the sender
Format
Depends on the
receiver (audience)
and on the
purpose.
Style

Formal/informal,

Simple/complex,

Natural/flamboyant
JOHARI WINDOW
Arena
Adjectives selected by both the
participant and his or her peers

Represents traits of the
participant of which both they and
their peers are aware.

I know my name, and so do you.
Faade
Adjectives selected only by the
participant, but not by any of their
peers
Represents information about the
participant of which their peers
are unaware

I have not told you, what one of my
favorite ice cream flavors is.
Blind Spot
Adjectives that are not selected by
the participant but only by their
peers

we could be eating at a restaurant,
and I may have unknowingly gotten
some food on my face. This
information is in my blind quadrant
because you can see it, but I
cannot.
Unknown
Adjectives which were not selected
by either the participant or their
peers

I may disclose a dream that I had,
and as we both attempt to
understand its significance, a new
awareness may emerge, known to
neither of us before the
conversation took place.

able
accepting
adaptabl
e
bold
brave
calm
caring
cheerful
clever
complex
confiden
t

dependable
dignified
energetic
extroverte
d
friendly
giving
happy
helpful
idealistic
independen
t
ingenious

intelligent
introverted
kind
knowledgeabl
e
logical
loving
mature
modest
nervous
observant
organized

patient
powerful
proud
quiet
reflective
relaxed
religious
responsive
searching
self-
assertive
self-
conscious

sensible
sentimental
shy
silly
spontaneous
sympathetic
tense
trustworthy
warm
wise
witty
55 adjectives used to describe
the participant
BARRIERS FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
Aye Bilge AKIR
Tangible Differences
Gender
Age
Race
National or Cultural
Origin
Socioeconomic Class
Education Level
Urban or Rural
Residence
GENDER
Major influence on the way we
communicate with others.
When men and women work together in
a group, men tend to be more assertive
and self-confident.
Women are more likely than men to
express their emotions, to reveal how
they feel about a situation.

AGE
Young people and old people communicate
in different ways.
We do tend to judge a statement by
different standards if we know the
speakers age.
A persons age or gender is not
important in judging the truth or
wisdom of what that person says .
Their maturity, their educational
backgrounds, and the different eras in
which they grew up make a Generation
Gap inevitable.

Intangible Differences
Perception
Motivation
Tunnel Vision
Ego
Defensiveness
Negative
Emotions
PERCEPTION
Our physical limitations are a
screen through which we
perceive things that exist
in our environment.
Our perception is also limited
by psychological screens
that we have developed.
Choosing from among the
many things within our
range of perception those
that we will notice, and
block out the rest is called
Selective Perception
Mother: Will you straighten up your
room?
Teenager: Why? Whats messy?

Selective Perception
Allows us not only to block out things
that are there, but also to see more
things than are there.

Leads us to make our own reality!

Most clearly seen in the human
tendency to stereotype others.
MOTIVATION
A Motive is a
Reason For
Action!
The most strongest motivations
are those that are most personal.
We are motivated by money,
fame, power, love, status, security,
skill, ambition...etc
It can be both positive or
negative.
TUNNEL VISION
A closed way of thinking, especially
about abstract topics, such as
religion and politics.
The person with tunnel vision is one who
has firmly fixed ideas
The opposite side is open-mindedness
Person with tunnel vision has attitude
seems to say; Ive already made up my
mind, Dont confuse me with the facts!!!

EGO DEFENSIVENESS
A response pattern in which a person
who follows this pattern sees a
disagreement as a personal
attact .
A self-centered
communication

More than just being selfish

NEGATIVE EMOTIONS
Almost always obstacles to good
communication!
Especially true if the emotion is
uncontrolled, unfocused, or
misdirected.
DISTORTION BARRIERS

1. Distractions
2. Semantic Problems
3. Absence Of Feedback
4. Climate
5. Status And Power Differences

Distractions
It occurs where people
are constantly coming
in and leaving for one
reason or another, and
experinced the
frustration that is
created by this
distracting traffic flow.

Semantic Problems
Distortion in communication comes
from semantics- the use of words
or expressions which have a
different meaning for the sender
or receiver.

Created when communicators use
technical jargon- usage common to
a particular field or specialization.
Status And Power
Differences
Differences in
communications are
likely to parallel the
differences in power.

Imbalance or
asymmetry
in negotiating power
leads the high power
party to perform
significantly better than
the low power party.
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
Be Exact
Use the word is carefully
Avoid Overgeneralization
Be sensitive to connotative
meaning
Do not to overuse you or your
Count from 1 to 10
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
Recognize that you dont know all the
answers to all questions
Always remember that what others
may not mean the way we think they
mean it
Focus on common interests rather
than differences
Think positive
IMPROVING COMMUNICATION
EFFECTIVENESS IN
NEGOTIATION
QUESTIONING
For clarifying
communications, and
eliminating noise and
distortion .

ACTIVE
LISTENING /
REFLECTING

ROLE REVERSAL
Understand the others
position by actively
arguing his position to
his satisfaction.
Ayen ERKILI
BUSINESS
COMMUNICATION
What is
Business Communication?
sending and
receiving of
messages in an
organization
Intentional


Unintentional


Characteristics of Business
Communication

Complex,
Competitive,
Group oriented,
Task oriented,
Data based .
Carter and Huzan(1981), studied the
nature of a business
Telephone
People-to-people communication
Typing
People-to-paper communication
Copying
Paper-to-paper transfer
Storing
Paper-to-file transfer
Information retrieval
Files-to-people transfer

Employees Responsibility
They should serve as;

Interpreter
Humanizer
Promoter

Communication Skills
Listening
Writing
Interviewing
Group discussion
Interpersonal communication
Public speaking
Nonverbal communication
Problem solving
Telephone communication
Communication Ethics
Communication ethics is
the consideration of
the rightness of
wrongness of a given
communication act.
CEO
Vice-President,
Auxiliary
Services
Vice-President,
Research and
Development
Vice-President,
Manufacturing
Engineering
Vice-President,
Sales
Marketing
Vice-President,
Services
Technical
Assistance
Maintenance
Supplies
Production
development
Product
refinement
Personal
computers
XT computers
AT Computers
CRX 1000
PC
CRX 2000
XT
CRX 3000
AT
Individual
customers
Business
applications
Communication Networks
Line networks normally involve
superior-subordinate relationships.

Staff relationships between the
members of an organization are most
often advisory in nature.
Communication Networks
(contd)
Formal Networks
Formal networks are legitimate and
often indicated by an organization
chart that displays who answers to
whom.
Formal networks indicate a unity of
command.
Formal communication networks
contain more of the written,
predictable, and routine
communications
CEO
Vice-President,
Auxiliary
Services
Vice-President,
Research and
Development
Vice-President,
Manufacturing
Engineering
Vice-President,
Sales
Marketing
Vice-President,
Services
Technical
Assistance
Maintenance
Supplies
Production
development
Product
refinement
Personal
computers
XT computers
AT Computers
CRX 1000
PC
CRX 2000
XT
CRX 3000
AT
Individual
customers
Business
applications
Informal Networks
Informal networks are unofficial
channels through which information
passes in an organization.
Informal networks are faster,
richer, and often more accurate, and
communication is more likely to be
face-to-face.
Span Of Control
The smaller the span of
control, the more
communication access
each employee will have
to the supervisor.

Grapevines
Conrad (1990);
Because using formal communication
networks takes so much time and effort,
people may have choose to not
communicate at all if they have no formal
channels available.
Even gossip and rumors usually provide
accurate information. Such networks are
called grapevines.

CEO

Division
Manager
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Division
Manager


Division
Manager

(a)


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(b)
(a) Tall Organization structure
(b) Flat Organization structure
Information Flow in
Business Organizations
Information Flow in Business
Organizations
Downward communication occurs when a
manager or supervisor sends a message to
one or more subordinates.
Upward communication occurs when
messages flow from subordinates to
managers or from supervisors to
executives.
Horizontal communication occurs between
people at the same level, or between
people at corresponding levels in different
divisions.
Information Flow in Business
Organizations
Organizational theorists Tannenbaum
and Schmidt, displays the range of
communication styles
The more you control, the less you
involve;
The more you involve, the less you
control.

Instructing, explaining.
Do not need your
audiences
opinions.
persuading
You want your audience
to do something
different
Conferring, you want to
learn from them yet
the control the
interaction
somewhat
Collaborating,you and
your audience are
working together to
come up with the
content
Thanks For
Attendance!!!