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2.

Overview
Summary
• GSM Network Planning
• GSM Overview
• Radio Propagation & Interference
• Network Dimensioning
• Network Characteristics

2. Overview
GSM

• Standardisation
• GSM Architecture & Interfaces
• GSM Bandwidth & Main Parameters
• Main Network Elements & Configurations
• Logical Channels
•Call Flow
2. Overview
Standardisation
ETSI
• European Telecommunications
Standards Institute
• Financed by EU
• Co-operation of suppliers and
operators
• Specification of European
telecommunications standards
• ETSI- standards :
• Cellular GSM 900/1800 - GPRS -
UMTS

2. Overview
GSM Architecture & Interfaces
other MSC
other BTS´s
VLR
HLR
EIR
AuC
OMC
2. Overview
NMS


NSS







BSS







GSM Architecture & Interfaces
BSC
HLR/
AC/
EIR
MSC/VLR
BTS
Abis
Interface
Ater
Interface
A
Interface
Air
Interface
TC
Ater’
Interface
O&M
Interface
2. Overview
GSM Architecture & Interfaces
BSC
HLR/
AC/
EIR
MSC/VLR
BTS
Abis
Interface
Ater
Interface
A
Interface
Air
Interface
TC
Ater’
Interface
Air interface OPEN
• 13 kb/s traffic channels
• 8 channels / TRX
• some channels reserved for signalling
• blocking
Ater interface PROPRIETARY
• 16 kb/s traffic channels
• 64 kb/s CCS#7 signalling
• 64 kb/s channels for X.25 NMS connection

Abis interface PROPRIETARY
• 13 kb/s traffic channels
• one TRXSIG signalling channel / TRX
16, 32 or 64 kb/s signalling rates
A interface OPEN
• 64 kb/s traffic channels
• 64 kb/s channels for X.25 NMS connection
2. Overview
GSM Interfaces
• (Um) Air interface - MS to BTS
• A bis interface - BTS to BSC
• A Interface - BSC to MSC
• B Interface - MSC to VLR
• C interface - MSC to HLR
2. Overview
(Um) Air Interface
• This is the interface between the mobile station
and the Base station.
• The Air interface uses the Time Division
Multiple Access (TDMA) technique to transmit
and receive traffic and signalling information
between the BTS and MS.
• The TDMA technique is used to divide each
carrier into eight time slots.These time slots are
then assigned to specific users,allowing up to
eight conversations to be handled
Simultaneously by the same carrier.

2. Overview
Abis Interface
• The A-bis interface responsible for
transmitting traffic and signalling
information between the BSC and the
BTS.
• The transmission protocol used for
sending signalling information on the A-
bis interface is Link Access Protocol
on the D Channel (LAPD)

2. Overview
A Interface
• A interface between the BSC and the
MSC
• The A interface provides two distinct
types of information, signalling and
traffic, between the MSC and the BSC.
• The speech is transcoded in the TRC
and the SS7 (Signalling system)
signalling is transparently connected
through the TRC or on a separate link
to the BSC.

2. Overview
GSM Network Architecture
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSC
TRAU
MSC
HLR
AUC
VLR
EIR
PSTN
SMSC
2. Overview
TRAU – Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit
BTS
BSC
PSTN
13 kbps 16 kbps
16 kbps 64 kbps
MSC and TRAU
2. Overview
TRAU (cont..)
• The MSC is based on ISDN switching. The Fixed
Network is also ISDN based.
• ISDN has speech rate of 64 kbps. Mobile
communicates at 13 kbps.
• TRAU converts the data rates between 13kbps
GSM rate to 64kbps Standard ISDN rate
• TRAU can be collocated with the BTS, BSC or MSC
or it can be a separate unit.
2. Overview
Location of Transcoder
• Collocated with MSC, BSC, BTS
• Separate Unit
MSC
Transco
der
BSC
2. Overview
MSC – Mobile Switching Centre
BSC
BSC
BSC
BTSs
PSTN
HLR
VLR
2. Overview
MSC (cont..)
• Exchange where calls are established, maintained and released
• Database for all subscribers and their associated features.
• Communicates with the BSCs on the A interface and with PSTN on fixed line.
• MSC is weighted on the number of subscribers it can support. E.g. an MSC of 1 lac subscribers
means one MSC is enough till subscriber base increases upto 1 lac, beyond which another MSC is
required.
2. Overview
Multiple MSCs
• When there is more capacity, there are more than one MSCs.
• All MSCs have to communicate with one another and to the outside world.
• Very complicated to connect each MSC to each other and each MSC to PSTN
• So there is a concept of GMSC (Gateway MSC)
BSC
BSC
MSC
MSC
GMSC
PSTN
2. Overview
HLR – Home Location Register
• MSC has all subscriber database stored in HLR
• HLR has all permanent subscriber database
• HLR has a database which describes the subscriber’s profile i.e. basic features and supplementary
services
• MSC communicates with the HLR to get data for subscribers on call
2. Overview
VLR – Visiting Location Register
• A subscription when activated is registered in VLR
• VLR has all the subscriber numbers which are active.
• VLR has a temporary database of all active subscribers (on/off, location information)
MSC
VLR
HLR
2. Overview
VLR (cont..)
MSC MSC
VLR
HLR
VLR
• MSC communicates with HLR for subscribers coming from different
MSCs. If the subscriber is found valid, then it registers the
subscriber in the VLR
2. Overview
AUC – Authentication Centre
• Authentication is a process by which a SIM is verified
• Secret data and the verification process algorithm are stored in AUC
• AUC is the element which carries out the verification of the SIM
• AUC is associated with the HLR

MS
MSC
HLR
AUC
2. Overview
EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
• EIR is the Mobile Equipment Database which has a series of IMEIs
• MSC asks the Mobile to send its IMEI
• MSC then checks the validity of IMEI with the EIR
• All IMEIs are stored in EIR with relevant classifications
EIR
MSC
2. Overview
Billing Centre (BC)
• BC Generates the billing statement for each subscriber
• BC may be directly connected to the MSC or through a
mediation device
• MSC sends CDRs (Call Detail Records) to the BC
• According to the template of pulse rates and units set,
BC creates a bill according to the destination called and
the call duration
2. Overview
Billing Centre (BC) (cont..)
CDRs
Templates for unit costs
2. Overview
OMC – Operations and Maintenance
Centre
• Also called the NOC (Network Operations centre)
• It is the central monitoring and remote maintenance
centre for all network elements
• OMC has links to BSCs and MSCs
2. Overview
OMC
OMC System
BSC
BSC
BSC
BTSs
BTSs
BTSs
OMC Terminals
2. Overview
GSM Identities

2. Overview
IMSI
• IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) Network Identity Unique To A Sim.
MCC MNC MSIN
404 XX
12345..10
SIM = Subscriber Identity Module
MCC = Mobile Country Code
MNC = Mobile Network Code
MSIN = Mobile Subscriber Identity Number
2. Overview
IMEI
• IMEI : Serial number unique to each mobile
TAC FAC SNR SP
6 2 6 1
IMEI = International Mobile Equipment Identity
TAC = Type Approval Code
FAC = Final Assembly Code
SNR = Serial Number
SP = Spare
2. Overview
SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION
• International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
• Just the IMEI identifies the mobile equipment, other numbers are used to identify
the mobile subscriber. Different subscriber identities are used in different phases of
call setup. The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identity
of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to that
subscriber.
• Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
• The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
(TMSI). After the subscriber’s IMSI has been initialized on the system, the TMSI can
be used for sending backward and forward across the network to identify the
subscriber. The system automatically changes the TMSI at regular intervals, thus
protecting the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the
radio channels. The TMSI is a local number and is always transmitted with the Local
numbers and is always transmitted with the Location Area Identification (LAI) to
avoid ambiguities.
2. Overview
SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION MODULE
(SIM)
• By making a distinction between the subscriber identity and the mobile equipment
identity, a GSM PLMN can route calls and perform billing based on the identity of the
subscriber rather than the mobile equipment being used. This can be done using a
removable Subscriber Information Module (SIM). A ”smart card” is one possible
implementation of a SIM module.

• IMSI. This is transmitted at initialization of the mobile equipment.
• TMSI This is updated periodically by the PLMN
• MSISDN This is made up of a country code, a national code and a subscriber number.
• Location Area Identity (LAI) This identified the current location of the subscriber.
• Subscriber Authentication Key (KI) This is used to authenticate the SIM.
2. Overview
EQUIPMENT IDENTITY NUMBER
• International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI)
• Each MS is identified by an International Mobile station Equipment Identity
(IMEI) number which is permanently stored in the mobile equipment. On request,
the MS sends this number over the signalling channel to the MSC. The IMEI can
be used to identify MS,s that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

• Equipment Identity Register ( EIR )
• A listing of the allowed IMEI is maintained by the PLMN’s in the Equipment
Identity Register (EIR) to validate the mobile equipment.
2. Overview
GSM Bandwidths

2. Overview
GSM Bandwidth & Main Parameters
900 MHz & 1800 MHz









• Channel spacing 200kHz
2. Overview
• GSM 900 and GSM 1800 are twins
GSM 900 GSM 1800
• Frequency band 890 - 960 MHz 1710 - 1880
MHz
• Number of channels 124 (125) 372 (375)
• Channel spacing 200 kHz 200 kHz
• Multiplex technologies TDMA/FDMA TDMA/FDMA
• Mobile power 0.8 / 2 W 0.25 / 1 W
There are no major differences between
GSM 900 and GSM 1800
GSM Bandwidth & Main Parameters
Summary
2. Overview
Physical Channel Structure

2. Overview
Logical Channel Structure

2. Overview
Logical Channels
Definitions
• TDMA Frame = 8 Time Slots (0.577 ms each)
• Physical Channel = 1 TS of the TDMA Frame
on 1 specific carrier
• Logical Channel = the "purpose" a physical
channel is used for
0 0
TDMA frame  4.615 ms
BURST PERIOD
0 7 0
2. Overview
Normal Burst

3 3 57 26 1 57 1
8.25
Tail Bits
Data
Control Bit
Midamble
Control Bit
Data
Tail Bits
Guard
Period
2. Overview
Analogy of Physical & Logical channels

2. Overview
• Same in GSM900 and GSM1800
FCH
Traffic Channels
(TCH)
Dedicated Channels
(DCH)
Broadcast Channel
(BCH)
Control Channels
Common Control
Channel (CCCH)
SCH BCCH
(Sys Info)
TCH/F AGCH RACH SDCCH FACCH TCH/H PCH
Common Channels
(CCH)
Logical Channels
SACCH
Logical Channels
Summary
2. Overview
BCH(Broadcast Channels)
• BCCH(Broadcast Control Channels)
Downlink Only.
Broadcast information of the serving
cell (System Information).
Transmitted on timeslot zero of BCCH
carrier.
Read only by idle mobile at least once
every 30 secs.

2. Overview
BCH(Broadcast Channels) cont’d
• SCH(Synchronisation Channels)
Downlink Only
Carries information for frame
synchronisation.
Contains frame number and
BSIC(Base Station Identity Code).

2. Overview
BCH(Broadcast Channels) cont’d
• FCCH(Frequency Correction
Channels)
Downlink Only.
Enable MS to synchronies to the
frequency.

2. Overview
CCCH(Common Control Channel)
• RACH(Random Access Channel)
Uplink only.
Used by the MS when making its first
access to the Network.
The reason for access could be
initiation of a call or a page
response.

2. Overview
CCCH(Common Control Channel)
cont’d
• AGCH(Assess Grant Channel)
Downlink only.
Used for acknowledgement of the
access attempt sent on RACH.
Used by the network to assign a
signaling channel upon successful
decoding of access bursts.

2. Overview
CCCH(Common Control Channel)
cont’d
• PCH(Paging Channel)
Downlink only.
The network will page the MS ,if there
is a incoming call or a short
Message.
It contains the MS identity number,
the IMSI or TMSI.

2. Overview
DCCH(Dedicated Control Channel)
• SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated
Control Channel)
Uplink and Downlink.
Used for call setup, authentication,
ciphering location update and SMS.

2. Overview
DCCH(Dedicated Control Channel)
cont’d
• SACCH(Slow Associated Control
Channel)
Downlink and Uplink.
Used to transfer signal while MS have
ongoing conversation on traffic or
while SDCCH is being used.
On the forward link, the SACCH is
used to send slow but regularly
changing control information to each
mobile on that ARFCN, such as
power control instructions and
specific timing advance instructions


2. Overview
• SACCH(Slow Associated Control
Channel) cont’d
The reverse SACCH carries
information about the received
signal strength and quality of the
TCH, as well as BCH measurement
results from neighboring cells.
2. Overview
DCCH(Dedicated Control Channel)
cont’d
• FACCH(Fast Associated Control
Channel)
Downlink and uplink.
Associate with TCH only.
It is used to send fast message like
hand over message.
Work by stealing traffic bursts.

2. Overview
Mapping on Physical Channels
• The Logical channels are mapped on
the physical channels.
• The TDMA frames are grouped
together into multi-frame.
26 TDMA multi-frame for Traffic.
51 TDMA multi-frame for control
signal.

2. Overview
Logical Channels
Broadcast Channels (BCH)
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
• Unmodulated carrier: like a flag for the MS
which enables it to find the frequency among
several TRXs
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
• Contains the Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
and a reduced TDMA frame number
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
• Contains detailed network and cell specific
information as: Frequencies, Frequency
hopping sequence, Channel combination,
Paging groups, Information on neighbour cells
• Careful frequency plan needed
• BCCH is not allowed to involve in FH, PC
2. Overview
Logical Channels
Common Control Channels (CCCH)
Paging Channel (PCH)
• It is broadcast by all the BTSs of a Location
Area in the case of a mobile terminated call
Random Access Channel (RACH)
• It is used by the mobile station in order to
initiate a transaction, or as a response to a
PCH
Access Grant Channel (AGCH)
• Answer to the RACH. Used to assign a mobile
a SDCCH
2. Overview
Logical Channels
Dedicated Channels (DCH)
Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel
(SDCCH)
• System signalling: call set-up, authentication,
location update, assignment of traffic channels
and transmission of SMS
Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
• Transmits measurement reports (UL)
Power control, time alignment, short
messages (DL)
Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
• Mainly used for handover signalling
• It is mapped onto a TCH and replaces 20 ms of
speech
Traffic Channels (TCH)
• Transfer user speech or data, which can be
either in the form of Half rate traffic (6.5 kbit/s)
or Full rate traffic (13 kbit/s).
2. Overview
FCCH
SCH
SDCCH
PCH
AGCH
BCCH
CCCH
Common
Channels
Dedicated
Channels
Logical Channels
Downlink
SACCH
FACCH
SDCCH
TCH/F
TCH/H
DCCH
TCH
2. Overview
RACH CCCH
Common
Channels
SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH
TCH/F
TCH/H
DCCH
TCH
Dedicated
Channels
Logical Channels
Uplink
2. Overview
Search for frequency correction burst FCCH
Search for synchronisation sequence SCH
Read system informations BCCH

Listen for paging PCH
Send access burst RACH
Wait for signalling channel allocation AGCH
Call setup SDCCH
FACCH
Traffic channel is assigned TCH
Conversation TCH
Call release FACCH
idle mode
'off' state
dedicated
mode
idle mode
Logical Channels
Summary
2. Overview
Traffic Channel Multiframe
2. Overview
T
15
T
5
T
9
T
10
T
11
S
12
T
13
T
14
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
0
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
T
16
T
17
T
18
T
19
T
20
T
21
T
22
T
23
T
24
I
25
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
120 msec
4.615 msec
26 FRAME MULTIFRAME STRUCTURE
• MS on dedicated mode on a TCH uses a 26-frame multiframe structure.
• Frame 0-11 and 13-24 used to carry traffic.
• Frame 12 used as SACCH to carry control information from and to MS to BTS.
• Frame 25 is idle and is used by mobile to decode the BSIC of neighbor cells.
2. Overview
Control Channel Multiframe
2. Overview
0 7
TDMA frame  4.615 ms
26 Multiframe = 120 ms
51 Multiframe  235 ms
TCH SIGN.
0 1 2 24 25 0 1 2 49 50
Hyperframe = 2048 Superframes  3.5 h
Superframe =
26x51 or
51x26 Multiframes
= 6.120 sec
Logical Channels
Structure
2. Overview
0 1
0 1 2 2045 2046 2047
1 Hyperframe = 2048 superframes = 2,715,648 TDMA frames 3h 28min 53s 760ms
1 Superframe = 1326 TDMAframes = 51(26 fr) 0r 26(51 fr) multiframes
1 2 3 49 48 47 50
0 1 24 25
0 1 2 23 24 25 0 48 1 2 49 50
2 3 4 5 6 7
6.12s
0
235.38ms 120ms
Control 51 - Frame Multiframe Traffic 26 - Frame Multiframe
4.615ms
TDMA Frame
HYPERFRAME AND SUPERFRAME STRUCTURE
2. Overview
GSM Operations
• Location
Update
• Mobile
Originated Call
• Mobile
Terminated Call
• Handover
• Security
Procedures

• DTX
• Cell Broadcast
• Short Message
Service
• Emergency
calls
• Supplementary
Services
• Roaming

2. Overview
Mobile Turn On
• Mobile Searches for Broadcast
Channels (BCH)
• Synchronizes Frequency and Timing
• Decodes BCH sub-channels (BCCH)
• Checks if Network Allowed by SIM
• Location Update
• Authentication


2. Overview
Location Area
Location Area 1
Location
Area 2
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSC
BSC
MSC
2. Overview
Location Area Identity
• Location area is the area covered by one
or more BTSs where a mobile can move
freely without updating the system
• One Location area can be covered by
one or more BSCs, but ony one MSC.
MCC LAC MNC
2. Overview
Importance of Location Area
• Reduce Paging load
• Resource Planning

Smaller Location Areas – Location
update increases

Larger Location Areas – Paging load
increases
2. Overview
What is Location Update?
• MSC should know the location of
the Mobile for paging
• Mobile is continuously changing
location area
• Mobile when changes Location
Area informs the MSC about its new
LA
• Process of informing MSC about
new Location area is Location
Update

2. Overview
Types of Location Updates
1. Normal Location
Update
2. IMSI Attach
3. Periodic Location
Update
Hi,
I am in Location area
xxx
2. Overview
IMSI Attach
• Mobile turns off and sends an IMSI
Detach to MSC
• Mobile turns on again and compares
LAI
• If same, sends an IMSI attach to MSC
Is the received
LAI same as
before
2. Overview
Normal Location Update
• Mobile Turns on Power
• Reads the new LAI
• If different, does a Location Update

Is the received
LAI same as
before
2. Overview
Periodic Location Update
• The periodic location Update time
is set from OMC/MSC
• After the periodic location update
timer expires, the mobile has to
do a location update

2. Overview
What happens at Location Update?
• Mobile changes location area
• Reads the new Location Area from BCCH
• Sends a RACH (request for channel)
• Gets a SDCCH after AGCH
• Sends its IMSI and new and old LAI in a Location
Update request to MSC on SDCCH
2. Overview
What happens at location update
cont..
….. . .
• MSC starts Authentication
• If successful, Updates the new
Location area for the Mobile in the
VLR
• Sends a confirmation to the Mobile
• Mobile leaves SDCCH, and comes to
idle mode
2. Overview
Mobile Originated Call
Channel Request
Immediate Assign
Service Request
Call Proceeding
Set Up
Ciphering
Authentication
Alerting
Assignment
Connection
2. Overview
Mobile Terminated Call
Paging
Channel Request
Immediate Assign
Set Up
Ciphering
Authentication
Paging Response
Assignment
Call Confirmed
Alerting
Connection
2. Overview
Security Features
• Authentication
Process to verify Authenticity of
SIM
Mobile is asked to perform an
operation using identity unique
to SIM
• Ciphering
Process of coding speech for secrecy
The speech bits are EXORed with bit stream
unique to MS
2. Overview
Security Features (TMSI
Reallocation)
GSM
Infrastructure
Mobile
Location Update
TMSI Allocation
Call Setup
TMSI Reallocation
TMSI- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
2. Overview
Security Features
(Identity Check)
EIR
Sends IMEI
Identity Check
White listed /Grey Listed/ Black
Listed mobiles
2. Overview
Thanks
• End of this section