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Chapter 1- Cell

Biology

Grade 11 University
Biology
Outline

 Cell Theory
 Cell Structure
 Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Special Structures of Plant Cells
Cell Theory

 Allliving things are made of one or


more cells
 The cell is the smallest entity that
retains the properties of life
 New cells arise only from cells that
already exist
Cell Structure- Membrane
 A structure that surrounds the cytoplasm
of the cell and regulates the movement of
materials in and out of the cell
Cell Structure- Protoplasm
 The entire contents of the cell
Cell Structure- Nucleus
 The control centre of
the cell
 Contains hereditary
information
 Bonded by a double
membrane
Cell Structure- Cytoplasm
 A fluid that contains
all cellular parts
enclosed inside the
plasma membrane
except the nucleus
Nucleus- Eukaryotic Cells
 A type of cell that
has a true nucleus
with a membrane
surrounding it
Nucleus- Prokaryotic Cell
 A type of cell that
does not have a true
nucleus
Nucleus- Chromosomes
 Thread like
structures in the
nucleus that contain
genes
 Chromosomes are
composed of nucleic
acid (DNA) and
protein
Nucleus- Genes
 Sections of a chromosome, each of which
contains one set of instructions
Nucleus- DNA
 DNA:
Deoxyribosenucleic
acid
 A molecule that
carries genetic
information in cells
Nucleus- DNA
 Before a cell divides,
each strand of DNA
is duplicated and
each daughter cell
receives a complete
set of DNA
molecules
Nucleus- Nucleolus
 Dark sphere inside the nucleus
 Contains RNA (ribonucleic acids)
Nucleus- Nucleolus
 rRNA directs
formation of
ribosomes
 mRNA Passes
through pores in
nulcear membrane
 Goes to ribosomes
as a copy of DNA
Cell Membrane
 Outer most
boundary of the cell
 Composed of
proteins and a
double layer of lipids
(fat) moleculres
Cell Membrane
 Holds contents of
the cell in place
 Controls movements
in and out of the cell
 Selectively
permeable
membrane let’s
some things in and
keeps some out
Ribosomes
 Structures in
cytoplasm important
for production of
proteins
Flagella
 Some small animals
use flagella as tails
 Ex. Sperm
Cilia
 Many short, hair-like
structures, help with
movement
 You can find them in
the human nose and
respiratory system
Electron Microscopes
 Electron
microscopes have
allowed scientist to
observe dead and
non-living things
 DNA under a
electron microscope
Cell Fractionation
 Cell fractionation allows scientists to learn
about the chemical reactions occuring in a
cell
 Cell components are separated by a
centrifuge
 www.freewebs.com
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Mitochondria
 Function: Power
house of the cell 
provides energy
during cellular
respiration
 (sugar + oxygen 
carbon dioxide and
energy)
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Mitochondria
 Oval-shaped with a
double membrane.
 Inner membrane is
folded with
projections called
cristae
 Enzymes (speed up
reaction) are located
on the cristae
Cytoplasm Organelles
 Note: The more
active the cell, the
more mitochondria it
will have.
 Ex. Muscle cells
have more
mitochondria than
fat cells
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Ribosomes
 Organelles on which
proteins are
synthesised
 Proteins are chains
of small units called
Amino Acids
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Ribosomes
 Properties of
proteins are
determined by the
sequence of amino
acids
 Ribosomes bond
together amino
acids in the order
the DNA instructs
them to
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Ribosomes
 Ribosomes are
made of rRNA
proteins
 They are very small
organelles
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 A network of
interconnected
canals that carry
material thorugh the
cytoplasm
 Like the subway
system of the cell
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum (RER)
 Has many
ribosomes attached
to it
 Prominent in cells
that secret protein
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Smooth
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
 Has no ribosomes
attached
 In cells that
synthesis fat (lipids)
Cytoplasm Organelles- Golgi
Apparatus
 Stores, modifies and
packages proteins
form the RER
(Rough
Endoplasmic
Reticulum)
 Looks like a stack of
pancakes, which are
membranous sacs
pilled on each other
Cytoplasm Organelles- Golgi
Apparatus
 Ends pinch off and
form sacs full of
proteins called
vesicles
 Exocytosis vesicles
empty their protein
outside the cell
 Transport is the
function of vesicles
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Lysosomes
 Have a single
membrane
 Formed by the Golgi
Apparatus
 Contain enzymes
that break down
molecules and cell
parts in the
cytoplasm
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Lysosomes
 Destroy harmful
substances in the
cell
 Pus is what is left
over when the
lysosomes in white
blood cells engulf an
invader bateria
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Lysosomes
 Lysosomes
breakdown dead or
damaged cells
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Microfilaments
 Microfilaments help provide shape and
movement for the cells
 Muscle cells have my microfilaments
Cytoplasm Organelles-
Microtubules
 Microtubles
transport material
throughout the
cytoplasm
 They are found in
cilia and flagella
Special Structures of Plant Cells
 Plant cells have a
couple structures
that are not found in
animal cells
 Chloroplasts and
cell walls