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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Power Plants

Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle

with Open Feedwater Heater

Open Systems - Control Volume

Axial-flow

Hydraulic

Turbine

Compressors, pumps, and fans

Compressor

of pump of pump

Inflow and Outflow Velocity Triangles

Radial Flow Pump (Fan)

U=ω r

W

V

Radial Flow Turbine

Absolute velocity – tangent to stator blade

V W

U=ω r

Axial Flow Compressor (Pump)

U=ω r

Axial Flow Turbine

Relative

Velocity –

tangent to

rotor blade

U=ω r

Absolute

velocity –

tangent to

stator blade

Lawn Sprinkler

Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler

through its base at the steady rate of 16

gal/min as shown in the figure. The exit

cross-sectional area of each of the two

nozzles is 0.04 in.2, and the flow leaving

each nozzle is tangential. The radius

from the axis of rotation to the centerline

of each nozzle is 8 in. (a) Determine the

resisting torque required to hold the

sprinkler head stationary. (b) Determine

the resisting torque associated with the

sprinkler rotating with a constant speed

of 500 rpm. (c) Determine the angular

velocity of the sprinkler if no resisting

torque is applied.

Lawn Sprinkler

absolute velocity : V = −V 2 êθ

nozzle veloecity : U = ω r2 êθ

relative velocity : W = −W 2 êθ = V − U = −(V 2 + ω r2 ) êθ

Continuity equation

∫ ρW ⋅ n̂dA = ρ (V1 ê z ) ⋅ ( − A1 ê z ) + 2 ρ ( − W 2 êθ ) ⋅ ( − A2 êθ ) = 0

CS

slugs gal min ft 3 slugs

= 1.94

3 16

7.48 gal = 0 . 0692

ft min 60 s s

Q 16 ( gal / min ) min ft 3 144 in 2

W2 = = = 64.17 ft / s

2 A2 2 0.04 in (

2

)

60 s 7.48 gal ft

2

Lawn Sprinkler

Moment-of-momentum equation

( )

Tshaft = ( − Tshaft ) ê z = ∫ r × V ρW ⋅ n̂dA

CS

dm

m m

= 0 − m 2 r2V 2 ê z = − m r2V 2 ê z

slugs 8 ft ft

Tshaft = m r2V 2 = 0.0692 64.17

(a) U2 = 0 , s 12 s

slugs − ft 2

V2 = W2 = 2.96 2

= 2.96 lb - ft

s

Lawn Sprinkler

rad 8 ft

U 2 = ω r = 500 2π ft = 34.91

s 12 s

ft ft

(b) ω = 500 V 2 = W 2 − U 2 = ( 64.17 − 34.91) = 29.26

s s

rpm

slugs 8 ft ft

Tshaft = m r2V 2 = 0.0692 29.26 = 1.35 lb - ft

s 12 s

Tshaft = 0 ⇒ V 2 = 0

ft

(c) Tshaft = 0 W 2 = U 2 = ωr = 64.17

s

W 64.17 ft / s s 1 rev rev

∴ω = 2 = 60 = 920

r2 ( 8 / 12 ) ft min 2π rad min

Lawn Sprinkler

The two-nozzle law sprinkler discharge water at a rate of 1 ft3/min

and rotates at 1 rev/s. The length from pivot to nozzle exit is 12

in., and the nozzles produce jets that are ¼ in. in diameter.

Determine the resisting torque due to friction in the bearing.

W = Vrel

Lawn Sprinkler

absolute velocity : V = Vr ê r + Vθ êθ

nozzle velocity : U = ω r2 êθ

relative velocity : W = (W 2 cos β ) ê r − (W 2 sin β ) êθ

Continuity equation

∫ ρW ⋅ n̂dA = − ρQ + 2 ρ (W 2 n̂ ) ⋅ ( A2 n̂ ) = 0

CS

m = ρQ = 2 ρW 2 A2

ft 3

2 1

Q Q 2Q min 1 min ft

∴W 2 = = = = = 24 . 45

2 A2 2 πD /4 πD

2

(2

)

1

π ft

2

60 s s

48

Lawn Sprinkler

Moment-of-Momentum equation

V 2 = U 2 + W 2 = (W 2 cos β ) ê r − (W 2 sin β − ω r2 ) êθ

( )

Tshaft = ( − Tshaft ) ê z = ∫ r × V ρW ⋅ n̂dA

CS

dm

m

= r2 ê r × [ (W 2 cos β ) ê r − (W 2 sin β − ω r2 ) êθ ] 2 ρ (W 2 êθ ) ⋅ ( A2 êθ )

= − m r2 (W 2 sin β − ω r2 ) ( ê r × êθ ) = − m r2 (W 2 sin β − ω r2 ) ê z

Tshaft = m r2 (W 2 sin β − ω r2 ) = ρQr2 (W 2 sin β − ω r2 )

slugs 1 ft 3 12 ft rad 12

= 1.94 3

ft 24 . 45 sin 25

− 2π ft

ft 60 s 12 s s 12

slugs ⋅ ft 2

= 0.131 2

= 0.131 lb - ft

s

Hydraulic Turbine

A simplified sketch of a hydraulic

turbine runner is shown in the

figure. Relative to the rotating

runner, water enters at section (1)

(cylindrical cross section area A1

at r1 = 1.5m) at an angle of 100o

and leaves at an angle of 50o from

the tangential direction. The blade

height at sections (1) and (2) is

0.45 m and the volume flow rate

through the turbine is 30 m3/s.

The runner speed is 130 rpm in

the direction shown. Determine

the shaft power developed.

Hydraulic Turbine

rev 1 min rad m

U

1 = ω r = 130 2π ( 1.5 m ) = 20.4

Rotating

1

min 60 s s s

speed U = ω r = 130 rev 1 min 2π rad

( 0.85 m ) = 11.6 m

2 2

min 60 s s s

( )

m = ρV ⋅ ( Anˆ ) = ρ V ⋅ eˆ r A = ρVR A

kg m 3 kg

m1 = m 2 = ρQ = 1000 3 30

= 30 ,000

m s s

Q Q 30 m 3 / s m

Continuity V

R, 1 A= = = = 7 .07

2πr1 h1 2π ( 1.5 m )( 0.45 m ) s

equation

1

V = Q = Q = 30 m 3 / s m

= 12.5

R , 2 A2 2πr2 h2 2π ( 0.85 m )( 0.45 m ) s

Velocity Triangles

U1 =

ω r1

U2 =

ω r2

U2 < U1

Velocity Triangle

Inflow 100o 50o Outflow

10o 40o

V1 V2 W2

W1 VR,2

VR,1

U1 = ω r1 Vθ ,2

Vθ ,1 U2 = ω r2

V R ,1 = V1 sin β 1 = W 1 cos 10 o V R ,1 = V 2 sin β 2 = W 2 cos 40

o

Relative velocity – tangent to turbine blade

Shaft Power

Inflow 100o 50o Outflow

10o 40o

V1 V2 W2

W1 VR,2

VR,1

U1 = ω r1 Vθ ,2

Vθ ,1 U2 = ω r2

Vθ , 1 = U 1 + W 1 sin 10 o

= ω r1 + V R , 1 tan 10 o

(

= 20 .4 + 7 .07 tan 10 o

) ms = 21.6 ms

∴

V = U − W sin 40 o = ω r + V tan 40 o = 11.6 − 12.5 tan 40 o

θ ,2 2 2 2 R ,2 ( ) ms = 1.11 ms

kg m m m m

W shaft = m (U 2Vθ ,2 − U 1Vθ ,1 ) = 30 ,000 11.6 1.11 − 20.4 21.6

s s s s s

= −1.283 × 10 7 W = −12.83 MW

Prob. 5.75: Axial Flow Pump

An axial flow gasoline pump consists

of a rotating row of blades (rotor)

followed downstream by a stationary

row of blades (stator). The gasoline

enters the rotor axially (without any

angular momentum) with an absolute

velocity of 3 m/s. The rotor blade inlet

and exit angles are 60o and 45o from

the axial direction. .The pump annulus

passage cross-sectional area is constant V1=

Consider the flow as being tangent to

the blades involved. Sketch velocity

triangles for flow just upstream and

downstream of the rotor. How much

energy is added to each kilogram of

gasoline?

Velocity Triangles

U1 = U2

W2

W1

U1=ω rm U2=ω rm

45o

θ 2

60o V2

V1

Vθ ,1 = 0 Vθ ,2 = V 2 sinθ 2

Continuity V ⋅ n̂ = V cos θ = V cos θ ⇔ V = V = 3 m/s

1 1 2 2 x ,1 x ,2

equation

V1 3m / s m

W =

1 cos 60 o cos 60 o = = 6

s

U 1 = W 1 sin 60 o = V1 tan 60 o = 3 m tan 60 o = 5.20 m

s s

Velocity

Triangle V x ,2 V1 3m / s m

W

2 = o

= o

= o

= 4. 24

s cos 45 cos 45 cos 45 s

m

U

2 = U 1 = 5. 20

s

(same arithmetic mean radius)

m m m

V

θ ,2 = U 2 − W 2 sin 45 o

= 5 .20 − 4.24 sin 45 o

= 2.20

s s s

V1

Vθ ,2

θ 2 = tan

−1

= tan − 1 2.20 m / s = 36.25 o (outflow direction)

V x ,2 3m / s

V 3m / s m

V 2 = x ,2 = = 3.72

cos θ 2 cos 36.25 o s

Shaft W shaft m m N N ⋅m

w shaft = = U 2Vθ ,2 = 5.20 2.20 1 = 11. 44

Power m s s kg ⋅ m / s 2 kg

Turbine Power Output

The hydraulic turbine has an efficiency of 90 percent. The 10oC

water flow rate is 10,000 m3/min. Determine the turbine output

power in watts for frictionless pipe flow.

(1)

Control

Volume

Analysis

(2)

Turbine Power Output

Assume steady state and constant water density ρ = 1000 kg/m3 at 10oC.

Continuity equation m 1 = m 2 = m = ρQ

Energy equation

∫

CS

eρV ⋅ n̂dA = Q net + W net

in in

loss = uout − uin − q net = 0

in

p V2 p V2

No loss ⇒ m out + + gz − m in + + gz = W shaft

ρ 2 out ρ 2 in net in

Turbine Power Output

p1 = p 2 = 0

⇒ (Head water and tail water)

V1 = V 2 = 0

W net = m ( gz 2 − gz 1 ) = ρQg ( z 2 − z 1 )

in

10 ,000 m

3

kg m

= 1000 3 9.81 2 ( 0 m − 120 m )

m 60 s s

m2 N

= −1.962 × 10 kg ⋅ 2

8

2

= − 1 .962 × 10 8

N ⋅ m = −196.2 Mw

s kg ⋅ m / s

in

Head Loss

Problem 5.20R: A hydroelectric power plant operates under the

condition illustrated in the figure. The head loss associated with

flow from the water level upstream of the dam, section (1), to the

turbine discharge at atmospheric pressure, section (2), is 20 m.

How much power is transferred from the water to the turbine blade?

(1)

(2)

p 2 − p1 V 22 − V12

Energy m u2 − u1 + + + g ( z 2 − z 1 ) = Q net + W shaft

equation ρ 2 in net in

p 2 − p1 V 22 − V12

+ + g ( z 2 − z 1 ) = w shaft − 1 loss 2

ρ 2 net in

p1 = p 2 = patm

⇒

V1 = 0 , V 2 = 2 m / s

V 22

w shaft = − w shaft = g( z1 − z 2 ) − − 1 loss 2 ( loss = ghL )

net out net in 2

V 2

Shaft ∴ W shaft = m w shaft = ρQ g ( z 1 − z 2 − hL ) −

2

2

power net out net out

kg m 3

= 999 3 30

m

9.81 2 ( 100 m − 20 m ) −

( 2m / s )

2

m s s 2

= 23.5 × 10 6 N ⋅ m / s = 23.5 Mw

Head loss hL = 20 m, reduces the available elevation

head from 100 m to 80 m.

Energy Equation

Problem 5.120: A liquid enters a fluid machine at section (1) and

leaves at sections (2) and (3) as shown in the figure. The density

of the fluid is constant at 2 slugs/ft3. All of the flow occurs in a

horizontal plane and is frictionless and adiabatic. For the above-

mentioned and additional conditions indicated in the figure,

determine the amount of shaft power involved.

Solution: Continuity Equation

∫CS

ρV ⋅ n̂dA = − ρV1 A1 + ρV 2 A2 + ρV 3 A3 = − m 1 + m 2 + m 3 = 0

slugs ft 30 2 slugs

m 1 = ρV1 A1 = 2 3

15 ft = 6.25

ft s 144 s

m = ρV A = 2 slugs 45 ft 5 2

ft = 3.125

slugs

3 3 3 ft 3

s 144 s

slugs slugs

⇒ m 2 = m 1 − m 3 = ( 6.25 − 3.125 ) = 3.125

s s

2 ≠ m 3

Note: in general m

Solution: Energy Equation

∫CS eρV ⋅ n̂dA = − ρV1 A1 e 1 + ρV2 A2 e 2 + ρV3 A3 e 3 = − m 1 e 1 + m 2 e 2 + m 3 e 3 = 0

Q net = 0 & loss = m 1 u1 − m 2 u2 − m 3 u3 = 0 (adabatic & frictionless)

in

p1 V12 p 2 V 22 p 3 V 32

W shaft = − m 1

+ + m 2 + + m 3 +

2

net in ρ 2 ρ 2 ρ

= − 6.25

slugs

( 80 lb / in)2

in

2

1

12 + 15 1

2

ft lb

3 2

s 2 slugs / ft ft 2 s slugs ⋅ ft / s

+ 3.125

( )

slugs 50 lb / in 2 in

2

1

12 + 35 1

2

ft lb

3 2

s 2 slugs / ft ft 2 s slugs ⋅ ft / s

+ 3.125

(

slugs 14.7 lb / in 2 in ) 2

1

12 + 45 1

ft

2

lb

3 2

s 2 slugs / ft ft 2 s slugs ⋅ ft / s

lb − ft 1 hp Net shaft power

= − 17067.5 = −31.03hp

s 550 lb − ft / s is out of the CV

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