Its producing operations wastewater that may include
water produced with crude oil, rain water, and wash
down water are handled and treated. The water must be
separated from the crude oil and disposed of in a manner
that does not violate established environmental
In most onshore locations the water cannot be disposed
of on the surface, due to possible salt contamination, and
must be injected into an acceptable disposal formation
The function of all water treating equipment is to cause the oil droplets
that exist in the water continuous phase to separate from the water phase
so they can then be removed


Most commonly used water treating equipment items rely on the forces
of gravity to separate the oil droplets from the water continuous phase.
In gravity separation units, the difference in specific gravity causes the
oil to float to the surface of the water. These items are normally designed
to provide long residence times during which coalescence and gravity
separation can occur.

The API Separator have the wiper blades which skimmes the oil
collected on the surface due to the gravity separation and the clean
oil settles at the bottom.

These are skim tanks or vessels that use internal plates to improve
the gravity separation process. All of these depend on gravity
separation to allow the oil droplets to rise to a plate surface where
coalescence and capture occur

The oil sheet rises upward counter to the water flow and is
concentrated in the top of each corrugation. When the oil
reaches the end of the plate pack, it is collected in a channel
and brought to the oil-water interface. The parallel plates
absorbs the oil and forms a layer and as the layer becomes
thicker and thicker it floats from the bottom
Floatation units employ a process in which fine gas bubbles
are generated and dispersed in water, where they attach
themselves to oil droplets or solid particulates. The gas
bubbles then help to lift the oil to the water surface for
collection. Gas bubble/oil droplet attachment can be
enhanced with the use of polyelectrolyte chemicals. These
flotation aid chemicals can also be used to cause bubble/oil
droplet attachments.


Hydrocyclones, sometimes called enhanced gravity
separators, use centrifugal force to remove oil droplets from
oily water. The centrifugal force cause the oil to move out
through a small-diameter reject port located in the head of the
hydrocyclone. Clean water is removed through the
downstream outlet.

Further activated charcoal is used for the finishing touch
of the water. It extracts all the finer particles. Cartridge
filter vessels are also used for finer touch.

 Advanced Ewater Treatment may be broken into three major categories by the type of
process flow scheme utilized:
 Tertiary Treatment
 Physical-Chemical Treatment
 Combined Biological-Physical Treatment

 Tertiary treatment may be defined as any treatment process in which unit operations are
added to the flow scheme following conventional secondary treatment. Additions to
conventional secondary treatment could be as simple as the addition of a filter for
suspended solids removal or as complex as the addition of many unit processes for
organic, suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorous removal.

 Physical-chemical treatment is defined as a treatment process in which
biological and physical-chemical processes are intermixed to achieve the
desired effluent.

 Combined biological-physical-chemical treatment is differentiated from tertiary
treatment in that in tertiary treatment any unit processes are added after
conventional biological treatment, while in combined treatment, biological and
physical-chemical treatment are mixed.


 Early activity needed to plan the full-scale plant improvements is detailed pilot
testing. This is being done via construction and operation of a small-scale "pilot
project." The pilot project is studying and testing various treatment methods and
alternatives in order to identify the treatment technology that is the most
feasible, cost-effective and efficient.

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