Advanced Hadoop Tuning and Optimizations

Presented By: Sanjay Sharma

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj

Hadoop- The Good/Bad/Ugly 
 

Hadoop is GOOD- that is why we all are here Hadoop is not BAD- else we would not be here Hadoop is sometimes Ugly- why?  Out of the box configuration not friendly  Difficult to debug  Performance tuning/optimizations is a black art

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 2

Configuration parameters

Compression
mapred.compress.map.output: Map Output Compression 


Default: False Pros: Faster disk writes, lower disk space usage, lesser time spent on data transfer (from mappers to reducers). Cons: Overhead in compression at Mappers and decompression at Reducers. Suggestions: For large cluster and large jobs this property should be set true. The compression codec can also be set through the property mapred.map.output.compression.codec (Default is org.apache.hadoop.io.compress.DefaultCodec).  

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 4

Speculative Execution
mapred.map/reduce.tasks.speculative.execution:
Enable/Disable task (map/reduce) speculative Execution 


Default: True Pros: Reduces the job time if the task progress is slow due to memory unavailability or hardware degradation. Cons: Increases the job time if the task progress is slow due to complex and large calculations. On a busy cluster speculative execution can reduce overall throughput, since redundant tasks are being executed in an attempt to bring down the execution time for a single job. Suggestions: In large jobs where average task completion time is significant (> 1 hr) due to complex and large calculations and high throughput is required the speculative execution should be set to false.  

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 5

Number of Maps/Reducers  



mapred.tasktracker.map/reduce.tasks.maximum:
Maximum tasks (map/reduce) for a tasktracker Default: 2 Suggestions: 

Recommended range - (cores_per_node)/2 to 2x(cores_per_node), especially for large clusters. This value should be set according to the hardware specification of cluster nodes and resource requirements of tasks (map/reduce). 

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 6

File block size
dfs.block.size: File system block size 


Default: 67108864 (bytes) Suggestions: 

Small cluster and large data set: default block size will create a large number of map tasks. 

e.g. Input data size = 160 GB and dfs.block.size = 64 MB then the minimum no. of maps= (160*1024)/64 = 2560 maps. If dfs.block.size = 128 MB minimum no. of maps= (160*1024)/128 = 1280 maps. If dfs.block.size = 256 MB minimum no. of maps= (160*1024)/256 = 640 maps. 

 

In a small cluster (6-10 nodes) the map task creation overhead is considerable. So dfs.block.size should be large in this case but small enough to utilize all the cluster resources. The block size should be set according to size of the cluster, map task complexity, map task capacity of cluster and average size of input files.
Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 7 

Sort size
io.sort.mb: Buffer size (MBs) for sorting 


Default: 100 Suggestions: 

For Large jobs (the jobs in which map output is very large), this value should be increased keeping in mind that it will increase the memory required by each map task. So the increment in this value should be according to the available memory at the node. Greater the value of io.sort.mb, lesser will be the spills to the disk, saving write to the disk. 

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 8

Sort factor
io.sort.factor: Stream merge factor 


Default: 10 Suggestions: 

For Large jobs (the jobs in which map output is very large and number of maps are also large) which have large number of spills to disk, value of this property should be increased. The number of input streams (files) to be merged at once in the map/reduce tasks, as specified by io.sort.factor, should be set to a sufficiently large value (for example, 100) to minimize disk accesses. Increment in io.sort.factor, benefits in merging at reducers since the last batch of streams (equal to io.sort.factor) are sent to the reduce function without merging, thus saving time in merging.
Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 9  

JVM reuse
mapred.job.reuse.jvm.num.tasks: Reuse single JVM 


Default: 1 Suggestions: The minimum overhead of JVM creation for each task is around 1 second. So for the tasks which live for seconds or a few minutes and have lengthy initialization, this value can be increased to gain performance.

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 10

Reduce parallel copies
mapred.reduce.parallel.copies: Threads for parallel copy at reducer 


Default: 5 Description: The number of threads used to copy map outputs to the reducer. Suggestions: For Large jobs (the jobs in which map output is very large), value of this property can be increased keeping in mind that it will increase the total CPU usage. 

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 11

The Other Threads
dfs.namenode{/mapred.job.tracker}.handler.count :server
threads that handle remote procedure calls (RPCs) 


Default: 10 Suggestions: This can be increased for larger server (50-64).

dfs.datanode.handler.count :server threads that handle remote
procedure calls (RPCs) 


Default: 3 Suggestions: This can be increased for larger number of HDFS clients (6-8).

tasktracker.http.threads : number of worker threads on the HTTP
server on each TaskTracker 


Default: 40 Suggestions: The can be increased for larger clusters (50).
Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 12

Other hotspots

Revelation-Temporary space
Temporary space allocation: 

Jobs which generate large intermediate data (map output) should have enough temporary space controlled by property mapred.local.dir. This property specifies list directories where the MapReduce stores intermediate data for jobs. The data is cleaned-up after the job completes. By default, replication factor for file storage on HDFS is 3, which means that every file has three replicas. As a rule of thumb, at least 25% of the total hard disk should be allocated for intermediate temporary output. So effectively, only ¼ hard disk space is available for business use. The default value for mapred.local.dir is ${hadoop.tmp.dir}/mapred/local. So if mapred.local.dir is not set, hadoop.tmp.dir must have enough space to hold job s intermediate data. If the node doesn t have enough temporary space the task attempt will fail and starts a new attempt, thus impacting the performance.
Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 14  

Java- JVM
JVM tuning: 

Besides normal java code optimizations, JVM settings for each child task also affects the processing time. On slave node end, the task tracker and data node use 1 GB RAM each. Effective use of the remaining RAM as well as choosing the right GC mechanism for each Map or Reduce task is very important for maximum utilization of hardware resources. The default max RAM for child tasks is 200MB which might be insufficient for many production grade jobs. The JVM settings for child tasks are governed by mapred.child.java.opts property. Use JDK 1.6 64 BIT  

+ +XX:CompressedOops helpful in dealing with OOM errors 



Do remember changing Linux open file descriptor Set java.net.preferIPv4Stack set to true, to avoid timeouts in cases where the OS/JVM picks up an IPv6 address and must resolve the hostname.
15

Logging 

Is a friend to developers, Foe in production 

Default - INFO level 
 

dfs.namenode.logging.level hadoop.job.history hadoop.logfile.size/count

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 16

Static Data strategies 

Available Approaches 
 

JobConf.set( key , value ) Distributed cache HDFS shared file 

Suggested approaches if above ones not efficient 
  

Memcached Tokyocabinet/TokyoTyrant Berkley DB HBase

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 17

Debugging and profiling- Arun C Murthy
Hadoop Map-Reduce Tuning and Debugging- from Arun C Murthy presentation 

Debugging 
  

Log files/UI view Local runner Single machine mode Set keep.failed.task.files to true and use the IsolationRunner Set mapred.task.profile to true Use mapred.task.profile.{maps|reduces} hprof support is built-in Use mapred.task.profile.params to set options for the debugger Possibly DistributedCache for the profiler s agent
18 

Profiling 
   

Tuning - Arun C Murthy
Hadoop Map-Reduce Tuning and Debugging- from Arun C Murthy presentation 

Tuning 
      

Tell HDFS and Map-Reduce about your network! Rack locality script: topology.script.file.name Number of maps Data locality Number of reduces You don t need a single output file!Log files/UI view Amount of data processed per Map - Consider fatter maps, Custom input format Combiner - multi-level combiners at both Map and Reduce Check to ensure the combiner is useful! Map-side sort -io.sort.mb, io.sort.factor, io.sort.record.percent, io.sort.spill.percent Shuffle 

Compression for map-outputs mapred.compress.map.output , mapred.map.output.compression.codec , lzo via libhadoop.so, tasktracker.http.threads mapred.reduce.parallel.copies, mapred.reduce.copy.backoff, mapred.job.shuffle.input.buffer.percent, mapred.job.shuffle.merge.percent, mapred.inmem.merge.threshold, mapred.job.reduce.input.buffer.percent  



Compress the job output Miscellaneous -Speculative execution, Heap size for the child, Re-use jvm for maps/reduces, Raw Comparators

19

Next steps 


Hadoop Vaidya (since 0.20.0) Job configuration analyzer (WIP-to be contributed back to Hadoop) 
 

Part of Analyze Job web ui Analyze and suggest config parameters from job.xml Smart suggestion engine/auto-correction

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 20

Conclusion 

Performance of Hadoop MapReduce jobs can be improved without increasing the hardware costs, by tuning several key configuration parameters for cluster specifications, input data size and processing complexity.

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 21

References 


Hadoop.apache.org Hadoop-performance tuning--white paper v1 1.pdf Arun C Murthy Intel_White_Paper_Optimizing_Hadoop_Deploym ents.pdf 

Download the Whitepaper: Deriving Intelligence from Large Data Using Hadoop and Applying Analytics at http://bit.ly/cNCCGj 22

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful