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Chapter 2

Network Models

2.1
2-1 LAYERED TASKS

•There are 3 different activities at the sender site and 3 at the receiver site.
•Must be done in the order of the layers.
•Each layer at the sending site uses the services of the layer right below it.

Figure 2.1 Tasks involved in sending a letter


2.2
2-2 THE OSI MODEL
1. Established in 1947, the International Standards
Organization (ISO) is a multinational body
dedicated to worldwide agreement on international
standards.
2. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of
network communications is the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first
introduced in the late 1970s.
3. ISO is the organization. OSI is the model.
4. Topics covered:
1. Layered Architecture
2. Peer-to-Peer Processes
3. Encapsulation
2.3
Figure 2.2 Seven layers of the OSI model

2.4
2-2 THE OSI MODEL
 Why use a layered approach ?
 Data communications requires complex procedures
 Sender identifies data path/receiver


Systems negotiate preparedness
 Applications negotiate preparedness

 Translation of file formats

 For all tasks to occur, a high level of cooperation is


required
 Provide framework to implement multiple specific
protocols per layer

2.5
2-2 THE OSI MODEL
 Advantages of Layering
 Easier application development
 Network can change without all programs being
modified
 Breaks complex tasks into subtasks
 Each layer handles a specific subset of tasks
 Communication occurs
 between different layers on the same node or stack
(INTERFACES) – vertical communications
 between similar layers on different nodes or stacks
(PEER-TO-PEER PROCESSES) – horizontal
2.6 communications
Figure 2.3 The interaction between layers in the OSI model

User
support
layers

Network
support
layers

2.7
Figure 2.4 An exchange using the OSI model

2.8
2-3 LAYERS IN THE OSI MODEL

Figure 2.5 Physical layer


The physical layer is responsible for movements of
individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.
•The interface and the type of the physical transmission medium
•Raw bits -> signals
•Bit duration
•How the devices are connected to the media (point-to-point, or multipoint)
•How devices are connected to each other(mesh, star, ring, bus, or hybrid)
•The direction of transmission( simplex, half-duplex, or full-duplex).
2.9
Figure 2.6 Data link layer

The data link layer is responsible for moving


frames from one hop (node) to the next.
•Makes the raw transmission facility (physical layer), reliable. Error-free to the
upper layer (network).
•Divides the stream of bits into frames (data units)
•Adds a header to define the send and/or receiver of the frame
•Flow control mechanism to avoid overwhelming the receiver (receiver slower than
sender). Detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. Recognize duplicate frames.

2.10
Figure 2.7 Hop-to-hop delivery

•Communication at the data link layer occurs between two adjacent nodes.
•For a to f, 3 partial deliveries are made. a to b, b to e, and e to f. Different headers.

2.11
Figure 2.8 Network layer

The network layer is responsible for the delivery of


individual packets from the source host to the
destination host.
•Ensures that each packet gets from origin to final destination.
•If two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. If
different links, need.
•Network layer adds logical addresses of the sender and receiver
•Routing: routers/switchers route or switch the packets to their final destination.

2.12
Figure 2.9 Source-to-destination delivery

When packet gets B, B makes a decision based on the final F. B is a router, it uses its routing table
to find that the next hop is router E, so send to E.

2.13
Figure 2.10 Transport layer

The transport layer is responsible for the delivery


of a entire message from one process to another.
•Ensures the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow
control at the source-to-destination level.
•Service-point addressing: specific process (like email, msn, etc)
•A message is divided into segments, containing a sequence number

2.14
Figure 2.11 Reliable process-to-process delivery of a message

2.15
Figure 2.12 Session layer

•Establishes, maintains, and synchronized the interaction among communicating systems.


•Synchronization: allows a process to add checkpoints, or synchronization points, to a
stream of data.
•Responsible for enforcing the rules of dialog (e.g., Does a connection permit half-duplex
or full-duplex communication?), synchronizing the flow of data, and reestablishing a
connection in the event a failure occurs.

2.16
Figure 2.13 Presentation layer

The presentation layer is responsible for translation,


compression, and encryption.
• Provides for data formats, translations, and code conversions.
• Concerned with syntax and semantics of data being transmitted.
• Encodes messages in a format that is suitable for electronic transmission.
• Data compression and encryption done at this layer.
• Receives message from application layer, formats it, and passes it to the session
layer.

2.17
Figure 2.14 Application layer

The application layer is responsible for


providing services to the user.

2.18
Figure 2.15 Summary of layers

2.19
2-4 TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE

1. The layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not


exactly match those in the OSI model. The original
TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four
layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and
application.
2. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can
say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five
layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and
application.
3. Topics covered:
1. Physical and Data Link Layers
2. Network Layer
3. Transport Layer
4. Application Layer
2.20
Figure 2.16 TCP/IP and OSI model

2.21
2-5 ADDRESSING
Four levels of addresses are used in an internet
employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical, logical, port,
and specific.

Figure 2.17 Addresses in TCP/IP

2.22
Figure 2.18 Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

2.23
Figure 2.19 Physical addresses

1. A node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a


node with physical address 87. The two nodes are
connected by a link (bus topology LAN).
2. The computer with physical address 10 is the
sender, and the computer with physical address 87
is the receiver.
3. In most data link protocols, the destination address
2.24 (87) comes before the source address (10).
Most local-area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical
address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2
hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon.

07:01:02:01:2C:4B

A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address.

2.25
Figure 2.20 IP addresses

2.26
Figure 2.21 Port addresses

2.27