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Introduction to Lean Manufacturing
Introduction to Lean
Manufacturing
Introduction to Lean Manufacturing
Lean Manufacturing Definition
Lean Manufacturing Definition
Lean has been defined in many different ways. ―A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste(non-value-added
Lean has been defined in many different ways.
―A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating
waste(non-value-added activities) through continuous
improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the
customer in pursuit of perfection.‖
Lean Manufacturing Definition Lean has been defined in many different ways. ―A systematic approach to identifying
By The MEP Lean Network
By The MEP Lean Network
Intro-To-Lean
Intro-To-Lean
History Timeline for Lean Manufacturing
History Timeline for Lean Manufacturing
History Timeline for Lean Manufacturing Intro-To-Lean
History Timeline for Lean Manufacturing Intro-To-Lean
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Intro-To-Lean
Lean manufacturing is a philosophy
Lean manufacturing is a
philosophy

In 1990 James Womack, Daniel T. Jones, and

Daniel Roos wrote a book called The Machine

That Changed the World: The Story of Lean

Production-- Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car

Wars That Is Now Revolutionizing World Industry‖

In this book, Womack introduced the Toyota Production System to American.

What was new was a phrase

"Lean Manufacturing."

Intro-To-Lean
Intro-To-Lean
How to Increase Profit?
How to Increase Profit?
How to Increase Profit? Profit Cost Profit Cost Profit Cost Intro-To-Lean
  • Profit

  • Cost

How to Increase Profit? Profit Cost Profit Cost Profit Cost Intro-To-Lean
  • Profit

  • Cost

How to Increase Profit? Profit Cost Profit Cost Profit Cost Intro-To-Lean
  • Profit

  • Cost

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Intro-To-Lean
Muda (Waste) Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990), the Toyota executive who was the most ferocious foe of waste
Muda (Waste)
Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990), the Toyota executive who was the most
ferocious foe of waste human history has produced, identified the
first seven types of muda in manufacturing system:
• Storage
• Transportation
• Waiting
• Motion
• Process
• Defects
• Over-production
Muda is everywhere.
Intro-To-Lean
Lean Overview
Lean Overview
Intro-To-Lean
Intro-To-Lean
Lean Manufacturing Tools  5S     Value Stream Mapping Standardized Work Load Leveling
Lean Manufacturing Tools
5S
Value Stream Mapping
Standardized Work
Load Leveling
Kaizen
Kanban
Visual Workplace
Quick Changeover
Andon
Poka-yoke
One-piece flow
Cellular Manufacturing
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Production Planning System (Push System)
Production Planning System (Push System)
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Intro-To-Lean
Push or Pull?
Push or Pull?

A push system

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Intro-To-Lean
Push or Pull?
Push or Pull?

A pull system

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Intro-To-Lean

Kanban Operation

Kanban Stage Kanban Stage 1 i RM FG Station Station Station Station Station 2 i 1
Kanban Stage
Kanban Stage
1
i
RM
FG
Station
Station
Station
Station
Station
2
i
1
N+1
i+1

WK(1)

PK(1)

Kanban Operation Kanban Stage Kanban Stage 1 i RM FG Station Station Station Station Station 2

From stage i-1

WK(2) PK(2) WK(i) PK(i) WK(i+1) PK(i+1) K-1 K 5 i +1 i Kanban Stage 4 i
WK(2)
PK(2)
WK(i)
PK(i)
WK(i+1) PK(i+1)
K-1
K
5
i +1
i
Kanban Stage
4
i
3
1
2
PK
WK

WK(N)

PK(N)

Kanban Operation Kanban Stage Kanban Stage 1 i RM FG Station Station Station Station Station 2

To stage i+1

Figure 3.3. A kanban stage formed by two adjacent stations.

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14
14

Raw materials inventory

7
7
3
3
11 Semi-finished parts 11 12 RM RM Station 1 11 Station 2 WK PK 8 WK
11
Semi-finished
parts
11
12
RM
RM
Station 1
11
Station 2
WK
PK
8
WK
13
11
10
13
14 Raw materials inventory 7 3 11 Semi-finished parts 11 12 RM RM Station 1 11

Material

handler

Semi-finished parts

Finished

goods

3 PK 5 2 Order 1 receiving
3
PK
5
2
Order
1
receiving
7 Station 3 RM 7 8 4 PK WK 4 9 7 6
7
Station 3
RM
7
8
4
PK
WK
4
9
7
6
14 Raw materials inventory 7 3 11 Semi-finished parts 11 12 RM RM Station 1 11
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Intro-To-Lean

Current State Map of A Case Study Example

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Intro-To-Lean

Future State Map

At which stations, are parts withdrawn?

At which stations, are parts scheduled?

Future State Map At which stations, are parts withdrawn? At which stations, are parts scheduled? Intro-To-Lean
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Which to Choose — MRP (ERP), or Kanban?
Which to Choose — MRP
(ERP), or Kanban?

Where MRP (ERP) works best:

  • MRP is by its very nature a forward-looking system.

  • MRP can be very effective in an environment with

a great deal of variability.

  • MRP is recognized an engine to drive an integrated enterprise-wide information system. Purchasing

and logistics activities were similarly being

integrated with fundamental internal materials management principles into an enterprise-wide approach.

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Intro-To-Lean
MRP or Lean Manufacturing?
MRP or Lean Manufacturing?

Where MRP is not as effective.

  • MRP is a predictive system. It does not reflect to customer’s demand (easy to get overproduction).

A company takes MRP suggestions and acts on them without

too much review is very risky.

  • MRP won’t fully support the cost-cutting.

  • MRP needs lots of data for production management.

  • MRP generates high overhead.

  • MRP builds high work-in-process.

  • MRP’s lead times are fixed.

  • MRP creates potential quality hazard.

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Intro-To-Lean
Which to Choose — MRP (ERP), or Kanban? Where Kanban works best. Kanban is a very
Which to Choose — MRP
(ERP), or Kanban?
Where Kanban works best.
Kanban is a very reactive system. Very little is planned
ahead. Instead, Kanban causes replacement of material used in a
totally reactive mode. Kanban works best in a highly stable and
predictable environment.

Where it is not as effective.

Kanban can quickly fail in a highly volatile environment

because of the reactive nature of the system. Volatility in customer demand, processing problems, and extensive changes in product designs make it very difficult for a Kanban system to work effectively.

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Which to Choose — MRP (ERP), or Kanban? Kanban and MRP Combination The combination of these
Which to Choose — MRP
(ERP), or Kanban?
Kanban and MRP Combination
The combination of these two systems is becoming quite
common. An MRP system is used for advanced planning,
including long lead-time purchased materials, adding resources,
and implementing product design changes. Once the MRP has the
materials and resources ―lined up,‖ however, Kanban is used as
an execution system, bringing with the characteristics of rapid
response to customer order and reduced inventory levels
throughout the process.
Hybrid Systems
Intro-To-Lean
The Objections to Lean
The Objections to Lean

How should you deal with these objections to lean?

•―It is very hard to deal with raw material suppliers

if we fully depend on customer order.‖ •―It takes too much discipline.‖ •―It takes too long to implement.‖

•―My process is too complex; I have to deal with

too many uncontrollable variables, like late supplier

shipments, sick people, etc.‖

•―My process requires a large batch size.‖

•―It doesn’t make sense in my industry.‖

•―It’s unclear to me how lean will work with my MRP system.‖

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Intro-To-Lean
Lean and Green
Lean and Green
Lean and Green The environmental impacts due to production and waste generation have made its way
Lean and Green The environmental impacts due to production and waste generation have made its way

The environmental impacts due to

production and waste generation have made its way into every day society. Consumers are becoming more

environmentally conscious.

With the Earth’s limited resources,

companies are more conscious of their carbon footprint, and there has been a movement to create more

environmentally friendly decisions.

Green engineering is the systems-level approach to product and process design where environmental attributes are treated as primary objectives or opportunities rather than simple constraints.

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Intro-To-Lean
lean manufacturing is a link to green engineering
lean manufacturing is a link
to green engineering
lean manufacturing is a link to green engineering Lean manufacturing is the business model and collection

Lean manufacturing is the business model and collection of tactical methods that emphasize eliminating non-value- added activities (waste) while delivering quality products at lowest cost with greater efficiency. In conjunction, six goals of green engineering are:

  • 1. Select low environmental impact materials.

  • 2. Avoid toxic or hazardous materials.

  • 3. Choose cleaner production processes.

  • 4. Maximize energy and water efficiencies.

  • 5. Design for waste minimization.

  • 6. Design for recyclability and reuse of material.

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Intro-To-Lean
lean manufacturing is a link to green engineering
lean manufacturing is a link
to green engineering

Population grows

lean manufacturing is a link to green engineering Population grows Wastes increase Fossil fuels are diminishing

Wastes increase

Fossil fuels are diminishing and there is nothing replenishing them.

Consumers are becoming more aware of the environment and prefer environmentally friendly companies.

Being lean and green is so important now to reduce the consumption of natural resources and the CO2 concentration

in the Earth’s atmosphere.

The only real difference between lean and green manufacturing is that green actually designs the product or process with the environment as a constraint while lean creates a process with the view of the environment as a valuable resource and not a constraint.

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Intro-To-Lean

Key Steps in Transforming

a Company to the Lean Approach 1. Establish a steering team—conduct strategic planning session 2. Train
a Company to the Lean
Approach
1.
Establish a steering team—conduct strategic planning session
2.
Train the steering team and the model line team in the
disciplines of lean
3.
Perform PQR (product-quantity-routing) analysis
4.
Identify value streams—select a value stream
5.
Calculate model line takt time
6.
Value stream map the model line—assemble current state map
7.
Balance the line—assign standard work
8.
Establish standard WIP (inventory levels)
9.
Test the system (virtual cell)—document results
10.
Setup reduction event
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Intro-To-Lean

Key Steps in Transforming

a Company to the Lean Approach 11. Conduct 5S event—apply TPM techniques 12. Establish visual signals—reduce
a Company to the Lean
Approach
11.
Conduct 5S event—apply TPM techniques
12.
Establish visual signals—reduce paperwork
13.
Explore alternative flow patterns
14.
Develop block layout
15.
Develop detailed layout
16.
Execute move
17.
Select next value stream and repeat

Gary Conner, President of Lean Enterprise Training, Newport, OR, Road Map to Lean for the Smaller Shop, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean

Manufacturing 2007, Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering, 2007. pp. 27-29.

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Intro-To-Lean
References • •
References
• •
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean Manufacturing 2007, Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering, 2007. Society of Manufacturing Engineers,
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean Manufacturing 2007,
Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering, 2007.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean Manufacturing 2008,
Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering, 2008.

Garrett Brown and Dara O’Rourke, “Lean Manufacturing Comes to China: A Case Study of its Impact on Workplace Health and Safety,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health (IJOEH), 13(3), JUL/SEP 2007.

References • • • • Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean Manufacturing 2007, Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering,
References • • • • Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Lean Manufacturing 2007, Supplement to Manufacturing Engineering,
Challenges in Applying Lean Manufacturing in China, McKinsey Quarterly, 2006 Special Edition available at Jackson Library.
Challenges in Applying Lean Manufacturing in China, McKinsey
Quarterly, 2006 Special Edition available at Jackson Library. Friday,
October 12, 2007 | Posted by Simone Yu in International
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Intro-To-Lean