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1

Welcome to
DMAIC
for BBs &
MBBs

2
I = Innovators

CA = Change Agents
P = Pragmatists

S = Skeptics
T = Traditionalists
Its a Continal
Wave! Skeptics
and
Traditionalists
have to "e
convinced that
the# onl# have
t$o choices%

either get off


the "each! or

&et Wet'
10%
20%
40%
20%
10%
I CA P S T
The (ive )ear Cltral Change Crve
Scale of Perceived *isk
+ittle *isk
Perceived
+arge *isk
Perceived

Innovators inspire Change Agents

Change Agents convince Pragmatists throgh clear


"siness case! $ith data

Skeptics have to see it in action

Traditionalists vale the stats ,o a"ove all else



3
The 12-Step Process
Process Capability Y, X Capability Indices Y, X Determine Process
Capability
11
Proposed Solution actorial Desi!ns X Disco"er #ariable
$elations%ips
&
'ist o( #ital e) X*s D+,-Screenin! X Screen Potential Causes .
Control
Piloted Solution Simulation Y, X ,stablis% +peratin!
/olerances
0
1S2 Continuous 3a!e $4$,
/est5$etest, 2ttribute
$4$
Y, X De(ine 4 #alidate
1easurement System on
X*s in 2ctual 2pplication
10
Sustained Solution
Documentation
Control C%arts, 1ista6e
Proo(in!, 1,2
X Implement Process Control 12
Impro"e
Prioriti7ed 'ist o( all X*s Process 2nalysis,
3rap%ical 2nalysis,
8ypot%esis /ests
X Identi(y #ariation Sources 9
Impro"ement 3oal (or
Pro:ect Y
/eam, ;enc%mar6in! Y De(ine Per(ormance
+b:ecti"es
<
Process Capability (or
Pro:ect Y
Capability Indices Y ,stablis% Process
Capabilities
4
2naly7e
Data Collection Plan 4
1S2 Data (or Pro:ect Y
Continuous 3a!e $4$,
test5$etest, 2ttribute
$4$
Y 1easurement System
2nalysis
=
Per(ormance Standard (or
Pro:ect Y
Customer, ;lueprints Y De(ine Per(ormance
Standards
2
Pro:ect Y Customer, >D, 1,2 Y Select C/> C%aracteristics 1
1easure
8i!% 'e"el Process 1ap De(ine Process 1ap C
2ppro"ed C%arter De"elop /eam C%arter ;
Pro:ect C/>*s Identi(y Pro:ect C/>*s 2
De(ine
Deli"erables /ools ocus Description Step

4
Iterative Process
Steps 2,;,C
Steps 1,2,=
Steps 4,<,9
Steps .,&,0
Steps
10,11,12

5
Pro"lem
statement
Pro:ect Y
1a!nitude
Impact
Using Statistics to Solve Problems
Practical
Pro"lem
Statistical
Pro"lem
Statistical
Soltion
Practical
Soltion
- M A I C
Characteri.e
the process
Stability
S%ape
Center
#ariation
*oot case
anal#sis
Critical X*s
Measre the
inflence of
the critical /s
on the mean
and varia"ilit#
/est
1odel
,stimate
0erif#
critical /s
and 1234
Change
process
Control the
gains
$is6
analysis
Control
plans
-ata Integrit#
1S2
;rainstorm
potential X*s
Samplin! plan
Collect data
Capa"ilit#
?
;enc% S/ 4 '/

6
Practical & Statistical Problem

+ook at Scale of Scrtin# and 5 or


Measrement S#stem *esoltion

Check Spread & Center 0s6


Specifications & Target

+ook at 7istogram! Bo3plot! 8ormalit#


Plot! and Basic Statistics $ith Specs
sperimposed

Check Process Capa"ilit# *elative to


Specifications

Stat9Ta"les9Tall#9Cmlative : to get
)ield on continos data

Stat9Ta"le9Tall#9Conts on discrete data


for )ield

State the Pro"lem as one of Spread and5or


Center

State the Process Capa"ilit#



7
The Goal of Six Sigma
To reduce the variation that the
Customer feels from our process
centered around an appropriate
mean or target and !ithin
specification limits as defined b"
the Customer#
Process Capabilit"
$ f%Spread Center Specifications&

8
Selecting Pro'ects
When selecting a pro;ect! consider these isses%

Process@select a lo)-per(ormin! process t%at %as %i!%


impact on C/>sA 2 si!ni(icant !ap eBists bet)een customer
reCuirements and process per(ormanceA

(easi"ilit#

Don*t try to sol"e )orld %un!er Dtoo broad, too compleBEA

Is data a"ailableF

8o) )ill you close t%e pro:ectF ;e!in )it% t%e end in
mindA

,Bpect to conclude success(ully )it%in 4 to 9 mont%sA

Measra"le Impact

In dollars

In $+I

In de(ect5cycle time reduction

In customer satis(action

*esorce spport $ithin the organi.ation

'eaders%ip support is critical (or success

8o) !reat is t%e support (or t%e initiati"eF

8o) muc% resistance is t%ere to c%an!eF

G%at is t%e sense o( ur!encyF

$esource and /eam 1embers %a"e t%e s6ills and


capabilities to support multiple teams and are dedicatedA

Pro;ect interactions

1ultiple teams a((ectin! process

C%an!es planned (or t%e process DeA!A, tec%nolo!yE

13PP

9
The (evels of a CT)

(evel *1+ ,xpressed Customer


-eed

.igh (evel from /0C

(evel *2+ CT) Characteristic

1.2T "ou !ill measure

,ffectiveness v# ,fficienc"

Goodness v# Timeliness

(evel *3+ CT) 4etric or Pro'ect 5

.01 "ou !ill measure it#

2 formula or the categories

e#g# 5 $ ,nd 6ate - Start 6ate

e#g# 5 $ 6issatisfied Satisfied


-o 0pinion

10
Pro'ect 5 7 6efects
Pro'ect 5 $
.o! !e 4easure the T"pe of ,rror

Unit %(oan 6a" 2pp Transaction&
,rror T"pes+

-ot 6one %Percentage per period&

6one 1rong %.o! 1rong8&

6one ,arl" and7or (ate %.o!


(ate7,arl"8&
6P0 $ 6efects 7 9Units x 0pp7Unit:
$ 6 7 9U x 0: $ 6 7 Total 0pps
6efect $ Units that fail to meet
Customer Specifications

11
#+C $esults and C/> Drill do)n treeA
CT<=%
)=
-efect =
Bsiness ) or
+evel = CT<% 0>C
+evel ? CT<%
*esponsiveness
+evel ? CT<%
Competitiveness
+evel ? CT<%
Technical
Performance
CT<?%
)=
-efect=
CT<@%
)=
-efect=
CT<A%
)=
-efect=
CT<B%
)=
-efect=
CT<C%
)=
-efect
Cstomer%
+evel ? CT<%
>n time
-elivera"les
+evel ? CT<%
Accrate &
Complete
-elivera"les
;mportant To 0ur Customer
Single Cell
Pro;ects
ProcessDBased Pro;ects
C
T
<

P
r
o
;
e
c
t
s
C
o
n
t
r
o
l
l
a
b
l
e

<
"

U
s
Process A
Process =
Process ?
Process @
Yellow indicates this
specific project path
6etermining the Pro'ect 5

-rill -o$n
Tree

<(- or

-etailed EAS ISF Process Map and5or

(MGA on Crrent Process

C > P I S

12
=inding Potential >?s

C > P I S

-ata
Collection
Plan

-etailed EAS ISF Process Map and

(MGA on Crrent Process


Problem
Statement
Measurements Materials Men & Women
Methods Environment Machines
Process
Inpt
0aria"les
2/s4
n Hey input and
process measures
DXE t%at trac6
"ariables
identi(ied in your
pro:ect as 6ey
dri"ers o( Pro:ect
Y "ariables
>tpt
2)s4
n Hey output measures
DYE (rom t%e
customer*s
perspecti"e
Process 0aria"les
2/s4
X X X X
1=
13
Plan for 6ata Collection
6ata Collection ;s The =irst Step To Understanding
The /ariation The Customer =eels#
6ata Collection ;s The =irst Step To Understanding
The /ariation The Customer =eels#
Clarif#
prpose of
data
collection
Identif# $hat
data to
collect
Test and
validate
measrement
s#stems
Write and pilot
operational
definitions
-evelop and
pilot data
collection
forms and
procedres
Gsta"lish a
sampling plan
Train data
collectors
Pilot
process and
make
ad;stments
Collect data
Monitor data
accrac#
and
consistenc#
Gnsre -ata
Consistenc#
And Sta"ilit#
Gsta"lish
-ata
Collection
&oals
-evelop
>perational
-efinitions
And
Procedres
=
A
@ ?
Collect -ata
And Monitor
Consistenc#

14
CT<s Are The Bridge Bet$een >r Process >tpt And
Cstomer Satisfaction6
CT<s Are The Bridge Bet$een >r Process >tpt And
Cstomer Satisfaction6
7igh +evel
Cstomer 8eed
from 0>C%
<ick *esponse
Timel# *esponse
Pro;ect )
2Characteristic4
Time from in,ir#
to resoltion of
in,ir#
2Pro;ect ) Metric4
B mintes or less
2Target4
8ot greater than
CH mintes
Specification5
Tolerance +imit4
Gsta"lished in
-efine Phase
Gsta"lished in
Measre Phase
Gsta"lished in
Measre Phase
Gsta"lished in
Measre Phase
CT)
An# response
taking more than
CH mintes
2-efect definition4
Gsta"lished in
Measre Phase
CT) ,lements %Performance Standards&

15
n $ f% @deltaA variation &
6,S n
s
p
n
n
n

16
Measrement S#stem Anal#sis 2MSA4
-ate Std# Condcted%
T#pe of &age *&* condcted%
I TestD*etest 2continos data4 PassJ
Standard De"iation I 1510
t%
o( /olerance JJJJJ Y K
I Short (orm *eprodci"ilit# 2continos data4 PassJ
% /olerance L 100B<A1<B$bar 5 DdMB/oleranceE N =0%O JJJJJ Y K
I A8>0A &age *&* 2continos data4
1E /)o-Gay 2K+#2 SignificantJ
Part p-"alue JJJJJ Y K
+per p-"alue JJJJJ Y K
+per 4 Part p-"alue JJJJJ Y K
PassJ
2E % /olerance N =0%O JJJJJ Y K
=E % Contribution N &%MMO JJJJJ Y K
4E % Study #ariation N =0%MMO JJJJJ Y K
<E P Distinct Cate!ories N 4MMO JJJJJ Y K
KK Assmes PartDtoDPart variation is large! these criteria reverse if each part
s"mitted to the test $ere the same si.e6
&raphical -iagnosis >LJ
1E ,((ecti"e $esolution NXbar, <0% outside Control 'imitsO Y K
2E Stability N$ C%art QsmallQ ran!es, in Control O Y K
=E Consistency )it%in N$ C%art, similar patterns by +perO Y K
4E Consistency bet)een N+per5Part InterA Plot, close intert)ineO Y K
<E Systematic s%i(t N+per5Part InterA Plot, consistent di((erenceO Y K
I Attri"te &age *&* 2discrete data4 PassJ
1E % $epeatability N 00%O JJJJJ Y K
2E % $eproducibility N 00%O JJJJJ Y K
=E % 2ccuracy N 00%O JJJJJ Y K
&age *&* passJ Y K
I( no, describe plan (or impro"ementR
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ

17
The 8ormal Crve
D@s D?s D=s / M=s M?s M@s
CN6?C:
OB6AC:
OO6P@:
CN6?C: (all Within MQD = Standard -eviation
OB6AC: (all Within MQD ? Standard -eviation
OO6P@: (all Within MQD @ Standard -eviation
@A6=@: @A6=@:
=@6CH: =@6CH:
?6=A: ?6=A:
H6=@: H6=@:

18
Bun Chart p-value ;nterpretation
*n "egins
each time the
median is
crossed
*n "egins
each time
direction
changes
PR6HB =9 Too
(e$ *ns
PR6HB =9 Too
Man# *ns
Clsters
Mi3tres
>scillations
Trends

19
Process Capabilit" 6ecision =lo!
Si3 Sigma9Prodct *eport!
-PM>! += 2Inpt -! S and >4
Si!ma Con"ersion /able !i"es ?
ST
T
+T
= T
ST
D T
Shift
2=6B4
Product $eport and '1 !i"e T
Bench
T
Bench
= T
ST

T
+T
L T
Bench
D T
Shift
2=6B4
8ote%
T
ST
= T
+T
M T
shift
T
ST
= T
BenchDST
T
+T
= T
BenchD+T
-o #o
have
*ational
S"gropsJ
Is the
-istri"tion
8ormalJ
8o
-o #o have
Continos
-ataJ
)es
8o
)es
Sse T
BenchD+T
onl#
and add =6B Shift
to get T
BenchDST
Sse Si3 Sigma9 Process *eport
2Inpt -ata! Specification +imits
and Target as appropriate4
)es
8o
Is the SD
Chart inD
controlJ
T
BenchD+T
! T
BenchD ST
& T
Shift
all valid on
the Process
*eport
)es
Sse T
BenchD+T
onl#
and add =6B Shift
to get T
BenchDST
8o

20
SS
;
SS
/
SS
G
Total
Total
Within
Within
Bet$een
Bet$een

2
1 1
2
1
2
1 1



= = = = =
j X
ij
X X X n X
ij
X
n
i
g
j
j j
g
j
n
i
g
j
T
Bench
+ongDterm The Shift ShortDterm
0ariation T#pe A++ Special Common

Illstrated "#
in time I or *n Chart /"ar Chart * or S Chart
"# /s 7istogram! Main Gffects Plot! Bo3 Plot
8ormalit# Plot Interaction Plot Pro"a"ilit# Plot
Pro"a"ilit# Plot
Bo3 Plots
Ssed to Measre
a4 Capa"ilit# Accrac# Precision
"4 Total *&* *eprodci"ilit# *epeata"ilit#
Improve Isse Performance Control Technolog#
/s D (actors 0ital (e$ Trivial Man#
A8>0A Total /D(actor +evels Grror
df n
T
D = g D = n
T
D g
MS D 0ariance SST 5 2n
T
D =4 SSB 5 2g D =4 SSW 5 2n
T
D g4
St-ev
Total
=
+T
SG =
+T
5 s,rt2n4 s
p
=
ST
*egression The Model The *esidals
->G Main Gffects & G3perimental
Interactions% )Dhat Grror% sDhat

21
Testing 5our 6iscrete >?s
Po$er 9or= 6OH / is Statisticall#
Significant! i6e6 A
possi"le soltion can
"e develop arond
this /6
Cross Ta" $ith other
significant /s to
determine if the# are
correlated6

Segment "# level and


remaining /s to
identif# secondar#
effects on variation
Main Gffects 5 Bo3
Plots indicate likel#
"est settings6
(ish Bone reasons
Prioriti.e reasons
according to impact
and controlla"ilit#

Ask EWh#JF till at


*oot Case
P R 6HB P 9or= 6HB
Po$er R 6OH
8ot Statisticall#
Significant and
$e are EsreF of
it6

i6e6 -ont se as
a soltion and
do not inclde in
an# transfer
fnction
8ot Statisticall#
Significant! BST
8ot enogh data
to "e EsreF
&et more data
>*
*el# on S";ect
Matter G3perts
to determine if
this shold "e
part of an#
soltion! T7G8
Test its effect in
a
Pilot! or an
G3periment
*n Main Gffects and Bo3 Plots $ith Specifications to determine
Practical Significance

22
Using the Six Sigma Process Beport Beport 2
Control Chart
Sta"ilit#
/"ar * or S
J 8ot
8ot Sta"le
Sta"le Sta"le
Colmn to
Sse
ST +T
8A >L
>L >L
>L >L
Capa"ilit# Calclation
/"ar chart interpretation ma#
not "e relia"le since the
control limits on the /"ar chart
are "ased on *"ar from the *
chart or S"ar from the S chart6
Calclate T
ST
= T
+T
M =6B or se
the standard method
Shift = T
ST
D T
+T
Shift $ill "e appro3imatel#
.ero for the data sample6
Snless the period over $hich
the data is collected is a
relativel# long one! the
convention is to assme it $ill
eventall# shift and to
Calclate T
ST
= T
+T
M =6B or se
the standard method6 This
ma# "e overl# optimistic'
Check #or s"grops to see
if the# are spaced far enogh6

23
;s it Graphicall" 0bvious8
7istogram 5 8ormalit# Plot 5 *n Chart on the )
.< 9< << 4< =< 2< 1< <
0A09<
0A090
0A0<<
+bser"ation
K
C
J
'
2
/
8
,
0A49=2
0A<=9&
2A0000
40A999.
<0A0000
0A.1<1
0A2&40
&A0000
=&A4400
=9A0000
2pproB P-#al ue (or +sci l lationR
2pproB P-#al ue (or /rendsR
'on!est run up or do)nR
,Bpected number o( runsR
Kumber o( runs up or do)nR
2pproB P-#alue (or 1iBturesR
2pproB P-#alue (or Cl usterin!R
'on!est run about medianR
,Bpected number o( runsR
Kumber o( runs about medi anR
$un C%art (or KCJ'2/8,
< 4 = 2 1
<1A<
<0A<
40A<
4&A<
4.A<
49A<
+per <0
D
i
s
t

<
0
1& & 10 4= <0 2.4
4A= 1A0 4A< 10A2 14A0 9<A1
100A0 0<A. 0=A& &0A= .0A1 9<A1
400
=00
200
100
0
100
&0
90
40
20
0
De(ect
Count
Percent
Cum %
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
C
o
u
n
t
Pareto C%art (or De(ects
<0 40 =0 20 10 0
40
=<
=0
2<
2mount DSHE
C
y
c
l
e

/
i
m
e
P-#alueR 0A.1=
2-SCuaredR 0A2<.
2nderson-Darlin! Kormality /est
KR 00
StDe"R 1A004=0
2"era!eR -0A001&09=
2 1 0 -1 -2
A000
A00
A0<
A&0
A<0
A20
A0<
A01
A001
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
S$,S1
Kormal Probability Plot
40 =< =0
2
1
0
-1
-2
-=
itted #alue
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
i
7
e
d

$
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
$esiduals #ersus t%e itted #alues
Dresponse is Cycle /iE
7istograms or 8ormalit# Plot 5 Main Gffects Plot 5 Bo3 Plots on the
-iscrete /s
Pareto on the -efect Categories
Scatter Plot / vs )! *esidal Plots for Continos /s
20 14 & 2 -4 -10
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or 1u
& . 9 <
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or 1edian
#ariableR Pro(its
4A0120
9A0&10
4A<04<
1aBimum
=rd >uartile
1edian
1st >uartile
1inimum
K
Hurtosis
S6e)ness
#ariance
StDe"
1ean
P-#alueR
2-SCuaredR
.A9<0<
.A&0&9
9A02<=
2=A<200
10A00<0
9A=400
1A<=00
-12A9&00
12<
0A21&4&&
-=A=,-01
49A.4&&
9A&=.=1
<A.14&&
0A12&
0A<&2
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or 1edian
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or Si!ma
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or 1u
2nderson-Darlin! Kormality /est
Descriptive Statistics
'S' /ar!et
20 14 & 2 -4 -10
0<% Con(idence Inter"al (or 1u
& . 9 <
0<% Con(idence Inter"al (or 1edian
#ariableR Pro(its
4A0120
9A0&10
4A<04<
1aBimum
=rd >uartile
1edian
1st >uartile
1inimum
K
Hurtosis
S6e)ness
#ariance
StDe"
1ean
P-#alueR
2-SCuaredR
.A9<0<
.A&0&9
9A02<=
2=A<200
10A00<0
9A=400
1A<=00
-12A9&00
12<
0A21&4&&
-=A=,-01
49A.4&&
9A&=.=1
<A.14&&
0A12&
0A<&2
0<%Con(idence Inter"al (or 1edian
0<% Con(idence Inter"al (or Si!ma
0<% Con(idence Inter"al (or 1u
2nderson-Darlin! Kormality /est
Descriptive Statistics
'S' /ar!et
P-#alueR 0A12&
2-SCuaredR 0A<&2
2nderson-Darlin! Kormality/est
KR 12<
StDe"R 9A&=.=1
2"era!eR <A.14&&
20 10 0 -10
A000
A00
A0<
A&0
A<0
A20
A0<
A01
A001
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Pro(its
Kormal Probability Plot
'S'
/ar!et
P-#alueR 0A12&
2-SCuaredR 0A<&2
2nderson-Darlin! Kormality/est
KR 12<
StDe"R 9A&=.=1
2"era!eR <A.14&&
20 10 0 -10
A000
A00
A0<
A&0
A<0
A20
A0<
A01
A001
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Pro(its
Kormal Probability Plot
'S'
/ar!et
Super Dept 3ender ,duc Prior Yr ,Bp Yrs ,m
.0
90
<0
40
=0
S
a
la
r
y
-
H
1ain ,((ects Plot - Data 1eans (or Salary-H

24
#ariable 2ttribute
Is your TYQ "ariable data or attribute
dataF
Determine )%at s%ould be
tested (orR
1A a di((erence in t%e variation
o( t%e di((erent sub!roups +$
2A a di((erence in t%e centering
o( t%e di((erent sub!roups
#ariation
Kon-normal
Sub!roups
Kormal
Sub!roups
Kon-normal
Sub!roups
Kormal
Sub!roups
TCenterin!Q
C%i-
SCuare
;inomial
$e!ression
Correlation
8+#
'e"ene*s
1ood*s
1edian
1 Sample
/-test
+ne-Gay
2K+#2
8+#
'e"ene*s
K+/,R /emperature,
Cycle /ime, and 'en!t%
are "ariablesA
+perators, Suppliers,
and Customers are notA
2 Sample
/-test
Is t%e inp!t bein! tested also a "ariableF
Ko Yes
Construct a 1ulti-#ari o( t%e dataA
Statistical Test Choices

25
6ata 2nal"sis

26
Statistical Solution
Tests on Continuous 5 & 6iscrete >?s for 6ifferences
bet!een Subgroups
SP*GA-
= /! ?M Samples
7>0 D +evenes
8ormal or 8onDnormal
s"grops
Mltiple /s & Interactions
-ata 8in;a
Sn"alanced or 8ot (ll
*ank
->G
Balanced & (ll *ank
CG8TG*
= /! All S"grops tested are
8ormal
= Sample tDtest
= s"grop to a target
? Sample tDtest
? s"grops! rn +evenes first
>neDWa# A8>0A
?M s"grops! = /
= /! At least = s"grop is 8onD
8ormal
Moods Median
?M s"grop! = /
Prospectivel# Paired -ata!
testing = / $hile "locking
another /
Paired tDtest
Mltiple /s & Interactions
T$oDWa# A8>0A
? /s! Balanced & (ll *ank
&+M! -ata 8in;a
?M /s! Sn"alanced or 8ot (ll
*ank
->G
@M /s! Balanced & (ll *ank

27
Tools Categories
Continos )
-iscrete )
Continos /
-iscrete /
Time Series &
Scatter Plots!
*esidal Plots
&age *&* A8>0A
+inear *egression
Mltiple *egression
&+M
->G
-ata 8in;a
Stratified
7istograms &
8ormalit# Plots
Main Gffects!
Interactions & Bo3
Plots
&age *&* A8>0A
Center% tDtests!
A8>0A! Moods
Median! &+M
Spread% 7>0 D
+evenes
->G
-ata 8in;a
Pareto
Stratified Control
Charts
Attri"te *&*
ChiDS,are 2Test of
Independence and
&oodness of (it4 &
Confidence Interval
+ogistic *egression
2Coded )4
->G 2Coded )4
&+M 2Coded )4
-ata 8in;a 2Coded )4
Stratified 7istograms
Attri"te *&*
+ogistic *egression
2Coded )4
->G 2coded )4
&+M 2Coded )4
-ata 8in;a 2coded )4

28
S"non"ms 7 6efinitions

) = *esponse = -ependent 0aria"le =


Gffect

/ = (actor = Independent 0aria"le =


Predictor = Model

Aliasing = Confonding

T#pe I Grror = error = (alse Action =


Tampering = Prodcers *isk

T#pe II Grror = error = 8o Action =


Consmers *isk

->G *ns = U G3perimental Conditions 3


U *eplications

0ariance Inflation (actor 20I(4 9 =H means


that some /s are intercorrelated! eliminate
one of them6

29
6egrees of =reedom
When S"grop Si.e 0aries 2n
;
4
df
SSB
= g D =!

$here g = U of s"grops
df
SSW
= n
T
D g = n
=
M V M n
g
D g
df
SST
= df
SSB
M df
SSW
= n
T
D =
When S"grop Si.e is Constant 2n4
df
SSB
= g D =!

$here g = U of s"grops
df
SSW
= g2nD=4
df
SST
= df
SSB
M df
SSW
= 2gn4 D =

30

Select ->G design "ased on prpose 2screening or


optimi.ation4! considering U of factors! *esoltion and
-GS! and create Minita" $orksheet6

Sort the ->G! all colmns! in Std >rder

Add a ne$ colmn titled G3p Con for G3perimental


Condition! nm"er it = to n $here n is the nm"ers of
rns for one replication and repeat the se,ence for
each replication6

*eDSort! All Colmns D inclding the ne$ G3p Con


colmn! in *n >rder and

*n G3periment in *n >rder and do a *n Chart in


that order6 -o -escriptive Stats

-o Bo3 Plots "# each factor and "# G3p Con

-o StatR->GRAnal#.e (actorial -esign on *esponse


colmn! Anal#.e Standardi.ed *esidal Plots!
inclding 8ormalit# and the Pareto and Session
Windo$6

Check for practical significance "# rnning


StatRA8>0AR&eneral +inear Model on the *esponse
and the Statisticall# significant (actors and
Interactions from the ->G6 *epeat ntil the same set
of factors5interactions are repeated as significant6
60, for 4ean ChecClist

31
60, for /ariance ChecClist

*n >ne Wa# A8>0A "# G3p Con! cop# the Mean and
St-ev for each G3p Con 2place crsor in the Session
Windo$ at one corner of the t$o colmns to cop#! hold
do$n Alt ke#! click and drag to highlight "oth colmns!
Cop#4

Create a ne$ Worksheet and paste the Mean and St-ev


from >ne Wa# A8>0A into the first t$o colmns of the
ne$ $orksheet! sing spaces as delimiters6

&o "ack to the original $orksheet Be-sort it again in Std


0rder and cop# the titles and the first n ro$s! $here n is
the nm"ers of rns for one replication! from the (actor
colmns and paste into the ne$ $orksheet

While in the ne$ Worksheet! -o StatR ->GR -efine


Cstom (actorial -esign on the ne$ factor colmns6
This $ill create Stdorder! *norder! CenterPts! and
Blocks colmns in the ne$ $orksheet6

-o StatR->GRAnal#.e (actorial -esign on St-ev

-o StatR->GR(actorial Plots! "oth Main Gffects and


Interactions on "oth Mean and St-ev to look for TradeD
>ffs and to determine optimal settings6

-ocment Transfer (nctions! *n Confirmation *ns at


>ptimal Settings

32
Selecting the Appropriate Control Chart
0aria"le or
Attri"te -ataJK
De(ects or
De(ecti"e
Constant
Sub!roup
Si7eF
u p
Ko
Yes
De(ects or
De(ecti"e
c
np
$ational
Sub!roupin!
PossibleF
I, 1$
X-;ar 4$
#ariable
DContinuousE
2ttribute
DDiscreteE
Ko Yes
De(ects
De(ecti"es
De(ects
De(ecti"es
De(ects
per Unit
Percenta!e
De(ecti"e
De(ect
Counts
Kumber
o(
De(ecti"e
Units