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1

CONTENTS

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Pipeline Design

3.3 Reynolds Number

3.4 Relative Roughness

3.5 Friction Factors

3.6 Pipeline Equations (Weymouth, Panhandle, Modified

Panhandle, Clinedist )

3.7 Series, Parallel, and Lopped Lines

2

LESSON LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of the session, students should be able to:

Apply pipeline flow equations

Design gas transportation, gathering, and distribution

systems.

3

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Transmission of natural gas to consumer be divided into three

distinct pipeline units: gathering system, main trunk line

transportation system, and distribution system.

Focuses on design and operation of natural gas pipelines in

onshore and offshore gas fields.

4

3.2 Pipeline Design

Factors to be considered in the design of long-distance gas

pipe-lines.

the volume and composition of the gas to be transmitted,

the length of the line

the type of terrain to be crossed

maximum elevation of the route

Note: Pipe line must be larger to accommodate the greater

volume of gas.

5

3.2 Pipeline Design

Several designs are usually made so that the economical one

can be selected.

Maximum capacity of a pipeline is limited by higher

transmission pressures and strong materials.

For economic operation, better to preserve full pipeline

utilization.

6

3.2.1 Sizing Pipelines

Capacity of gas transmission is controlled mainly by its size.

Complex equations have been developed for sizing natural

gas pipelines in various flow conditions.

oThe Weymouth equation

oThe Panhandle equation

oThe Modified-Panhandle equation

By using these equations, various combinations of pipe

diameter and wall thickness for a desired rate of gas

throughout can be calculated.

7

3.3 Friction Factor

Friction losses:

o Internal losses due to viscosity effects

o losses due to the roughness of the inner wall of the

pipeline

Friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number and of

the relative roughness of pipe.

N

Re

= Reynolds Number

e = absolute roughness of pipe

D = diameter of pipe

f = f (N

Re

, e

D

)

8

Equation that relates lost work per unit length of pipe and

the flow variables is

3.3 Friction Factor

9

Reynolds Number

Reynolds number (N

Re

) is defined as the ratio of fluid

momentum force to viscous shear force.

The Reynolds number can be expressed as a dimensionless

group defined as

10

Reynolds Number

Reynolds number is used as a parameter to distinguish

between flow regimes.

Flow Type

N

Re

, smooth pipes

Laminar

Critical

Transition

Turbulent

< 2000

2000 3000

3000 -4000

> 4000

11

Reynolds Number

For all practical purposes, the Reynolds number for

natural gas flow problems may be expressed as

12

(11.8)

Relative Roughness

From a microscopic sense, wall roughness is not uniform,

and thus the distance from the peaks to valleys on the wall

surface will vary greatly.

This is measured in terms of absolute roughness, E

13

Relative Roughness

e

D

, is defined as the ratio of the absolute roughness to the

pipe internal diameter:

and D have the same unit.

If roughness not known, take E =0.0006

14

(11.9)

Absolute Roughness

Type of Pipe (in.)

Aluminiun pipe 0.0002

Plastic-lined pipe 0.0002- 0.0003

Commercial steel or wrought iron 0.0018

Asphalted cast iron 0.0048

Galvanized iron 0.006

Cast iron 0.0102

Cement-lined 0.012-0.12

Riveted steel 0.036-0.36

Commonly used well tubing and line pipe

New pipe 0.0005-0.0007

12-months old 0.00150

24-months old 0.00175

.

15

3.4 Equation for Friction Factor

Figure is a Moody friction factor chart log-log graph of

(log f) versus (log N

Re

).

16

Laminar Single-Phase Flow

Friction factor for laminar flow can be determined

analytically.

17

(11.11)

(11.12)

Turbulent Single-Phase Flow

Out of a number of empirical correlations for friction factors

are available, only the most accurate ones are presented.

For smooth wall pipes in the turbulent flow region.

Valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers

18

(11.13)

Turbulent Single-Phase Flow

For rough pipes fully developed turbulent flow :

Nikuradses Correlation

19

(11.14)

Note: Velocity profile and pressure gradient are very sensitive to pipe

roughness.

Turbulent Single-Phase Flow

Colebrook equation

Jain equation

20

Jain presented an explicit correlation for friction factor.

(11.15)

(11.16)

Applicable to smooth pipes and transition and fully turbulent flow.

Eqn is not explicit in friction factor f. Use Newton-Raphson Iteration.

Pipeline Equations

Weymouth equation

Panhandle equation

Modified Panhandle equation

Clinedist equation

Weymouth equation is preferred for smaller-diameter lines

(D < 15 in).

Panhandle equation and the Modified Panhandle equation

are better for larger-sized lines.

21

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

Basic pipeline flow equation for steady state horizontal flow

where unit of gas flow rate is in scfh(standard cubic feet/hour)

is:

where q

h

= scf/hr

22

(11.22)

(11.24)

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

23

Variables in horizontal pipeline flow equation are;

L = length of pipe (mile)

D = Diameter of pipe(in.)

P1 = upstream pressure(psia)

P2 = downstream pressure(psia)

z = compressibility factor

Tb = base temperature(R)

Pb = base pressure (psia)

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

24

When applying the above Eqn (11.22), trial and error

calculation procedure is needed.

To eliminate trial and error calculation, Weymouth proposed

that f varies as a function of diameter in inches as follows:

(11.25)

With this simplification, Eqn (11.22) reduces to

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

where q

h

= scf/hr

which is the form of the Weymouth equation commonly used

in the natural gas industry.

D = pipe internal diameter, in

L = Length of pipe, mile

25

(11.26)

With this simplification, Eqn(11.22 reduces to

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

Assumptions for use of the Weymouth equation including

no mechanical work,

steady flow,

isothermal flow,

Constant compressibility factor,

horizontal flow,

and no kinetic energy

change.

These assumptions can affect accuracy of calculation results.

26

Example (1 )

For the following data given for a horizontal pipeline, predict gas

flow rate in cubic ft/hr through the pipeline.

The problem can be solved using (a)Equation (11.22) with the

trial-and-error method for friction factor, and (b) Weymouth

equation without the Reynolds number-dependent friction

factor(Eqn 11.26).

Solution

27

Example (1 )

The average pressure is:

28

Relative roughness:

A. Trial-and-Error Calculation:

First Trial :

29

(11.24)

By applying Jain Equation,

(11.16)

30

(11.16)

By applying Eqn(11.22)

Second Trial :

31

(11.22)

(11.24)

(11.16)

Third Trial :

32

(11.22)

(11.24)

(11.16)

which is close to the previous assumed 1,186,759 cfh

B. Using the Weymouth equation:

33

(11.26)

Q & A

34

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