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GAS FIELD ENGINEERING

Gas Gathering and Transportation


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CONTENTS

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Pipeline Design
3.3 Reynolds Number
3.4 Relative Roughness
3.5 Friction Factors
3.6 Pipeline Equations (Weymouth, Panhandle, Modified
Panhandle, Clinedist )
3.7 Series, Parallel, and Lopped Lines

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LESSON LEARNING OUTCOME



At the end of the session, students should be able to:


Apply pipeline flow equations

Design gas transportation, gathering, and distribution
systems.

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3.1 INTRODUCTION


Transmission of natural gas to consumer be divided into three
distinct pipeline units: gathering system, main trunk line
transportation system, and distribution system.
Focuses on design and operation of natural gas pipelines in
onshore and offshore gas fields.
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3.2 Pipeline Design
Factors to be considered in the design of long-distance gas
pipe-lines.
the volume and composition of the gas to be transmitted,
the length of the line
the type of terrain to be crossed
maximum elevation of the route
Note: Pipe line must be larger to accommodate the greater
volume of gas.
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3.2 Pipeline Design
Several designs are usually made so that the economical one
can be selected.

Maximum capacity of a pipeline is limited by higher
transmission pressures and strong materials.

For economic operation, better to preserve full pipeline
utilization.
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3.2.1 Sizing Pipelines

Capacity of gas transmission is controlled mainly by its size.

Complex equations have been developed for sizing natural
gas pipelines in various flow conditions.

oThe Weymouth equation
oThe Panhandle equation
oThe Modified-Panhandle equation

By using these equations, various combinations of pipe
diameter and wall thickness for a desired rate of gas
throughout can be calculated.
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3.3 Friction Factor
Friction losses:


o Internal losses due to viscosity effects
o losses due to the roughness of the inner wall of the
pipeline



Friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number and of
the relative roughness of pipe.
N
Re
= Reynolds Number
e = absolute roughness of pipe
D = diameter of pipe

f = f (N
Re
, e
D
)
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Equation that relates lost work per unit length of pipe and
the flow variables is
3.3 Friction Factor
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Reynolds Number
Reynolds number (N
Re
) is defined as the ratio of fluid
momentum force to viscous shear force.
The Reynolds number can be expressed as a dimensionless
group defined as

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Reynolds Number
Reynolds number is used as a parameter to distinguish
between flow regimes.

Flow Type
N
Re
, smooth pipes
Laminar
Critical
Transition
Turbulent

< 2000
2000 3000
3000 -4000
> 4000
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Reynolds Number
For all practical purposes, the Reynolds number for
natural gas flow problems may be expressed as
12
(11.8)
Relative Roughness


From a microscopic sense, wall roughness is not uniform,
and thus the distance from the peaks to valleys on the wall
surface will vary greatly.

This is measured in terms of absolute roughness, E

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Relative Roughness
e
D
, is defined as the ratio of the absolute roughness to the
pipe internal diameter:

and D have the same unit.
If roughness not known, take E =0.0006
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(11.9)
Absolute Roughness
Type of Pipe (in.)
Aluminiun pipe 0.0002
Plastic-lined pipe 0.0002- 0.0003
Commercial steel or wrought iron 0.0018
Asphalted cast iron 0.0048
Galvanized iron 0.006
Cast iron 0.0102
Cement-lined 0.012-0.12
Riveted steel 0.036-0.36

Commonly used well tubing and line pipe
New pipe 0.0005-0.0007
12-months old 0.00150
24-months old 0.00175

.
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3.4 Equation for Friction Factor
Figure is a Moody friction factor chart log-log graph of
(log f) versus (log N
Re
).
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Laminar Single-Phase Flow
Friction factor for laminar flow can be determined
analytically.
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(11.11)
(11.12)
Turbulent Single-Phase Flow

Out of a number of empirical correlations for friction factors
are available, only the most accurate ones are presented.


For smooth wall pipes in the turbulent flow region.
Valid over a wide range of Reynolds numbers
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(11.13)
Turbulent Single-Phase Flow
For rough pipes fully developed turbulent flow :
Nikuradses Correlation
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(11.14)
Note: Velocity profile and pressure gradient are very sensitive to pipe
roughness.
Turbulent Single-Phase Flow
Colebrook equation
Jain equation
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Jain presented an explicit correlation for friction factor.
(11.15)
(11.16)
Applicable to smooth pipes and transition and fully turbulent flow.
Eqn is not explicit in friction factor f. Use Newton-Raphson Iteration.
Pipeline Equations

Weymouth equation
Panhandle equation
Modified Panhandle equation
Clinedist equation


Weymouth equation is preferred for smaller-diameter lines
(D < 15 in).


Panhandle equation and the Modified Panhandle equation
are better for larger-sized lines.
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Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
Basic pipeline flow equation for steady state horizontal flow
where unit of gas flow rate is in scfh(standard cubic feet/hour)
is:
where q
h
= scf/hr
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(11.22)
(11.24)
Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
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Variables in horizontal pipeline flow equation are;

L = length of pipe (mile)
D = Diameter of pipe(in.)
P1 = upstream pressure(psia)
P2 = downstream pressure(psia)
z = compressibility factor
Tb = base temperature(R)
Pb = base pressure (psia)




Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
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When applying the above Eqn (11.22), trial and error
calculation procedure is needed.

To eliminate trial and error calculation, Weymouth proposed
that f varies as a function of diameter in inches as follows:


(11.25)
With this simplification, Eqn (11.22) reduces to
Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow
where q
h
= scf/hr
which is the form of the Weymouth equation commonly used
in the natural gas industry.

D = pipe internal diameter, in
L = Length of pipe, mile
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(11.26)
With this simplification, Eqn(11.22 reduces to

Weymouth Equation for Horizontal Flow

Assumptions for use of the Weymouth equation including

no mechanical work,
steady flow,
isothermal flow,
Constant compressibility factor,
horizontal flow,
and no kinetic energy
change.

These assumptions can affect accuracy of calculation results.
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Example (1 )
For the following data given for a horizontal pipeline, predict gas
flow rate in cubic ft/hr through the pipeline.
The problem can be solved using (a)Equation (11.22) with the
trial-and-error method for friction factor, and (b) Weymouth
equation without the Reynolds number-dependent friction
factor(Eqn 11.26).


Solution
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Example (1 )
The average pressure is:
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Relative roughness:
A. Trial-and-Error Calculation:
First Trial :
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(11.24)
By applying Jain Equation,
(11.16)
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(11.16)
By applying Eqn(11.22)
Second Trial :
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(11.22)

(11.24)

(11.16)

Third Trial :
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(11.22)
(11.24)

(11.16)

which is close to the previous assumed 1,186,759 cfh
B. Using the Weymouth equation:
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(11.26)


Q & A
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