THE BRAIN

&

DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE
PRACTICES



THE BRAIN AND WHAT IT DOES


AMYGDALA
BRAIN STEM
CEREBELLUM
CEREBRUM
FRONTAL LOBE
TEMPORAL LOBE
PARIETAL LOBE
OCCIPITAL LOBE
HIPPOCAMPUS
HYPOTHALAMUS
THALAMUS



AMYGDALA

Is constantly alert to the needs of:
basic survival including sex,
 emotional reactions such as anger and
fear.
It is larger in male brains, often enlarged in
the brains of sociopaths and it shrinks in
the elderly.

BRAIN STEM

The part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord.

It controls functions basic to the survival of all animals,
such as heart rate, breathing, digesting foods, and
sleeping.


CEREBELLUM

Two peach-size mounds of folded
tissue located at the top of the
brain stem

CEREBRUM
This is the largest brain structure in humans and accounts
for about two-thirds of the brain’s mass.
It is divided into two sides — the left and right
hemispheres—that are separated by a deep groove
down the center from the back of the brain to the
forehead. These two halves are connected by long
neuron branches called the corpuscallosum which is
relatively larger in women’s brains than in men’s.
The outer 3 millimeters of “gray matter” is the cerebral
cortex which consists of closely packed neurons that
control most of our body functions, including the
mysterious state of consciousness, the senses, the
body’s motor skills, reasoning and language.

The Frontal Lobe

is the most recently-evolved part of the brain
and the last to develop in young
adulthood.
It organizes responses to complex
problems, plans steps to an objective,
searches memory for relevant experience,
adapts strategies to accommodate new
data, guides behavior with verbal skills
and houses working memory.
The Temporal Lobe

controls memory storage area,
emotion, hearing, and, on the left
side, language.

The Parietal Lobe

receives and processes sensory information
from the body including calculating
location and speed of objects.

The Occipital Lobe

processes visual data and routes
it to other parts of the brain for
identification and storage.

HIPPOCAMPUS

• located deep within the brain, it processes
new memories for long-term storage.
• If you didn't have it, you couldn't live in the
present, you'd be stuck in the past of old
memories.
• It is among the first functions to falter in
Alzheimer's.
HYPOTHALAMUS

• Located at the base of the brain where
signals from the brain and the body’s
hormonal system interact,
• the hypothalamus maintains the body’s
status quo.
• It monitors numerous bodily functions such
as blood pressure and body temperature,
as well as controlling body weight and
appetite.
THALAMUS

• Located at the top of the brain stem,
• the thalamus acts as a two-way relay
station, sorting, processing, and directing
signals from the spinal cord and mid-brain
structures up to the cerebrum, and,
conversely, from the cerebrum down the
spinal cord to the nervous system
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Developmentally appropriate practices (DAP)
Describes an approach to education that
focuses on the child as a
developing human being
 lifelong learner
Require teachers to make decisions in the
classroom by combining their knowledge of
child development with an understanding of
the individual child to achieve desired and
meaningful outcomes.

3 Core Considerations of
DAP

 Knowing about child development and
learning.
 Knowing what is individually
appropriate.
 Know what is culturally important.

12 Principles of Child and Development and Learning

1. All areas of development and learning are important.
2. Learning and development follow sequences.
3. Development and learning proceed at varying rates.
4. Development and learning result from an interaction of maturation and
experience.
5. Early experiences have profound effects on development and learning.
6. Development proceeds toward greater complexity, self-regulation, and
symbolic or representational capacities.
7. Children develop best when they have secure relationships.
8. Development and learning occur in and are influenced by multiple social
and cultural contexts.
9. Children learn in a variety of ways.
10. Play is an important vehicle for developing self-regulation and promoting
language, cognition, and social competence.
11. Development and learning advance when children are challenged.
12. Children’s experiences shape their motivation and approaches to learning.

5 Guidelines for Effective Teaching

1. Creating a caring community of learners
2. Teaching to enhance development and
learning
3. Planning curriculum to achieve important
goals
4. Assessing children's development and
learning
5. Establishing reciprocal relationships with
families


10 Effective DAP Teaching Strategies
1. Acknowledge
2. Encourage
3. Give specific feedback
4. Model
5. Demonstrate
6. Create or add challenge
7. Ask questions
8. Give assistance
9. Provide information
10.Give directions


The earliest years are all about
relationships. Infants and toddlers crave
and develop attachments to the special
people in their lives. Depending on how
parents, early childhood educators, and
others treat them, babies also develop
expectations about people and
themselves.


DAP with Infants and Toddlers, Ages
Birth 3-3

Young infants (0 to 9 months)
seek security.
Mobile infants (8 to 18 months) are eager
to explore.
Toddlers (16 to 36 months) are working on
their identity; they want to know who they
are and who’s in charge.


DAP with Preschoolers, Ages 3-5

Preschoolers
thrive when they can experience new materials,
roles, ideas, and activities—especially in pretend
play;
take great interest in feelings and become better
able to express their emotions and identify those
of others;
make important cognitive gains that invite them
to represent their world in pretend play, symbols,
objects, drawings, and words; and show
astonishing gains in language skills.



DAP with Kindergartners,
Ages 5-6


Five- and 6-year-olds make great intellectual
leaps. They go through a major shift,
allowing them to develop more
personal responsibility,
self-direction, and
logical thinking.



DAP in the Early Primary
Grades, Ages 6-8

It’s good practice for early grade teachers to
set aside time blocks for specific skill and
concept study. Having time to focus helps
children learn. Teachers know the children are
eager for and need
explanations;
illustrative information;
direct instruction on/about a new concept,
word, or event; and
opportunities to practice a new skill.



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