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Target audience: Fresh RF Engineers

Duration: 1 Hour
14-June-10
Basic RF
Theory and
Design
Presented By:
Teoh See Weng
Mobile Network Evolution
Voice
Voice + simple
data
Voice + faster data
+ browsing
High quality Video
streaming,
conferencing, Voice
over IP (VoIP)
GSM - Global System for Mobile communications
GPRS - General packet radio service
EDGE - Enhanced Data GSM Environment
EGPRS - Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
HSDPA - High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSUPA - High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
WiMAX - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
LTE - Long Term Evolution
UMB Ultra Mobile Broadband
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications (2G)
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (3G)
WiMax Worldwide Inter-Operability for Microwave Accesser
GSM Network Architecture
RF portion
UMTS Network Architecture
RF portion
Wimax Network Architecture
RF portion
BTS/ Nobe B Architecture
- RF Portion -
RF Elements
Basic criteria for site design
Coverage
Capacity
Quality
These 3 criteria are the basics to all site design
criteria regardless of any technology
Coverage
Site selections from operators for low RF / bad
coverage areas.
On flat terrain, a cell site transmitters coverage
area is a circle. A cluster of 7 cell sites, with
overlap, resembles a hexagon pattern.
Hexagons are a distinctive marketable pattern
as well. Early designers of cellular adopted the
hexagon to represent cells
What is the best shape to represent each cell?
S1 -> 30
S2 -> 170
S3 -> 290
Capacity
Operators or RF designers would have to do
capacity planning due to increase in traffic
volume.
1. TRX or element adds (CE, power booster for
power upgrade element for 3G)
2. Sectorisation (omni to multiple sector)
3. Dualband design (Underlay / overlay) for 2G
Multi carrier design (1
st
, 2
nd,
n
th
carrier ) for 3G
4. Microcell designs
All designs and solutions depend on the fine balance
of cost consideration and network quality
performance by the operator
Different ways of capacity planning can be
deployed:
The quality or the performance of the air interface in the cells of
a sub-network is determined and, when necessary, improved by
adjusting network parameters.

The following performance determinants should be taken into
account:

Coverage
The quality of the air-interface in a cell with respect to coverage
is good when there are no coverage holes. Which means the
signal level (RxLev / RSCP) is good enough to receive across the
whole cell.
















Quality
2G
3G
Good Coverage Condition Poor Coverage Condition
Quality (cont)
Interference
Two or more same or adjacent channels overlapping on the
same direction and degrades the voice and radio quality.












Handover behavior
In order to achieve mobility and continuity of coverage, cells
within the same coverage area are define as neighbor and to
perform handover as the mobile travels.





Traffic distribution
The amount of calls and data packets calculated in Erlang
which one cell can carry. It is much dependent on the
capacity integrated in that particular cell/site.
Co-channel interference area
Adjacent
channel
interference area
3G Code Tree
2G TRX timeslot
How to perform a RF survey?
1. Understand the terrain and surrounding neighbor sites
on the planned location.












2. Understand the objectives of serving site.
3. Based on the serving objectives and maximum
structure height allowed, determine the desire azimuth
(antenna/sector direction).






How to perform a RF survey? (Cont)
6. Decide antenna type use, Single band, Dual Band or
Triband and propose desire antenna tilts based on
antenna height.





7. Take panoramic view on antenna height.


8. Check for E1 link LOS to the nearest neighbor site.




9. Take measurements for CME, i.e structure
measurements, BTS/ Node B equipment space,
feeder routing, grounding cable routing.

Frequency Re-use and Planning
for 2G & 3G sites
To ensure that the mutual interference between users
remains below a harmful level, adjacent cells use different
frequencies in 2G network.







However in 3G network same layer of cells applied the same
frequency and it is differ only by different scrambling codes
between cells. The re-use of scrambling codes should be as
big as possible due to the large neighbour list that WCDMA
system required.

Site survey awareness
Shadowing affects caused by rooftop/parapets
Rule of thumb:
Antenna Mounting Height equal to Distance away
from building edge.
Antenna pattern deforms caused by walls and
obstructions in the near field

Building
Roof top unipole mount
Lower loop of the vertical
loop being clipped off by the
building edge.
Coverage holes or
blind spot beneath the
building area.
Weak coverage blind spot
Parapet wall
Parapet wall mount
Side loop of the horizontal
loop being clipped off by
the side wall.
Blind spot to the right
side serving area of the
wall.
Top View
Side View
RF Survey Safety requirements
& equipments
Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE)
could safe your life
when you needed it
most !!!

Thank You
Appendix
Specifications Protocol Maximum Speed Features
1G analog
networks
AMPS N/A Voice service only (analog)
No data service
DataTAC
FDMA
Mobitex
NMT
TACS
2G CDMA Up to 20Kbps Digital voice service
Push-to-Talk (PTT)
Short Message Service (SMS)
Conference calling
Caller ID
Voice mail
S imple data applications such as
email and Web browsing
GSM
iDEN
PCS
TDMA
2.5G CDMA2000 1xRTT Up to 144Kbps
(typical 60-80Kbps)
All 2G features plus:
MMS (Multimedia Message Service)
Web browsing
Real-time location-based services
such as directions
Basic multimedia, including support for short
audio and video clips, games and images
GPRS Up to 114Kbps
(30-40Kbps)
HSCSD Up to 64Kbps
EDGE Up to 384Kbps
WiDEN Up to 100Kbps
2.75G EGPRS 2 473Kbps (uplink) to
1.2Mbps (downlink)2
Better performance for all 2/2.5G services
3G (DSL speeds) CDMA2000 EVDO
(data only) Rev 0
Up to 2.4Mbps Support for all 2G and 2.5G features plus:
Full motion video
Streaming music
3D gaming
Faster Web browsing
CDMA2000 EVDV
(simultaneous voice and
data)
Up to 2.4Mbps
UMTS Up to 2Mbps
WCDMA Up to 2Mbps
CDMA2000/ EVDO-Rev A Up to 3.1Mbps
3.5G (cable
speeds)
HSDPA Up to 14.4Mbps Support for all 2/2.5/3G features plus:
On-demand video
Video conferencing
Faster Web browsing
(especially graphics intensive sites)
CDMA2000/
EVDO Rev B
Up to 46Mbps
4G (wired
networking
equivalent)
WiMAX 100+Mbps Support for all prior 2G/3G features plus:
High quality streaming video
High quality videoconferencing
High quality Voice-over-IP (VoIP)
UMB 35Mbps
LTE 100Mbps
Reflects evolution of CDMA network Reflects evolution of GSM network
The carrier is the desired signal (serving cell).

Interference comes from other sites which are using the same
channels (co-channel), or adjacent channels.
C/I - CARRIER TO INTERFERENCE
The GSM Cellular Industry
Standard for Co-channel
interference = 17dB
The GSM Cellular Industry
Standard for adj-channel
interference = -10dB
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S1 N1 < 17dB
Co-channel
interfered
S1 N1 < -10dB
Adj channel
interfered
Interference
Frequency
Frequency
S1 Serving cell on mobile
N1 Neighbouring / overshooting cell on mobile