BASIC ISDN

Bean Cans !
Analogue Speech - SILENCE
N S
Analogue Speech - Positive Pressure
Analogue Speech - Negative Pressure
The Traditional ‘Oscilloscope View’
MAX
+VE Volts
MAX
-VE Volts
0 Volts
The Traditional ‘Oscilloscope View’
MAX
+VE Volts
MAX
-VE Volts
0 Volts
The Traditional ‘Oscilloscope View’
MAX
+VE Volts
MAX
-VE Volts
0 Volts
The Traditional ‘Oscilloscope View’
MAX
+VE Volts
MAX
-VE Volts
0 Volts
The Analogue Telephone
The Analogue Telephone
This signal is analogue ‘cos
it is analogous to my vocal
chords vibrating
Digital Telephony
What is Digital?
1’s & 0’s

on/off
Analogue Waveform
V
o
l
t
s

Time
Take Samples
V
o
l
t
s

Time
How many samples ?
 The active band of frequency on the telephone
network is from 300 to 3400 cycles per second

 Nyquist Theorem...........
You must sample at, at least twice the highest frequency of
the analogue signal

 3400 x 2 = 8000 Samples Per Second
= 1 sample every 0.000125 seconds
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
Time
V
o
l
t
s

125ms
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
Timed Samples (every 125ms)
Pulse Amplitude Modulation
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
11011010
11010101
11101010
11101101
11110011
11111111
00000000
11001001
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

S
a
m
p
l
e
s

Timed Samples (every 125ms)
Pulse Code Modulation
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
11011010
11010101
11101010
11101101
11110011
11111111
00000000
11001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

S
a
m
p
l
e
s

Timed Samples (every 125ms)
Pulse Code Modulation
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
11011010
11010101
11101010
11101101
11110011
11111111
00000000
11001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

S
a
m
p
l
e
s

Timed Samples (every 125ms)
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
01011010 01010101 01111100 01111100
s1 s2 s3 s4
8000 samples of 8 bits = 64,000 bits per second
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
01011010 01010101 01111100 01111100
s1 s2 s3 s4
? ? ?
125ms
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
01011010 01010101 01111100 01111100
s1 s2 s3 s4
01111111
01111100
01101011
01010101
01011010
01001001
X
X
X
X
X
X
01011010 01010101 01111100 01111100
s1 s2 s3 s4
125ms
s2
01011010
s1
01101011
s1
125ms
125ms
01000110 10101100
s2 s1
125ms
01000110 10101100
32 samples
s2 s1
125ms
32 samples
s1
s2
8000 times per second
8bits x 32 x 8000 = 2,048,000 bits per second
1 frame
125ms
32 samples
s1
s2
8000 times per second
0
16
125ms
32 samples
s2
0
16
Signalling

DASS
DPNSS
Q931
Synchronisation
30 samples


30 samples

OF WHAT ?
Audio
Speech

Tones

Music
Video
Security

News

Video-conference
Fax
Group 2/3 sent as audio

Group 4 after handshake 1.5 seconds/page
Data
Files

Programmes

Control
Two Types Of ISDN Channel
Function Groups & Reference Points
LT
NT
1
NT
2
TE 1
TE 2
TA
Function Groups & Reference Points
LT
NT
1
NT
2
TE 1
TE 2
TA
U
T
S
R
ITU Reference Model for ISDN
PTT
Equipment
at Phone
Company
Switch
U Interface
Termination Point
T Interface
Termination Point
S Interface
Termination Point
Standard PSTN Equipment
has an R Interface
Termination Point
U T S
R
TE2 TA
TE1 TE1
NT1 NT2
ISDN Equipment that
can connect directly
to an ISDN Line
Terminal Adapter used
to connect TE2 devices
to an ISDN line
Equipment that
cannot connect
to an ISDN line
Network
Termination
used to
convert U into
T interface
Network
Termination
used to
convert T into
S interface
Function Groups & Reference Points
 NT1 Network Termination 1, Handles physical layer
interface functions such as line termination (eg NTE 8).
 NT2 Network Termination 2, Handles physical layer plus
layer 2 and 3 functions such as multiplexing, switching and
concentration (e.g. an ISPBX).
 LT Line Termination, Handles termination of 2 wire pair at
the exchange, operating 2B1Q or 4B3T line coding.
 TA Terminal Adaptor, Equipment that supports ISDN call
set up and provides an interface for connecting to non ISDN
equipment.

Function Groups & Reference Points
 TE1 Terminal Equipment 1, End user equipment
such as ISDN telephones or data terminals compliant
with ISDN call set up procedures and capable of
interfacing directly to the S-bus.


 TE2 Terminal Equipment 2, End user equipment
for non ISDN environments (typically uses an RS232
interface)

Basic Rate Interface
The BRI is
defined as two
64Kb/s Bearer
(B) channels
and one
16Kb/s Data
(D) channel
Basic Rate ISDN
 Two separate ‘B’ channels over a single line.
 Combined voice, data, video.
 ‘T’ interface allows both channels to be used
independently.
 ‘S’ interface may use one or both ‘B’ channels.
 Bandwidth 2 x 64k or 1 x 128k per ‘S’ port
 Flexible, high speed, high quality, low error rate, fast
call set-up.
What IS ISDN 2e?
ISDN2e is the standard basic 2 channel ISDN
service

 ISDN2e fully comply with European Telecom
Standards

ISDN2e provides a network platform that is
capable of supporting supplementary
services
NTE 8
The NTE8 (opposite) is the
normal NTE within the
customers premises for an
ISDN2e connection.
The NTE8 has TWO RJ45
sockets - ONLY ONE IS TO
BE USED - the other is for
testing purposes
NTE 8
 The NTE8 has a green LED which
indicates the presence of the ISDN
service.
 NTE8 is only available on local
exchanges which use ‘Line Cards’
 I-MUX exchanges will use NTE6

ISDN RJ 45 Connection
 EIA 568A
 Commercial Building
Cabling Specification
Draft 9.0
 Preferred termination of
UTP data cabling
 International ISDN
standard
Point To Multipoint
Referred to by BT as;

Standard Access

Or

S/T Reference
Additional telephone numbers are normally provided by MSN
Basic Rate For The Home Or Office
Multiple Subscriber Numbering
ISDN
NTE
TA
0208 988 6643
0208 988 9102
0208 988 5106
• Allows the
programming of
separate telephone
numbers into each
device connected to an
ISDN2e line.
• Currently 4 Options
• - 2 Numbers
• - 3 Numbers
• - 8 Numbers
• - 10 Numbers
Sub Addressing
 For ISDN2e to ISDN2e calls.

 Allows up to 20 Alphanumeric characters to be
sent (not #).

 For ISDN2e to ISDN2 or ISDN 30

 Allows up to 6 Alphanumeric characters to be
sent (not #).

Multiple Devices And Multiple Numbers
S0 Bus
RJ 45
Outlet
Terminating
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
RJ 45
Outlet
Point To Point
Referred to by BT as;

System Access

Or

T Reference
Additional telephone numbers are normally provided by DDI
Direct Dialling In
ISDN
ISPBX
7100
7101
7103
7104
• DDI provides 10 or
more directory
numbers to an ISDN
line or group of lines.

• Requires ISDN2e to
be configured for
‘System Access’

• Must be connected
to a PBX
ISDN2e Supplementary Services
Calling Line Identity Presentation
Multiple Subscriber Numbering
Direct Dialling In
Call Forwarding
Sub Addressing
Terminal Portability
Call Barring Options
Maintenance Options
Terminal Portability
 Allows a terminal to be disconnected from an
ISDN2e socket and to be reconnected to another
socket (on the same line) during a call without losing
the call.

 The terminal equipment must be capable of
supporting this facility.

 This facility is not available with the DDI service.

AODI
 BT’s ISDN Connect

 The data connection is initiated using X.25 on the D channel
where it maintains an open link.

 When extra bandwidth is required the bandwidth Allocation
Control Protocol automatically switches in the B Channels.

 When the additional channels are no longer require they will be
automatically ‘un-nailed.

PRIMARY RATE
NTE Status Lights
Light Status Indication
Power Green ON NTE on mains power
Power Green OFF No power to NTE
Power Green Flashing NTE on Standby Battery
Customer Amber OFF Inputs OK
Customer Amber ON One input disconnected
Customer Amber Flashing Two or more inputs disconnected
BT Red OFF Network OK
BT Red ON Network Faulty
Test Amber OFF OK
Test Amber ON or Flashing BT Testing
Primary Rate Interface
The PRI is supplied
through a standard
2.048Mb/s E1 channel.
This comprises of 30
64Kb/s B channels and
one 64Kb/s D channel
DASS II
BT’s own standard.
Equivalent of up to 30 exchange lines.
Available from 8 channels upward.
Normally provided over fibre cable.
Can be provided over Microwave or Copper.
Each system is 2Mbit/s
Presented as a G703 BNC Connector

DASS II Is presented Like This
ISDN 30

E1 Is Presented Like this
The Connection
Pin Signal Polarity
1 Power Source/ Sink 3 +
2 Power Source/ Sink 3 -
3 Transmit/ Receive +
4 Receive/ Transmit +
5 Receive Transmit -
6 Transmit/ Receive -
7 Power Source/ Sink 2 -
8 Power Source/ Sink 2 +
ISDN 30 I.421
European standard for ISDN.
Uses Q.931 signalling protocol.
Available from 8 channels upward.
Normally provided over fibre cable.
Can be provided over Microwave or Copper.
Each system is 2Mbit/s.
Presented as an RJ45 connector
Signalling
For the I.421 service, DASS 2 signalling is
replaced with Q.931 signalling to the
ETSI standard

Numbering
 The numbering options for the I.421 service are different than
for DASS;

 Numbers can not be allocated to dedicated channels.

 The options per 2 Meg Bearer are;

 Single Directory Number (Hunt Group)

 DDI Range (up to 5)

Numbering
In most cases it will be possible for a user to
keep their existing analogue directory number
when they migrate to ISDN - but this can not
be guaranteed.

It is dependant on whether or not the number
can be transferred to a local digital exchange
- which in a small number of cases is not
possible.

A New NTE
For the I.421 service the
interface connector for the
ISDN 30 (DASS 2) BNC 75
Ohm Unbalanced (G703) is
replaced with an I.421
socket, EN28877 (RJ45)
120 Ohm Balanced
connector to the CCITT
I.421 standard.
ISDN 30 Resilience Options
Alternate Routing
This option delivers ISDN 30 over 2 separate cables to guard
against cable failure.
 Diverse Routing
This option delivers ISDN 30 from 2 separate exchanges to
guard against exchange failure.
 DDI Dual Parenting
This option delivers ISDN 30 from 2 separate local exchange
processors to guard against processor failure.
Supplementary Services
Calling Line Identity Presentation
 This is a service which must be subscribed to

 Allows the reception and display of the
incoming callers telephone number.

 Can be restricted by the incoming caller

 Not provided for International speech calls.

Call Forwarding
 Only speech or 3.1Khz calls can be forwarded to the
analogue network (PSTN).
 Call Forwarding Unconditional
All incoming calls are immediately forwarded to a prearranged,
nominated directory number.
 Call Forwarding on No Reply
Automatically forwards all calls to a prearranged, nominated
number if the call is unanswered for 20 seconds.
 Call Forwarding on Busy
Automatically forwards all calls to a prearranged, nominated
number if the line is engaged.
Call Barring Options
 Incoming Calls Barred
All incoming calls are permanently barred
Outgoing calls only allowed
 Outgoing Calls Barred
No outgoing calls can be made
Incoming calls are not effected
 Selective Outgoing Calls Barred
Various options are available including; International
Barred, National and international Barred, All calls except
999, 112, 150, 151, 152, 154, 0800 and 0500

Digital Circuits
Circuit Description Bandwidth
K2 Kilostream (2.4Kbps)
K4 Kilostream (4.8Kbps)
K9 Kilostream (9.6Kbps)
K19 Kilostream (19.2Kbps)
K48 Kilostream (48Kbps)
K64 Kilostream (64Kbps)
K Kilostream N (64Kbps)
K Kilostream N (128Kbps)
K Kilostream N (256Kbps)
K Kilostream N (512Kbps)
K Kilostream N (1024Kbps)
M2 Megastream (2Mbps)
M8 Megastream (8Mbps)
M34 Megastream (34Mbps)
M45 Megastream (45Mbps)
M140 Megastream (140Mbps)
M155 Megastream (155Mbps)
B Basic Rate ISDN (2 X 64Kbps)
E1 Primary Rate ISDN (2.048Mbps)
E2 Carries four multiplexed E1's (8.448Mbps)
E3 Carries sixteen E1's (34.368Mbps)
E4 Carries four E3's (139.246Mbps)
E5 Carries four E4's (565.148Mbps)
Useful Numbers
Engineers Co-Op
0800 282 212
ISDN PRI Desk
0800 679 079
ISDN Helpdesk
0800 181 514
THE END
PDH
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
The basic 2.048 Mbit/s frame
The set of 30 time slots for
telephone channels, one slot for
synchronization/transmission of
alarms and another for
signalling make up what is
known as the basic 2.048 Mbit/s
frame or primary digital group.
For the sake of simplicity it is
more usual to talk of the 2
Mbit/s frame and from here on
we will refer to this digital group.
The main characteristics of the
2 Mbit/s frame are:
• Nominal bit rate 2048 kbit/s

• Tolerance 50 ppm

• Line code HDB3

• Frame length 256 bits

• Frame rate 8000 frames/s

• Bits per time interval 8 bits

• Multiplexing method Byte-by-
byte

In an E1 channel communication consists of sending
successive frames from the transmitter to the receiver.
The receiver must receive an indication showing when
the first interval of each frame begins so that, since it
knows which channel the information corresponds to in
each time slot, it can demultiplex correctly. This way,
the bytes received in each slot are assigned to the
correct channel. A synchronization process is then
established that is known as frame alignment.

FAS
In order to implement the frame alignment system, that
is, so that the receiver of the frame can tell where it
begins, there is a Frame Alignment Signal (FAS). In the
2 Mbit/s frames, the FAS is a combination of seven
fixed bits ("0011011") transmitted in the first time slot in
the frame (slot zero or TS0). For the alignment
mechanism to be maintained, the FAS does not need to
be transmitted in every frame. Instead, this signal can
be sent in alternate frames (in the first, in the third, in
the fifth and so on). In this case, TS0 is used as the
synchronization slot. The TS0 of the rest of the frames
is therefore available for other functions, such as
transmitting alarms.
FAS
CRC-4 multiframe
• In the TS0 of frames with FAS, this word only takes up bits 2 to
8 of the interval. The first bit is dedicated to carrying the bits of
certain code words. This code, known as the Cyclic
Redundancy Checksum, tells us whether there are one or more
bit errors in a specific group of bits received (called a block).
CRC-4 procedure
• The aim of this system is to avoid a loss of
synchronization due to the coincidental appearance
of the sequence "0011011" in a time slot other than
the TS0 of a frame with FAS. To implement the CRC
code in the transmission of 2 Mbit/s frames a CRC-4
multiframe is built, made up of 16 frames. These are
then grouped in two blocks of eight frames called
submultiframes, over which a CRC checksum or
word of 4 bits (CRC-4) is put in the positions Ci (bits
nº1, frames with FAS) of the next submultiframe.
CRC-4 procedure
At the receiving end the CRC of each submultiframe is calculated locally and
compared to the CRC value received in the next submultiframe. If these do not
coincide, one or most bit errors are determined to have been found in in the
block, and an alarm is sent back to the transmitter, indicating that the block
received at the far end contains errors.
CRC-4 multiframe alignment
The receiving end has to know which is the first bit of the CRC-4 word (C1). For
this reason, a CRC-4 multiframe alignment word is needed, that is, the receiver
has to be told where the multiframe begins (synchronization).
The CRC-4 multiframe alignment word is the set combination "001011", which is
introduced in the first bits of the frames that do not contain the FAS signal.
Advantages of the CRC-4 method
A CRC-n method is mainly used to protect the communication against a
wrong frame alignment word and also to provide a certain degree of
monitoring of the bit error rate when this has low values (around 10-6).
This method is not suitable for cases in which the bit error rate is around
10-3 (each block contains at least one errored bit).


Another advantage in using the CRC is that all the bits transmitted are
checked, unlike those systems that only check 7 bits (those of the FAS,
which are the only ones known in advance) out of every 512 bits (those
between one FAS and the next). However, the CRC-4 code is not
completely infallible, since there exists a probability of around 1/16 that an
error may occur and not be detected, that is, 6.25% the blocks may contain
errors that are not detected by the code.

Monitoring errors
The aim of monitoring errors is to continously check transmission quality without
disturbing the traffic of information and, when this quality is not of the required
standard, taking the necessary steps to improve it. Telephone traffic is two-way,
that is, information is transmitted in both directions between the ends of the
communication. This means that two 2 Mbit/s channels and two directions for
transmission must be considered.

The CRC-4 multiframe alignment word only takes up six of the first eight bits of
the TS0 without FAS. There are two bits in every second block or submultiframe
whose task is to indicate block errors in the far end of the communication. The
mechanism is as follows: Both bits (called E bits) have "1" as their default value.
When the far end of the communication receives a 2 Mbit/s frame and detects
an errored block, it puts a "0" in the E bit that corresponds to that block in the
frame being sent along the return path to the transmitter. This way, the near end
of the communication is informed that an errored block has been detected and
both ends have the same information: one from the CRC-4 procedure and the
other from the E bits. If we number the frames in the multiframe from 0 to 15,
the E bit of frame 13 refers to the submultiframe I (block I) received at the far
end and the E bit of frame 15 refers to the submultiframe II (block II).
Monitoring errors
Supervision bits
The bits that are in position two of the TS0 in the frame that do not
contain the FAS are called supervision bits and are set to "1" in
order to avoid simulations of the FAS signal.
NFAS - Spare bits
• The bits of the TS0 that does not contain the FAS in positions 3 to 8 make up what is known
as the Non-Frame Alignment Signal or NFAS. This signal is sent in alternate frames (Frame
1, Frame 3, Frame 5, etc.). The first bit of the NFAS (bit nº 3 of the TS0) is used to indicate
that an alarm has occured at the far end of the communication. When operating normally it
is set to "0", while a value of "1" indicates an alarm.
NFAS - Spare bits
The bits in positions four to eight are spare bits, that is,
they do not have one single application, but can be
used in a number of different ways as decided by the
Telecommunications Carrier. In accordance with the
ITU-T recommendation G.704, these bits can be used
in specific point-to-point applications, or to establish a
data link based on messages for operations
management, maintenance or monitoring of the
transmission quality, etc. If these spare bits in the NFAS
are not used, they must be set to "1" in international
links.
NFAS - Alarm bit
The method used to transmit the alarm makes use of the fact that in telephone systems transmission is always
two-way. Multiplexing/demultiplexing devices (known generically as multiplex devices) are installed at both ends
of the communication for the transmission and reception of frames. When a device detects either of the following
in its multiplexer or demultiplexer

•a power failure
•a failure of the coder/decoder

or any of the following in its demultiplexer:

•loss of the 2 Mbit/s signal received
•loss of frame alignment (synchronization)
•bit error rate (BER) greater than or equal to 10-3

an alarm must be sent to the transmitter.


This Remote Alarm Indication (RAI) is sent in the NFAS of the return frames, with bit 3 being set to "1". The
transmitter then considers how serious the alarm is and goes on to generate a series of operations depending on
the type of alarm condition detected.
NFAS - Alarm bit
Signalling channel
As well as transmitting information generated by the users of the telephone network, it is also
necessary to transmit signalling information. Signalling refers to the protocols that must be
established between exchanges so that the users who are communicating with each other can
exchange information. There are signals that indicate when a subscriber has picked up the
telephone, when they can start to dial a number, when another subscriber calls, signals that let
the communication link be maintained, etc.

In the E1 PCM system signalling information can be transmitted by two different methods: the
Common Channel Signalling (CCS) method and the Channel Associated Signalling (CAS)
method. In both cases the time slot TS16 of the basic 2 Mbit/s frame is used to transmit the
signalling information.

For CCS signalling, messages of several bytes are transmitted through the 64 kbit/s channel
provided by the TS16 of the frame, with these messages providing the signalling for all the
channels in the frame. Each message contains the information that determines the channel that
is signalling. The signalling circuits access the 64 kbit/s channel of the TS16, and are also
common to all the channels signalled. There are different CCS systems that constitute complex
protocols. In the following section and by way of example, Channel Associated Signalling will be
looked at in detail. Channel Associated Signalling is defined in the ITU-T recommendation
G.704, which defines the structure of the E1 frame
Signalling channel
In CAS signalling, a signalling channel is associated with each information channel (there is no
common signalling channel), meaning that the signalling circuits are personalized for each
channel
CAS signalling multiframe
In the case of channel associated signalling (CAS), each 64 kbit/s
telephone channel is assigned 2 kbit/s for signalling. This signalling
is formed by a word of 4 bits (generically known as a, b, c and d)
that is situated in the TS16 of all the frames sent. Each TS16
therefore carries the signalling for two telephone channels.

Given that there are only 4 signalling bits available for each
channel, to transmit all the signalling words from the 30 PCM
channels that make up a 2 Mbit/s frame (120 bits) it is necessary to
wait until the TS16 of 15 consecutive frames have been received.
The grouping of frames defines a CAS signalling multiframe, which
consists of a set of the TS16 of 16 consecutive E1 frames
CAS signalling multiframe
CAS multiframe alignment signal
In order to synchronize the CAS multiframe, that is, to identify where it begins, a
multiframe alignment signal (MFAS) is defined, made up of the sequence of bits
"0000" located in the first four bits of the TI16 of the first frame of the CAS
multiframe, called frame 0.
CAS non-multiframe alignment signal
The remaining four bits of the interval are divided between one alarm bit and three
spare bits, making up the non-multiframe alignment signal (NMFAS). In short, the
signalling information for the 30 channels is transmitted in 2 ms, which is fast
enough if we consider that the shortest signalling pulse (the one which corresponds
to dialling the number) lasts 100 ms.
CAS non-multiframe alignment signal
The alarm bit in the NMFAS is dealt with in a similar way to the non-frame alignment signal (NFAS). In this case,
the alarms are transmitted between multiplex signalling devices connected to the 64 kbit/s circuits that
correspond to signalling (TS16). When in its multiplexer or demultiplexer a CAS multiplex signalling device
detects:

•a power failure

or detects the following in its demultiplexer:

•loss of incoming signalling
•loss of CAS multiframe alignment

an indication must be sent to the multiplex signalling device at the far end, setting bit 6 of the TS16 in the return
frame 0 to "1". Additionally, the value "1" is applied to all the signalling channels.

Example: a remote multiplexer is considered to have lost multiframe alignment when it receives two consecutive
MFAS words with error, that is, with a value other than "0000". In this case bit 6 of the TI16 of the frame 0 that
this multiplexer transmits to the near end multiplexer is set to "1". When it receives this indication of loss of
multiframe alignment at the far end, the near end multiplexer sends a signal made up entirely of bits at "1",
known as AIS64 (Alarm Indication Signal-64 kbit/s) in the TS16 (64 kbit/s channel).

THE END