DIA Notes 1

TOPIC 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE
HOSPITALITY
INDUSTRY
DIA Notes 2
TOPIC 1:INTRODUCTION TO THE HOSPITALITY
INDUSTRY
• According to the Oxford Dictionary,
hospitality means “the reception and
entertainment of guests, visitors or
strangers with liberality and good will”.
• The word hospitality is derived from
hospice (nursing home), a medieval
“house of rest” for travelers and pilgrims.
• Hospitality then includes hotels and
restaurants.
DIA Notes 3
• Hospitality may be defined as meeting the
needs of guests in a variety of
establishments.
• The hospitality Industry offers employment
to people of differing personalities,
background and skills through a wide
diversity of type of outlets serving food and
beverages.
DIA Notes 4
Following are the F&B that offered services to the
guest‟s need.
• Café: usually offer teas, coffees, soft drink,
snack and often light meals.(eg.coffee bean,
starbuck)
• Cafeterias: usually attached to institution
such as museums or educational
establishment sometimes recreational place.
Usually offer light refreshment.
• Food halls/ Food courts: in the shopping
mall, offer are light food to heavy food such
as pastries, noodle, rice and drinks.

DIA Notes 5
• Public House: the meals available range
from simple bar snacks or sometimes
informal restaurant style offering three
course meal.
• Casual dining restaurant (BISTROS):
service provided usually casual dining and
table service.
• Ethnic restaurant: offering culture
experience offered to guests as well as the
food.


DIA Notes 6
• Functions (receptions/banquet/conventions):
the number of guests and the style of
function can vary enormously so function
demand extreme flexibility from both food
management and service staff.
• Fine dining restaurant: offering comfortable
or impressive ambience for the fine cuisine.
Staff must be highly skilled.
DIA Notes 7
1.TRAVEL AND TOURISM SECTOR
• Travel Agencies
• Travel Wholesalers/Retailer
• Transportation
• Business, meeting & convention
• Recreation & sport
• Entertainment
• Trade & culture fairs, etc

DIA Notes 8
2. LODGING SECTOR
• Hotels
• Motels/budget hotels
• Motor homes
• Resorts/chalet
• Condotels
• Travel lodges
• Residential suite
• Rest houses,etc
DIA Notes 9
3. FOODSERVICE SECTOR
• Hotel F&B
• Commercial foodservice
• Institutional foodservices, etc

4. ALLIED INDUSTRY
• Educational and training institutions
• Supermarkets
• Vending machines
DIA Notes 10
FOODSERVICE INDUSTRY
• Defined as “the art of supplying food and
beverage services away from home or to
the home but prepared elsewhere”.
• The National Restaurant Association
(USA) divides the foodservice industry into
two categories:
1. Commercial
2. Noncommercial

DIA Notes 11
• However since 1993,Restaurants and
Institutions (USA) no longer divided the industry
into these categories because menu item and
facility ambience choices between categories
are almost nonexistent overseas.
• In Malaysia, there are still obvious differences
between the two categories of foodservice.
• The term commercial and noncommercial are
still used to indicate the degree of choice a
customer has in selecting where to eat.
DIA Notes 12
TYPES OF FOODSERVICE OPERATION
• The foodservice industry can be
classified into 2 major groups:

1. COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICES
2. INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE

DIA Notes 13
1. COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICES
A. EATING PLACES
• Full-Service Restaurants
• Limited Service (fast-food) Restaurants
• Commercial Cafeterias
• Social Caterers
• Specialty Restaurants-ice cream, yogurt
stands
• Ethnic Restaurants
• Food Courts
DIA Notes 14
B. FOOD CONTRACTORS
• Manufacturing and Industrial Plants
• Commercial and Office Buildings
• Hospitals
• Colleges & Universities/Primary &
Secondary Schools
• In-transit Foodservice (airlines/railways)
• Recreation and Sports Center
DIA Notes 15
C. LODGING PLACES
• Hotel Food and Beverage Outlets
• Motel Restaurants
• Retail-Host Restaurant
• Recreation and Sport
• Mobile Caterers
• Vending and Nonstore Retailers
DIA Notes 16
2. INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE
A. EMPLOYEE FOODSERVICE
• Staff canteens/cafeterias

B. GOVERNMENT NURSERIES,
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
BOARDING SCHOOLS
• Subsidized foods for infants, toddlers,
children, students in residential halls,
boarding schools, hostels.
DIA Notes 17
C. COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
• Government/semi-government higher
institutions
• Student dining halls
• In-house foodservices
• Academic and non-academic staff
cafeterias
D. INDUSTRIAL FOODSERVICE
• In-house subsidized mass foodservice
for employees
DIA Notes 18
E. GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS
• District hospitals/healthcare centers
• City/general hospitals
• Staffs/nurses/doctors‟ canteen

F. REHABILITATION CENTERS
• „Pusat Serenti/ Pusat Pemulihan Dadah‟
• Prison Foodservice
• „Boys‟/Girls‟ rehabilitation centers
DIA Notes 19
G. GOVERNMENT NURSING HOMES AND
HOMES FOR AGED, BLIND,ORPHANS AND
HOMES FOR THE RETARDED
• Rumah anak-anak yatim
• Rumah orang-orang tua
• Rumah orang-orang cacat
• “Taman Bahagia”, „Pusat Penyakit Kusta-
Sg.Buluh, „Pusat TB‟.
DIA Notes 20
H. CLUBS, SPORTING AND
RECREATIONAL CAMPS
I. COMMUNITY CENTERS
J. MILITARY/ UNIFORMED
FOODSERVICE
• Officers and Open Mess
• Airforce
• Army Navy
• Police
• Fire Brigades
DIA Notes 21
COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS
• Three (3) basic commercial food service
operations are:

1. Independents
2. Chain Restaurants
3. Franchises

DIA Notes 22
INDEPENDENTS
• Owned by an owner or owners who have
one or more properties that have no chain
relationship.
• Menus may not be identical among
properties.
• Food purchase specifications may differ,
operating procedures are varied, etc.
DIA Notes 23
CHAIN RESTAURANTS
• Part of a multi-unit organization
• Often share the same menu
• Purchase supplies and equipment cooperatively.
• Follow operating procedures that have been
standardized for every restaurant in the chain
• May be owned by a parent company, a franchise
company or by a private owner or owners
• Some chains are operated by a management
company.

DIA Notes 24
ADVANTAGES
• Large chains can readily acquire cash,
credit and long-term leases on land and
buildings
• Ability to experiment with different menus,
themes, designs and operating procedures
• Can afford staff specialists who are
experts in finance, construction,
operations and recipe development
• Able to generate internal financial
information that can be used as a basis of
comparison among properties
DIA Notes 25
DISADVANTAGES
• Difficult to keep up with changing markets
and economic conditions.
• Involve a large amount of paperwork, rules
and procedures that can slow them down.
• Top management may lose motivation to
keep up and what is best for the company
might not always receive the highest
priority.
DIA Notes 26
3. FRANCHISES
• A special category of chain operations
• The franchisee (the owner of the
franchise property) pay fees to:
a) Use the name
b) Building design
c) Business methods of the franchiser (the
franchise company)
• The franchisee must agree to maintain
the franchisor‟s business and quality
standards.
DIA Notes 27
• To initial franchise fees, the franchisee may
be required to pay:

1. Royalty fees assessed on the basis of a
specified percentage of sales or other
factors
2. Advertising costs, sign rental fees and other
costs such as stationary and food products.
DIA Notes 28
ADVANTAGES
• Start-up assistance
• Company-sponsored training programs for
management staff and training resource
materials for employees
• National contributions toward local
advertising campaigns
DIA Notes 29
• Higher sales because:
a)more extensive advertising.
b)greater name recognition of the franchise
chain.
c)the consistency of product and services
among chain properties (guest know what
to expect).
• Lower food costs due to volume
purchasing by the chain
• Tested operating procedures which
specify how things should be done.
DIA Notes 30
DISADVANTAGES
• The contract is generally very restrictive
• The franchisee has little choice about:
a) The style of operation
b) The product served
c) Services offered
d) Methods of operation
• The menu might be set along with the
décor, required furnishings and
production equipment.
DIA Notes 31
• Since the franchise agreement is drawn up
by the franchiser, the document generally
favors the franchiser
• The agreement may leave little to
negotiate
• This causes problems if there are
disagreements between the two parties.
DIA Notes 32
INSTITUTIONAL OPERATIONS
• Traditionally, a large percentage of institutional
food service operations have focused on
nutrition and other non-economic factors.
• Today, as pressures for cost containment
accompany reduced income, there is a need to
manage institutional food service operations as
professional businesses.
• Sometimes this is done by the institutions
themselves.
• Other institutions choose management
companies to help them minimize costs.
DIA Notes 33
MANAGEMENT COMPANIES
ADVANTAGES:
• Large nationwide management companies have
greater resources to solves specific problems.
• Can save money for institutions through effective
negotiations with suppliers.
• Can often operate institutional food service
programs at a lower cost than the institutions
can.
• Institution administrators, trained in areas other
than food service operations, can delegate food
service responsibilities to professional food
service managers.
DIA Notes 34
DISADVANTAGES:
• Too much control in matters that affect the
public image of the institution, long range
operating plans and other important
issues.
• Some people may dislike having a profit-
making business involved in the operation
of a health care, educational or other
institutional food service program
• There may be concerns that a
management company will decrease food
and beverage quality.
DIA Notes 35
• The institutional operation may depend too
much on the management company. What
happens if the management company
discontinues the contract? How long will it
take discontinues the contract? How long
will it take to implement a self-oriented
program or find another management
company?
• Although management companies are
usually hired to reduce operating costs,
higher operating costs are also possible
when management companies are used.
DIA Notes 36
COMPARISONS BETWEEN COMMERCIAL &
INSTITUTIONAL FOODSERVICE
ASPECT COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONAL
Operations Independent Part of a large
organization
Market Unpredictable Captive market
Consumer Satisfaction first Institutional requirement
first
Relationship Sensitive to
(wants) of guests
Meeting requirements
(needs)
Goals Temporary
satisfaction
Permanent nutritional
goals
DIA Notes 37
Forecasting Difficult of
forecast
No. of guests are more
predictable
Seat turn
over
Faster,
seasonal
Slower, staggered
Managing Stressful Less stressful
Menu Relatively
easier
Complex, some guests
Profit Profit oriented Profit not major motivation
Budget Unlimited Limited budget
Working
hours
Long hours Fixed hours
DIA Notes 38
ORGANIZATION OF FOOD AND
BEVERAGE OPERATION
PEOPLE IN FOOD SERVICE
• Can be grouped into three (3) general
categories:
1. Managers
2. Production personnel
3. Service personnel
DIA Notes 39
1. MANAGERS
• There are three (3) levels of managers
a) Top managers
b) Middle managers
c) Supervisor
A. TOP MANAGER
• Concerned with long-term plans and goals
• Focus more than other managers on the
business environment.
• Watch for environmental opportunities and
threats such as changes in strategy by
competitors, a sluggish economy and so on.

DIA Notes 40
B. MIDDLE MANAGERS
• Are in the middle of the chain of command
• Key positions through which
communication flows up and down the
organization.
• Concerned with shorter-term goals and
less concerned with large environmental
issues
• Supervise lower-level middle managers or
supervisors.
DIA Notes 41
2. PRODUCTION PERSONNEL
• Concerned primarily with food production
• Usually have little contact with the guests.
• Typical production personnel include:
a) Chefs
b) Cooks
c) Assistant cooks
d) Pantry-service assistants
e) Stewards
f) Storeroom
g) Receiving employees
h) Bakers
DIA Notes 42
3. SERVICE PERSONNEL
• Have a great deal of contact with guest
• Perform a wide variety of functions and
activities.
• Service personnel include:
a) Dining room managers
b) Host/Captains/Maitre d‟s
c) Food servers
d) Buspersons
e) Bartenders
f) Beverage servers
g) Cashiers/Checkers
h) Other service personnel
DIA Notes 43
DINING ROOM MANAGER
• At large properties, the dining room manager directly
supervises an assistant (host)
• Helps his or her assistant greet and supervise other
service employees.
HOSTS/CAPTAINS/MAITRE D’S
• Directly supervise service employees.
• Check all phases of dining room preparation.
• Complete mise en place („to put everything in place‟)
• Discuss menu specials
• Expected regular guests
• Anticipated total number of guests with servers and other
service employees
• May greet and help seat guests, present menus and take
guest orders.
DIA Notes 44
FOOD SERVERS
• Serve food and beverages to guests.
• Skills food servers need depend on the
operation.
• Guest service at table service restaurant is
different from guest service at coffee shop.
BUSPERSONS
• Setting up tables with proper appointments.
• Removing dirty dishes, linens and so on
from tables.
• Also perform mise en place before the meal
period begins and clean up afterwards.
DIA Notes 45
BARTENDERS
• Prepare mixed drinks and other alcoholic
beverages
• Serve them directly to guests or to their
servers
BEVERAGE SERVERS
• Provide food and beverage items to guests
in lounge areas.
CASHIERS/CHECKERS
• May take reservations
• Total the price of food and beverages on
guest checks and collect guest payments.

DIA Notes 46
OTHER SERVICE PERSONNEL
A. EXPEDITER
• During busy periods to help production and
service personnel communicate
• This person often a manager
• Controls the process of turning in order and
picking up food items
• Can monitor production times
• Resolve disputes about when an order came in
• Coordinate the interaction among cooks and
servers.

DIA Notes 47
B. FOOD CHECKER
• May assist in the transfer of food from
production employees to food servers.
• Help to control product quality and costs
by examining each tray before it goes into
the dining area.
• Checking food for appearance and portion
size.
DIA Notes 48
TYPICAL STAFF STRUCTURE IN LARGE RESTAURANT
RESTAURANT MANAGER
HEAD WAITER/
SUPERVISOR
CAPTAIN/STATION
HEAD WAITER
STATION WAITER
JUNIOR STATION
WAITER
ASSISTANT WAITER
APPRENTICE/
RUNNER
WINE WAITER
CAPTAIN
LOUNGE WAITER/
WAITER/WAITRESS
FOOL WAITER
DIA Notes 49
THE ROLE OF THE WAITER
• As a waiter you must have a good knowledge
of the product served, what they consist of and
how they are presented.
• Among the basic duties of a waiter are:
a) Preparation and maintenance of the work area.
b) Maintaining good customer and staff relation.
c) Making recommendation and assisting guests
making selection.
d) Order taking and recording.
e) Service and clearing of food and beverage.
DIA Notes 50
CAREERS IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE
Classification Definition of Duties Typical job
title
ASSISTANT
WAITER
Responsible in serving vegetable,
placing plates, serving from trolley
hors d‟oeuvres or sweets.
COMMIS DE
RANG
JUNIOR
STATION
WAITER
In charge of number of table, taking
orders and serving in the correct
sequence.
DEMI CHEF
DE RANG
STATION
WAITER
In charge of number of table, taking
orders and serving in the correct
sequence.
CHEF DE
RANG
STATION HEAD
WAITER
In charge of restaurant and service.
May take orders and pass them to the
station.
Maitre d hotel
de carre
DIA Notes 51
HEAD WAITER In charge of restaurant and service.
May take orders and pass them to the
station.
Maitre d hotel
RESTAURANT
MANAGER
Responsible for restaurant personnel
and service
DIRECTEUR DU
RESTAURANT
LOUNGE
WAITER
Responsible for service of food and
beverage in the lounge.
Chef de salle
WINE BUTLER Responsible for the service of all
drinks during the meal
SOMMELIER
DIA Notes 52
TOPIC 2
FOOD AND
BEVERAGE SERVICE
DIA Notes 53

TOPIC 2: FOOD AND BEVERAGE
SERVICE

• Food and Beverage service has
traditionally been seen as delivery
system. The food service process
actually consists of two processes, which
are being managed albeit at the same
time. There are:
a) The operational sequence – Delivery
b) The customer process – Managing the
customer experience
DIA Notes 54
1. The operational sequence
consists of seven stages
1. Preparation for service
2. Taking orders
3. The service of food and drink
4. Billing
5. Clearing
6. Dishwashing
7. Clearing following service

DIA Notes 55
1. Preparation for service
• Taking order
• Table setting
• Mise en place
2. Taking order:
a) Duplicate
 order taken and copied to supply point.
 second copy retained for service.
b) Triplicate
• copied to supply point, cashier for billing
and retained for service.
DIA Notes 56
3. The services of food and drink
• technical skill and product knowledge
should well developed.
4. Billing:
• Bill as check- cash
• Prepaid- customer has credit issued by
third party.
• No charge- customer not paying.
• Credit card

DIA Notes 57
5. Clearing:

a) Semi self clear- customers place the soiled
ware on strategic place trolley within the
dining for removal by operators.
b) Self clear- on a conveyor or conveyorized
tray, collecting system for mechanical
transportation to the dish wash area.
c) Self-clear and strip- into conveyorized
dishwash baskets for direct entry of the
basket through dishwash.
DIA Notes 58
6. Dishwashing
7. Clearing following sequence
• collecting linen, check quantities,
equipment, empty coffee pot and milk jug
and so on.
DIA Notes 59
2. The Customer process– Managing the
customer experience
• Four basic processes can be identified based on what
the customer has to be involved in.
A. Service at a laid cover
B. Part service at a laid cover and part self service
C. Self service
D. Service at a single point (ordering, receipt of order
and payment)
• All these processes, the customer comes to where the
food and beverage service is offered and the service is
provided in area primarily designed for the purpose.
DIA Notes 60
E. Specialized service or service in situ
• Process where the customer receives the
service in another location and where the
area is not primarily designed for the
purpose.
DIA Notes 61
GROUP A: TABLE SERVICE
• Service to customer at a laid cover:
1. Waiter:
– English service
– Family service
– American service
– French service
– Russian service
– Gueridon service
2. Bar counter- service to customer seated
at bar counter
DIA Notes 62
English service

 Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or
on platters to be passed around the table.
 The food is brought to the table by servers
and guests then pass the food around the
table, helping themselves to the amounts
they desire.
 Some operations use family service when
featuring family-oriented themes.
DIA Notes 63
Family service
• Serving dishes are placed on the dining
table, allowing the guests to select and
serve themselves.
• Enables the guests to select only what
they require.
• Often offered in addition to plate service
for example main item may be plate-
served and the guests left to help
themselves to vegetables or salad.
DIA Notes 64
c) American service
• Food is prepared and dishes onto individual
plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining room
and serve to guests.
d) Russian
• Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut, placed onto a
serving dish and beautifully garnished.
• The dish then is presented to the guests and
served individually by lifting the food onto
guest‟s plate with serving spoon and fork.
DIA Notes 65
e) French service
• Many food items are partly or completely
prepared at tableside, which the
preparation of the food is completed on a
gueridon table beside the guest‟s seats.
f) Gueridon service
• “Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table)
used for the service or preparation of
foods in the dining environments.
DIA Notes 66
GROUP B
• Combination of table service and self-
service

GROUP C: SELF-SERVICE
• Self-service of customers:
• 4. Cafeteria
DIA Notes 67
GROUP D: SINGLE POINT SERVICE
Service of customers at a single point-consumed
on premises or taken away.
5. Take away
– Customer orders and is served from single
point at counter, customer consumes off the
premises.
– Drive-thru: form of take away where customer
drives vehicles past order, payment and
collection points.
– Fast food: customer receives a complete
meal, offering limited range menu, fast service
with take away facility.
DIA Notes 68
6. Vending – provision of food service and
beverage service by means of automatic
retailing.
7. Kiosks – outstation to provide service for
peak demand or in specific location.
8. Food court – series of autonomous
counters where customer may either order
and eat or buy from a number of counters
or eat in separate eating area or take
away.
9. Bar – describe selling point and
consumption area in licensed premises.
DIA Notes 69
GROUP E: SPECIALIZED
Service to customer in area not primarily
designed for service.
1. Tray – whole or part of meal on tray to
customer in situ. (Hospitals, aircraft).
2. Trolley – service of food and beverage
from trolley away from dining areas
(aircraft or on train)
3. Home delivery – food delivered to
customer‟s home or place of work.
DIA Notes 70
4. Lounge – variety of food and beverage in
lounge area.
5. Room – variety of food and beverage in
guest apartments or meeting room.
6. Drive-in – customers park motor vehicle
and are served at the vehicles.
DIA Notes 71
Customer process

The effects of variation in the five customer
service characteristic and the resource utilization
can be considered as follows.
• Service Types
• Availability- whether the food that they order
available or not.
• Level of service – method of service, speed of
service, accept credit card or not.
• Reliability – serve the customer properly or not.
• Flexibility of the service.
DIA Notes 72
F&B SERVICE ORDERING/ SERVICE DINING/ CLEARING
AREA SELECTION CONSUMPTION
Customer enters From menu By staff to At laid cover By staff
area and is seated customer

Customer enters From menu, Combination of Usually at By staff
area and is buffet or passed trays both staff laid cover
usually seated and customer

Customer enters Customer selects Customer Dining area Various
own tray carriers or take away

Customer enters Ordered at Customer Dining area Various
single point carriers or take away

In situ From menu Brought to Where served By staff or
or predetermined customer customer
clearing
SIMPLE CATEGORIZATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE PROCESS
DIA Notes 73
TOPIC 3
THE MENU
DIA Notes 74
TOPIC 3:THE MENU
• The menu dictates:
a) How your operation will be organized
and managed.
b) The extent to which it will meets goals.
c) How the building itself (interior) should
be designed and constructed.
DIA Notes 75
For guests:
• The menu is much more than just a list of
available foods.
• Communicates the operation‟s image by
helping to set a mood and build interest
and excitement.
For production employees:
• Dictates what foods must be prepared.
• The tasks of service employees are also
influenced by what items are offered on
the menu.
DIA Notes 76
For managers:
• Menu is the chief in-house marketing and
sales tool.
• Tells them what food and beverages must
be purchased.
• Types of equipment they have to have.
• The number of workers they must hire
• The skill level of those workers.

DIA Notes 77
MENU SCHEDULES:
A) Fixed menu:
• Single menu is used daily.
• Work best at restaurants and other food
service establishment.
• Where there are enough items listed on
the menu to offer.
DIA Notes 78
B) Cycle menu
• One that changes every day for a certain period
of days, then the cycle is repeated.
• Provide variety for guests who eat at an
operation frequently or even daily (Institutional
operations such as schools and hospitals).
• Cycles range from a week to four weeks.
• If cycle is too short, the menus repeat too often
and guests may become dissatisfied.
• If cycle is too long, production and labor costs
involved in purchasing, storing and preparing the
greater variety of foods may be excessive.

DIA Notes 79
TYPES OF MENUS
• Menus can also be categorized by type.
• Three basic types of menus are:
a) Breakfast
b) Lunch
c) Dinner
• There are also a large number of specialty
menus designed to appeal to a specific guest
group or meet a specific marketing need.
• The types of menus will depend on the :
a) Number of meals it serves
b) The type of operation it is
DIA Notes 80
Breakfast
• Breakfast menu items are “simple, fast
and inexpensive”.
• To keep prices down and make quick
service possible, the most breakfast
menus are relatively limited, offering only
the essential breakfast menu items.

DIA Notes 81
Lunch
• Guests are usually in a hurry.
• Therefore, lunch menus also easy and
quick to make.
• Sandwiches, soups and salads are
important in many lunch menus.
• Most lunch menus offer specials everyday
and printed on a separate piece of paper
and clipped onto the lunch menu.
• Usually lighter than dinner because most
guests do not want to feel filled up and
sleepy during the afternoon.
DIA Notes 82
Dinner
• The menu items offered at dinner are
heavier and more elaborate than those
offered at breakfast or lunch
• Guest are willing to pay more for dinner.
• They also expect:
a) A greater selection of menu items
b) Place a greater premium on service,
atmosphere and décor.
DIA Notes 83
Specialty
• From poolside menus to menus for afternoon
teas.
• Example:
a) Children‟s
b) Senior citizen‟s
c) Alcoholic beverage
d) Dessert
e) Room service
f) Take out
g) Banquet
h) Ethnic

DIA Notes 84
MENU PLANNING
When the menu has been properly planned:
• Work will flow more smoothly
• Guests will be served more effectively
• Profits will be greater
Menu planning consists selecting new
menu items for an existing menu.

DIA Notes 85
How does a menu planner go
about making these selection?
A. Know your guests
 What kind of guests?
 Are they willing to pay for a meal?
 What do your guests want to eat and drink?
When menu items are selected, the
preferences of guests must be considered.

DIA Notes 86
GUEST PREFERENCES
• By interviewing guests
• Reading surveys
• Comment cards
• Trade journals
• Studying production and sales records
DIA Notes 87
B. Knowing your operation
Type of operation helps determine what kinds
of menu items are appropriate.
Five(5) components of your operation have a
direct impact on what kinds of menu items can
be offered:
 Theme or cuisine
 Equipment
 Personnel
 Quality standards
 Budget

DIA Notes 88
MENU PRICING STYLES
Three basic categories of menu are:
• Table d‟hote
• A la carte
• Combination table d‟hote/ a la carte
DIA Notes 89
TABLE D‟HOTE
• Pronounced as “tobble dote”
• Offers a complete meal for one price
• Sometimes called prix fixe (“pree feeks”)
• Prix fixe is French for “fixed price”.
• Example: Set menu
DIA Notes 90
A LA CARTE
• Offer choices in each course
• Item is individually priced and charged
• Item are cooked to order
• The prices of the menu items they select
are added together to determine the cost
of the meal.
DIA Notes 91
C. COMBINATION
• Many operations have menus that are a
combination of the table d‟hote and a la
carte pricing styles
• Example: Chinese and other ethnic-food
restaurants
DIA Notes 92
SELECTING MENU ITEMS
• Can be categorized as:
• Appetizers
• Salads
• Entrees
• Starch item (potatoes,rice,pasta)
• Vegetables
• Desserts
• Beverages


DIA Notes 93
APPETIZERS
• Include fruit or tomato juice, cheese, fruit
and seafood items such as shrimp cocktail
• To enliven the appetite before dinner
• Generally small in size and spicy or
pleasantly biting or tart.

DIA Notes 94
SOUPS
• Sometimes a “soup du jour” is listed (du jour
means “of the day”)
• Soup offered are determined by type of
operation
• Seafood restaurant usually offer soups like:
a. Clam chowder
b. Shrimp
c. Lobster bisque
• Italian restaurants often have minestrone soup
ENTREES
• What kinds of entrees to offer: beef, pork, fish,
entrée salads, etc.
• Must consider methods of preparation
DIA Notes 95
STARCH / VEGETABLES
• Sometime is part of the entrée-sirloin tips
in gravy served over rice.
• Sometime is separate-a baked potato or
side dish of pasta.
• In many restaurant, vegetables is served
with entrée but can also be offered as side
dishes.
DIA Notes 96
SALADS
• The first decision a planner must make about
salads is whether they will be strictly side dishes
or offered as entrees
• Salad entrees: chicken salad, shrimp salad or
chef‟s salad.
• Side-dish salads: tossed salad, coleslaw, potato
salad, fruit salad and cottage cheese salad.
DESSERTS
• Typically high-profit items.
• Low-calorie can be offered for the health-
conscious.

DIA Notes 97
BEVERAGES
• Non alcoholic beverages are often listed at
the end of the menu
• If an operation offers alcoholic beverages,
how many beverages will be included.
• Based on guest preferences, the
restaurant‟s image, beverage inventory
cost, space and other factors.
DIA Notes 98
COMMON MENU-DESIGN MISTAKES
• Menu is too small
• Type is too small
• No descriptive copy
• Every item treated the same
• Some of the operation‟s food and
beverages are not listed
• Clip-on problems
• Basic information about the property and
its policies are not included
• Blank pages
DIA Notes 99
EVALUATING MENUS

To determine how well menu items are
selling:
• Production records
• Sales history records
DIA Notes 100
MENU BALANCE
• Once all the menu items have been selected for
the menu, the menu should be reviewed for
business, aesthetic and nutritional balance.
• Business balance: the balance between food
costs, menu prices, the popularity of items and
other financial and marketing considerations.
• Aesthetic balance: the degree to which meals
have been constructed with an eye to the colors,
textures, and flavors of foods.
• Nutritional balance: more important for
institutional food service operations than for
commercial properties.
DIA Notes 101
MENU DESIGN
• A well-designed menu complements:
a) A restaurant‟s overall theme
b) Blends in with the interior décor
c) Communicates with guests
d) Helps sell the operation and its menu
items
• Menu design depends on the type of
operation.
DIA Notes 102
COPY
• After selected the menu items, copy
must be written.
• The appropriateness of menu copy
depends on:
a) The operation
b) Its guests
c) The meal period

DIA Notes 103
• Copy of children’s menus should be
entertaining.
• Copy on lunch menus should be brief and to
the point.
• Copy on dinner menus can be more
descriptive.
• Menu copy can be divided into 3 elements:
a) Headings
b) Descriptive copy for menu items
c) Supplemental merchandising copy

DIA Notes 104
HEADING
• Major heads, subheads and names of menu
items.
• Major heads: Appetizers, Soups, Entrees, etc.
• Subheads: under the main heading ENTRÉE
could be “Steak”, “Seafood” and “Today‟s
Special”.
• Keep menu items names simple so that guests
are not confused.
• Rules of grammar should be followed for the
language that is used,
DIA Notes 105
DESCRIPTIVE COPY
• Informs guests about menu items and helps
increase sales.
• Descriptive copy included:
a) Menu item‟s main ingredient
b) Important secondary ingredients
c) Method of preparation
• The description should not be a recipe.
• Most entrées are high-profit items and they
usually get the most copy.
• Specialties of the house deserve extra copy,
since they help define an operation‟s character
and appeal.
DIA Notes 106
SUPPLEMENTAL MERCHANDISING COPY
• Copy on the menu that is devoted to subjects
other than the menu items.
• Includes basic information of:
a) Address
b) Telephone number
c) Days and hours of operation
d) Meals served
e) Reservations and payment policies, etc.
• Can be also entertaining: a history of the
restaurant, a statement about management‟s
commitment to guest service or even poetry.
DIA Notes 107
LAYOUT
• The menu must be organized into a layout-a
rough sketch of how the finished menu will
look.
• Layout includes:
a) Listing menu items in the right sequence
b) Placing the menu item‟s names and descriptive
copy on the page
c) Determining the menu‟s format
d) Choosing the right typeface and the right
paper
e) Integrating artwork into the menu.
DIA Notes 108
SEQUENCE
• A meal has beginning, middle and an end.
• Appetizers and soups listed first, entrees
next and desserts last
• Those items that are most popular or are
most profitable are typically listed first so
guest can find them easily.
DIA Notes 109
PLACEMENT
• Draw a rough sketch of the menu with boxes or
series of horizontal lines to represent the
approximate space the descriptive copy for each
menu items will take up.
• Should be careful not to make the menu too
crowded.
FORMAT
• Refers to menu‟s size, shape and general
makeup.
DIA Notes 110
TYPEFACE
• Refers to the style of the menu‟s printed
letters.
• Never set menu copy in type that is
smaller than 12-point.
• In general, type should be dark color
printed on light-colored paper for easy
reading.
• Should be reflect the operation‟s
personality.
DIA Notes 111
ARTWORK
• Includes drawings, photographs, decorative
patterns and borders.
• Used to attract interest, highlight menu copy or
reinforce the operation‟s image
• Should fit in with the interior design or overall
decorative scheme of the restaurant.
PAPER
• Differs in strength, opacity (the amount of
transparency) and ink receptivity
• The right paper for the menu depends in part on
how often the menu will be used.
DIA Notes 112
COVER
• A well-designed cover communicates the
images, style, cuisine, even the price range of
the operation
• The name of the restaurant is all the copy the
cover needs.
• Colors on the cover should either blend in or
contrast pleasantly with the color scheme of the
restaurant.
• Colors must be chosen with care because colors
produce many conscious and subconscious
effects.

DIA Notes 113
TOPIC 4
THE MEAL
EXPERIENCE
DIA Notes 114
TOPIC 4: THE MEAL EXPERIENCE
• The „meal experience‟ may defined as a
series of events- both tangible and
intangible.
• The main part of the experience begins when
customers enter a restaurant and ends when
they leave.
• Those tangible: FOOD AND DRINK
• Those intangible: SERVICE,ATMOSPHERE,
MOOD, ETC.

DIA Notes 115
GENERAL FACTORS AFFECTING A
CUSTOMER‟S CHOICE OF MEAL EXPERIENCE
1. SOCIAL: A social occasion
2. BUSINESS: The more important and valued the
business, the more expensive and up-market will
be the restaurant.
3. CONVENIENCE and TIME: Convenient because
of its location or because of its speed of service.
4. ATMOSPHERE and SERVICE: The atmosphere,
cleanliness and hygiene of certain types of
catering facilities and the social skills of the
service staff.
5. PRICE: The price level of an operation.
6. THE MENU: May appear interesting or
adventurous or have been recommended,
enabling customers to enjoy a different type of
meal from that cooked at home.

DIA Notes 116
EATING OUT
• Valuable data for all caterers:
a) An analysis of who eats out and
frequency that they do.
b) The actual reason given by customers
for eating out.
c) Types of catering establishments that the
public choose to eat out.


DIA Notes 117
BASIC INFORMATION SHOULD PROVIDE:
1. Sufficient data to aid decision-making.
2. Accurate and up-to-date consumers
profiles, so that able to meet the
requirements of the consumer.
3. Competitive analysis, so that an
organization can in part measure its own
performance
• Research should always be ongoing and
not just of an occasional nature.
DIA Notes 118
FOOD AND DRINK
• The type of food and drink that people choose to
consume away from home depends on a
number of factors which are of particular concern
to customers. They include:
1. The choice of food and drink available: whether
the menu is limited or extensive, the operation
revolves around one particular product or varied
choice.
2. The quality of the product offered: fresh or
convenience foods.
3. The quantity of the product offered: portion sizes.
DIA Notes 119
4. The consistent standards of the product.
5. The range of tastes, textures, aromas and
colors offered by a food dish or drink.
6. The food and drink are served at correct
temperatures.
7. The presentation of the food and drink
enhances the product offered.
8. The price and perceived value for money
9. The quality of the total meal experience
matches or even enhances the expectations of
the guests.

DIA Notes 120
VARIETY IN MENU CHOICE
• The menu choice offered by a restaurant
is dependent on:
1. The price the customer is willing to pay.
2. The amount of time available for meal
experience.
3. The level of the market in which the
restaurant is situated and consequently.
4. The types of customer likely to frequent
that type of operation.
DIA Notes 121
The choice of menu from the caterer‟s
point of view:
1. The production and service facilities
available.
2. The skills of the staff.
3. Availability of commodities.
4. Potential profitability of the menu.
DIA Notes 122
LEVEL OF SERVICE
• The higher the cost of the meal to the
customer, the more service the customer
expects to receive.
• The actual service of the food and
beverages to the customer may be
described as the ‘direct’ service.
• Part of the restaurant’s total service is
also composed of ‘indirect’ services for
example provision of cloakroom facilities,
availability of a telephone for customer use
and so on.

DIA Notes 123
PRICE AND VALUE FOR MONEY
• Customers will frequent a restaurant not only
because of its food and service but also because
they feel the price they are paying represents
value for money.

ATMOSPHERE AND MOOD
1. Often described as an intangible „feel‟ inside a
restaurant.
2. Include the décor and interior design of the
restaurant
3. The table and seating arrangements


DIA Notes 124
4. The service accompaniments
5. The dress and attitude of the staff
6. The tempo of service
7. The age, the dress and sex of the other
customers
8. The sound levels in the restaurant
9. The temperature of the restaurant, bars
and cloakrooms
10. Overall cleanliness of the environment
11. The professionalism of the staff.
DIA Notes 125
INTERIOR DESIGN
• The first impression of the restaurant is very
important.
• Composed of many different aspects:
1. The size and shape of the room
2. The furniture and fittings
3. The color scheme
4. Lighting
5. Air conditioning and so on
• The color scheme should blend and balance and
be enhanced by lighting arrangement, table and
chairs.
DIA Notes 126
EXPECTATION AND IDENTIFICATION
• Arriving at a restaurant for a meal bring a
series of expectations regarding that
restaurant:
1. The type of service they will receive
2. The price they will pay
3. The expected atmosphere and mood of
the restaurant and so on.
• A customer has different needs and
expectations on different meal occasions
and similarly at different times of the day.
DIA Notes 127
LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY
• „Services which are not appropriately located
may not be performed at all.‟
• Customers arriving by car will expect
adequate car parking facilities.
• If customers have to travel by public
transport, the operation should be well
served by buses, trains or taxis.
DIA Notes 128
FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE EMPLOYEES
• Staff employed by restaurant operation
should complement the meal experience
of the customers.
• They are able to do this in variety of
ways:
a) Their social skills.
b) Their age and sex.
c) Their uniform.
d) The tempo of their service and so on.
DIA Notes 129
• The production of the right product. The
meal experience begins with basic
marketing questions of who are our
customers and what do they want.
• Caterers are able to determine their
position in their market and offer the right
product at the right price for the identified
market segments.
DIA Notes 130
TRENDS IN EATING OUT
• General trends in eating out include the
following:
1. An increase in interest in healthy eating
by the general public.
2. An increase in awareness of hygiene and
cleanliness.
3. An increase in the demand for vegetarian
foods, particularly by young people.
4. A decline in the general demand for red
meats with an increase in demand for
white meats, fish and pasta.

DIA Notes 131
5. A growing demand for organically
produced fresh foods with a resistance to
foods containing artificial additives,
flavourings and colourings.
6. An increase in demand for spicy type
foods.
7. An increase in the demand for no
smoking zones in restaurants.
DIA Notes 132
TOPIC 5
STYLE / TYPES OF
SERVICE
DIA Notes 133
TOPIC 5: STYLE / TYPES OF
SERVICE
Introduction
• There are many different approaches to
serving food. For example:
1. TABLE SERVICE
2. BUFFET SERVICE
3. CAFETERIA SERVICE
4. OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE
• An operation should use a service style or a
combination of service styles that best satisfies
its guests‟ wants and needs.
DIA Notes 134
TABLE SERVICE
• Traditional table service provides service
for guests who are seated at tables.
• There are four(4) common styles of table
service:
A. AMERICAN SERVICE
B. ENGLISH SERVICE
C. FRENCH SERVICE
D. RUSSIAN SERVICE
DIA Notes 135
AMERICAN SERVICE
• Simplified version of Russian service.
• Food is prepared and dished on to individual
plate in the kitchen, carried into the dining room
and served to guests.
• More popular because it is quicker and guests
receive the food while it‟s still hot and beautifully
presented.
• The food is presented on the right side of the
guests and plates are cleared on the left side of
the guests
• Can be simple and casual or complex and
elegant.
DIA Notes 136
ENGLISH SERVICE
• Much like service at home.
• Quantities of foods are placed in bowls or on
platters to be passed around the table.
• The food is brought to the table by servers who
present the food to the guests.
• The guests then pass the food around the table,
helping themselves to the amount they desire.
• This types of service is often used in homes
during holidays such as Thanksgiving and
Christmas.
DIA Notes 137
FRENCH SERVICE
• Many food items are partly or completely
prepared at tableside.
• The food is attractively arranged on platter and
presented to guests after which the preparation
of the food is completed on a gueridon table
beside the guest‟s seats.
• “Gueridon” means a trolley (or side table) used
for the service or preparation of foods in the
dining environments.
• This is the most expensive and impressive form
of service and it requires experienced
employees.
DIA Notes 138
• Employs three servers working together to
serve the meal and may include a captain to
seat guests and wine steward to serve wine.
1. Chef de Rang ( Station server)
• In charge of service for approximately four
tables
• Greet guests, describe and take menu orders
• Supervises service and completes the
preparation of some dishes on the gueridon
and carves, slices or de-bones dishes for
guest.
DIA Notes 139
2. Demi Chef de Rang ( Assistant Station server)
• Assists the Chef de Rang, takes beverage orders and serves
food.
3. Commis de Rang ( Food server in training)
• Assist the Demi de Rang with serving water, bread and
butter, serving and cleaning of plates, taking orders to the
kitchen and bringing the food to the restaurant.
• Advantages: guests receive a great deal of
attention and the service is
extremely elegant.
• Disadvantages: -fewer guests may be served,
-more space is necessary for service.
-many highly professional servers are
required.
-service is time-consuming.


DIA Notes 140
RUSSIAN SERVICE
• Food is cooked in the kitchen, cut,
placed onto a serving dish and
beautifully garnished.
• To serve, the server places a heated
plate before each guest from the right
side, going around the table clockwise.
• The dish then is presented to the guests
and served individually by lifting the food
onto guest‟s plate with serving spoon
and fork.

DIA Notes 141
Advantages:
• Only one server is needed and that this
service is as elegant as French service,
faster and less expensive.
Disadvantages:
• Large investment in silverware and the
number of platters needed.
• The last guest served at the table must be
served from the less well displayed food
remaining.


DIA Notes 142
BUFFET SERVICE
• Guests select their meal from an attractive
arrangement of food on long tables.
• The guest either helps themselves or is
served by services staff behind the buffet
tables.
• Plates, flatware and other necessary items
are conveniently located.
• Sometimes used for banquets in
combination with limited table service
usually for beverages.

DIA Notes 143
CAFETERIA SERVICE
• Guests advance through serving lines,
selecting their food items as they go and
pay for their meals at the end of the counter.
• The most expensive or hardest-to-serve
food items are usually portioned by service
staff.
• However, cafeteria service is similar to
buffet service, guest help themselves to
items on display.
DIA Notes 144
OTHER TYPES OF SERVICE
• Fast-food service, deli service, counter service,
banquet service and tray service are among
the others.
1. Fast-food service
• Offer seating as well as drive-through and
take-out services
• Service is limited to taking the guests‟ orders
and giving the food to the guests on trays or in
carry-out sacks or cartons.
2. Deli service
• Take-out service may offer limited seating at
tables or at counter.
DIA Notes 145
3. Counter service
• Often found in bars, lounges, snack shops and
coffee shops.
4. Banquet service
• Can accommodate any size group ranging
from a dozen to an unlimited number of
guests.
• The menu, number of guests and time of
service are predetermined and well organized
in advance.
• The menu can be limited and served quickly or
may consist of several courses, elaborately
presented and served.
• Water and coffee are replenished periodically.

DIA Notes 146
5. Tray service:
• Associated with institutional food service.
• Meal are plated, put on trays, kept hot or
cold in special transport carts ad moved
from preparation/plating areas to service
areas as needed.
DIA Notes 147
PROVIDING AN ENJOYABLE EXPERIENCE
FOR GUESTS
Standard Operating Procedure
• Each operation should set its own policies and standard
operating procedures.
• They detail exactly what must be done and how it should
be done
• Managers cannot rely on employee‟s common sense to
do the right thing at the right time.
• Performance standards that are measurable and
observable should be tied to each operating procedure.
• Performance standards help managers and employees
determine whether procedures are being performed
correctly.
DIA Notes 148
Guest Service Training
• The old saying “the guest is always right” still
applies and that is the attitude that servers
should convey.
• What is needed to improve service in many
operations is not expensive equipment or an
elaborate atmosphere but a genuine concern for
guests and the use of consistent service
procedures.
• Training service staff to properly welcome and
serve guests is one of the chief responsibilities
of dining room or food and beverage managers.
DIA Notes 149
• Training service staff to properly welcome
and serve guests is one of the chief
responsibilities of dining room or food and
beverage managers.
• Service staff must be polite, properly
groomed and have a genuine interest in
helping guests enjoy the dining
experience.

DIA Notes 150
Teamwork
• Teamwork between service and
production employees is a must.
• Builds morale and esprit de corps- a spirit
of cooperation that guests recognize and
appreciate and one that makes everyone‟s
job easier and more enjoyable.
DIA Notes 151
A SERVICE SEQUENCE
• In the service sequence that follows, all serving
activities are performed by servers.
• The sequence begins after guests have been
seated:
• Greet and seat the guests.
• Open the napkins.
• Offer iced water.
• Take order for aperitifs.
• Serves the bread and butter.
• Offer the menu and suggests specials and inform
the guests of variations to the menu.
DIA Notes 152
• Allow time for the guests to make their choices.
• Take the food order up to and including the main
course.
• Offer the wine list.
• Transfer the food order to the kitchen and cashier
dockets and place the order with the kitchen.
• Take the wine order.
• Serve the wine.
• Correct the covers, up to and including the main
course.
• Serve the first course.
DIA Notes 153
• Clear the first course.
• Top up wines and open fresh bottles as ordered.
• Serve additional starter courses.
• Clear the course preceding the main course.
• Call away the main course.
• Serve the salad.
• Serve the main course.
• Enquire (after the guests have had the opportunity
to taste the food) whether the meals are
satisfactory.
• Clear the main course.
DIA Notes 154
• Clear the side plates, salad plates and butter
dishes.
• Check and if necessary, change ashtrays. (If
ashtrays are being use, they should be changed
regularly throughout the meal, especially just
before food is served.)
• Offer hot or cold towels.
• Offer the wine list for the selection of dessert wines
(or if the guests prefer it, continue to serve the wine
selected earlier)
• Offer the menu for dessert, suggesting specials and
inform the guests of variations to the menu.
• Take dessert or cheese order.
DIA Notes 155
• Transfer the dessert order to the kitchen and
cashier dockets and place the order with the
kitchen.
• Correct the covers.
• Serve the dessert wines or other beverages
selected.
• Serve the dessert or cheese course.
• Take the order for coffee/tea. ( the coffee/ tea may
be served with the dessert/cheese if requested by
the guest or as a separate service).
• Transfer the coffee/tea order to the cashier docket.
DIA Notes 156
• Take the after-dinner drinks order.
• Correct the cover.
• Serve the after-dinner drinks.
• Serve the coffee/tea.
• Serve the petit fours.
• Prepare the bill.
• Offer additional coffee/tea.
• Present the bill when it is requested.
• Accept payment and tender change.
• Offer additional coffee/tea.
• See the guests out of the restaurant.
DIA Notes 157
TOPIC 6
BEVERAGE EQUIPMENT
AND SERVICE
KNOWLEDGE
DIA Notes 158
TOPIC 6: BEVERAGE EQUIPMENT AND
SERVICE KNOWLEDGE
INTRODUCTION
• Beverages are as important as the food in the
dining experience.
• They should therefore be given as careful
attention as the food when they are being
prepared and served.
Beverage Equipment Identification
• The service of beverages requires a wide
range of equipment.
• The types of equipment used will vary
depending on:
a) The tasks to be performed.
b) The type of establishment.
DIA Notes 159
GLASSWARE
• When selecting glassware, management will
take various factors into account such as:
a. Size
b. Shape
c. Ease of handling and washing
d. Durability
e. Price
f. Appropriate to the style of the establishment
and its menu.

DIA Notes 160
Service Equipment
• Many specialist devices and types of
equipment have produced over the years
to:
a. help the waiter with the extraction of
corks.
b. the carrying of drink.
c. cooling of beverages.
• The „waiter‟s friend‟ is the recognized
device used by waiters to extract corks.
DIA Notes 161
Preparation and Maintenance of Equipment
• The exact procedures to be adopted for the
service of beverages will depend on the
1. Type of establishment
2. The styles of service offered
3. The availability of service station areas.
• Pre-service duties will include:
a. Cleaning and polishing glassware
b. Service station mise-en-place
c. Preparation of ice buckets
d. Handling and placing of equipment.

DIA Notes 162
Cleaning and polishing glassware
• Even when glassware are hygienically
washed and sterilized by the high
temperature of washing cycle in commercial
dishwasher, it is still necessary to polish all
glassware by hand before it is placed on the
table or used to serve drinks.
• A lint-free polishing cloth should be used to
polish glasses and make sure they are
spotlessly clear.
DIA Notes 163
Service station mise-en-place
• Efficient service requires careful prior preparation of the
service equipment.
• In some establishments this is done on a special piece of
furniture in the dining room known as the drink waiter‟s
station.
• Supplies and equipment required for beverage service are:
- Glassware - Ashtrays
- Drink trays - Service clothes
- Wine lists - Docket books
- Table-napkins - Wine coolers
- Straws - Ice buckets
- Toothpicks
- Matches


DIA Notes 164
Wine coolers and ice buckets
• Ice buckets are used to keep wine and sparkling
wines cool in more formal and usually more
expensive restaurants.
• Simple insulated wine coolers sometimes placed
on the table are used in less formal
establishments.
• Ice buckets, when required for use should be half
filled with:
a. Mixture of crushed ice (two-thirds)
b. Cold water (one-third)
• The water allows the bottle to sink into the ice
instead of balancing on top of it.
• The bucket may be placed in a tripod stand.
DIA Notes 165
Beverage Lists
• Divide the various different types of beverage
into separate lists.
• This will helps guests to find and select the
beverages they require more speedily.
• Possible lists may include:
1. Cocktail list
2. Drink list (includes aperitifs, beers, spirits and
non-alcoholic drinks)
3. Wine list
4. After-dinner drinks list (liqueurs, ports, brandies)
5. Liqueur coffee list
DIA Notes 166
The wine list
• Wine lists are usually divided into wines of
different types, for example:

1. White table wines
2. Red table wines
3. Champagne and sparkling wines
4. Dessert wines
DIA Notes 167
Handling and Placement of Equipment
• All glassware should be handled by the
stem or base of the glass.
• When glasses are being moved in the
presence of guests, they should always be
carried on a beverage tray.
• Before the guests‟ arrival, when the tables
are being laid, several glasses may be held
upside down in one hand with their stems
between one‟s fingers.
DIA Notes 168
Placing of glasses
• If a single glass is being laid at a dining
table, it should be placed 2.5cm above the
main knife.
• If more than one glass is placed on the
table, the glasses are positioned in a line at
an angle of 45 in the order in which they
will be required.
DIA Notes 169
Food and Beverage Coordination
• The food waiter and the wine waiter must
communicate if they are to provide a co-
coordinated sequential service.
• The sequence of service requires both food
and beverages to be served at the
appropriate times throughout the meal
without interfering with each other.
DIA Notes 170
Key points in food and beverage
service coordination
• Before the menu is presented, guests are
offered an aperitif (pre-dinner drink) to
stimulate the appetite.
• Because the wines are selected to
complement the food chosen, the wine list is
usually presented after the food order has
been taken.

DIA Notes 171
• The wine selected to accompany each
course is served just prior to the food in that
course. It is usual to serve:
a. White wines before red
b. Dry wines before sweet
c. Young wines before old
• What wines are chosen and in what order is
up to the guest, the „right‟ wine is what the
guest wants.
DIA Notes 172
• Remind guests that dessert wines are
available when the desserts are being
ordered. Dessert wines are sweet and
complement sweet dishes.
• Orders for after-dinner alcoholic beverages
are taken before coffee is served. This
allows the coffee and other after-dinner
drinks such as port, cognac or liqueurs to be
served at the same time.
DIA Notes 173
BEVERAGE SERVICE PROCEDURES
• Beverage may be served on their own (in bar or
lounge service) or their service may be carefully
coordinated with the service of the food so that the
beverages complement the food enhancing the
guests' enjoyment of both.
• The style of beverage service offered will depend
on the character of the establishment and the type
of beverages being served.
• Venues offering beverage service include public
houses and bars, lounges, restaurants and function
facilities.

DIA Notes 174
General points on selling beverages
• When selling beverages:
• Do not dictate your personal preferences
• Offer a diversity of recommendations so that guests
are prompted to choose what they personally
prefer.
• Suggest beverages that complement the occasion
but do not convey any sense of disapproval if
something „unsuitable‟ is chosen.
• Guest have the right to drink whatever they choose
and have come to enjoy themselves, not to be
„corrected‟.
• Your job is to make them feel comfortable and
relaxed.
DIA Notes 175
BEVERAGE PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE
APERITIF
• Pre-dinner drink taken to stimulate the
appetite
• Dry to taste because dry beverages
stimulate the appetite, while sweet drinks
tend to dull the appetite.
• Some guests may prefer to drink a sweet
drink such as a sweet sherry before a meal
as aperitif.
DIA Notes 176
• Popular aperitifs include:

1. Dry champagne
2. Pre-dinner cocktails (acidic or dry rather
than creamy)
3. Dry sherry
4. Dry („French‟) vermouth
5. A proprietary aperitif ( Campari, Fernet
Branca, Dubonnet)
DIA Notes 177
WINE
• The term „wine‟ indicates a type of
beverage made from fermented fruit.
• Wine may be made from a variety of fruits
but wine as we generally know it is made
from fermented juice of grapes.
• When another fruit is used to produce the
wine, the name of the fruit used included
on the label, for example „strawberry wine‟.
DIA Notes 178
• Red wine is made from „black‟ (purple)
grapes.
• White wine is made from „white‟ (green)
grapes.
• Rose wine which is pink (rose) is made
from black grapes but the skins of the
grapes are removed early in the process of
fermentation.
• Red wines should be served at „room
temperature‟ (about 18 C)
• White wines should be served mildly chilled
(about 6 C).
DIA Notes 179
CHOOSING WINES
• Many wines, especially European wines are
described according to the region where the
grapes are grown.
• Example:
i. France: famous wine regions are Burgundy,
Bordeaux an Beaujolais
ii. German: Rhine and Mosel wines
• Wine from outside Europe is often described by:
a. The variety of the grape rather than the region of
origin
b. Grape variety has a strong influence on the
character of the wine.
DIA Notes 180
Some famous grape varieties are:
a) Chardonnay- full-flavored, dry
b) Riesling- delicate, crisp, fruit-flavoured
c) Traminer- fruity, spicy
d) Cabarnet sauvigon- dry
e) Pinot noir- light, soft
f) Gamay- fruity, light
g) Shiraz- robust

DIA Notes 181
WINE QUALITY
• The better the quality of the wine the more detailed the
information on the labels is.
1. Labels on ordinary table wines contain:
2. The name of the region
3. Those on superior wines
4. Name of the particular vineyard where the wine was
produced
5. The precise area where the grapes may be grown
6. Types of vines that can be used
7. The levels of alcohol and sugar in the finished wine
8. By its vintage (in year when the weather conditions are
especially favorable to grape growing).
9. The wines produce in these years are known as vintage
wines.
DIA Notes 182
DESSERT WINES
• Rich and sweet.
• Designed to be consumed with sweet food
items.
FORTIFIED WINES
• A wine strengthened with the addition of
spirit.
• The spirit also preserves the wine for
longer periods after the bottle is opened.
• Fortified wines include Sherry, Vermouth,
Muscat and Port.
DIA Notes 183
CHAMPAGNE AND OTHER SPARKLING
WINES
• Sparkling wines get their sparkle from carbon
dioxide
• Carbon dioxide is produced naturally in the process
of fermentation and can be retained to produce a
sparkling wine.
• Champagne is made by a complex process called
the methode champenoise or champagne method.
• The style of sparklin wine include:
• Brut – dry
• Sec – medium dry
• Demi-sec – medium sweet
• Doux - sweet
DIA Notes 184
Matching food and drinks
• Champagne or sparkling wine complement most
foods.
• Consume red wine with red meat and white wine
with white meat.
• If unsure, often a rose wine will suffice.
• Consume white wine before red wine.
• Consume dry wine before sweet wine
• Commence with a grape aperitif (wine-based)
rather than a grain aperitif (spirit-based) prior to the
meal, since the latter can spoil or dull the palate.
• Make sure your wine is at the correct temperature.
DIA Notes 185
VINIFICATION
• The process central to vinification is
fermentation, the conversion of sugar to alcohol.
VINE SPECIES
• Grown that produces grapes suitable for wine
production and stocks the vineyards of the world
is named Vitis vinifere.
• The same vine variety, grown in different regions
and processed in different ways, will produce
wines of differing characteristics. Example are:
• Black: Carbernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gamay.
• White: Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling.



DIA Notes 186
CLASSIFICATION OF WINE TYPES
STILL WINE
• This is the largest category.
• The alcoholic strength may be between
9% and 15% by volume. The wine may
be:
a. Red:
• Being fermented in contact with grape
skins from which the wine gets its colour.
• Normally dry wines.

DIA Notes 187
b. White:
• Produced from white grapes
• Normally dry to very sweet.
c. Rose (made in 3 ways)
• From red grapes fermented on the skins
for up to 48 hours.
• Mixing red and white wines together.
• By pressing grapes so that colour is
extracted.
• May be dry or semi-sweet.


DIA Notes 188
SPARKLING WINES
• The most famous is Champagne. This is
made by the methode champenoise
(secondary fermentation in the bottle) in
an area of north-eastern France.
• They may vary from brut (very dry), sec
(medium dry), demi-sec (medium sweet)
to doux (sweet).
• Semi-sparkling wines are known by the
term petillant.

DIA Notes 189
SWEETNESS IN SPARKLING WINE
• The sugar contents is indicated on the
label:
• Extra brut very dry up to 6g
• Brut very dry less than 15g
• Extra-sec dry 12 to 20g
• Sec slightly sweet 17 to 35g
• Demi-sec sweetish 35 to 50g
DIA Notes 190
FORTIFIED WINES
• Such as Sherry, Port and Madeira have
been strengthened by the addition of
alcohol usually a grape spirit.
• Their alcoholic strength may be between
15% and 22% by volume. Example:
• Sherry (Spain) 15-18%
• Port (Portugal) 18-22%
• Madeira (Portuguese island of Madeira)
18%
• Marsala (Marsala in Sicily) 18%

DIA Notes 191
READING A WINE LABEL
The information always includes:
1. The country where the wine was made.
2. Alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (%
vol).
3. Contents in litres, cl or ml.
4. Name and address or trademark of supplier.
• It may also include:
a. The year the grapes were harvested, called the
vintage.
b. The region where the wine was made.
c. The quality category of the wine.
d. Details of bottler.
DIA Notes 192
TASTING OF WINE
• Tasting may be said to be an analysis of
wine by the senses.
• Sight: indicating the clarity and colour of
the wine.
• Smell: determines the bouquet of a wine
by means of a vigorous swirling in the
glass.
• Taste: allows detection of the aroma in the
mouth.
• The tasting of wines includes looking at,
smelling and tasting the wine.
DIA Notes 193
OBSERVATIONS ON WINES
SENSE CHARACTERISITC DESCRIPTION
SIGHT Clarity Bright/clear/hazy/cloudy
Colour red Purple/ruby/red/red-
brown/mahogany/brown-
amber
rose Orange-pink/onion
skin/pink/rose/blue-pink
white Pale yellow/pale
green/straw/yellow/gold/
yellow-brown/ maderised
SMELL Bouquet Depth Full/deep/light/nondescript
Character Clean/unclean/acetic/fruity/
fragrant/sweet/musty/woody
/baked
DIA Notes 194
TASTE Dryness Bone
dry/dry/medium/sweet/very
sweet
Body Full-bodied/medium/light
Flavour Acid/bitter/spicy/grapy
Tannin Hard/silky/soft
Acid Tart/green/piquant/cloying
DIA Notes 195
SPIRITS
• Distilled alcoholic beverages.
• Distillation is the process of converting
liquid into vapor by heating and then
condensing the vapor back to liquid form.
• Almost any fruit or vegetable can be
crushed to liquid, fermented and then
distilled to make a spirit.

DIA Notes 196
These are the most popular spirits and their
base ingredients.
Spirit Base
• Whisky Grain (barley, wheat and maize)
• Gin Neutral spirit made from grain
and flavored with juniper berries.
• Rum Sugar cane
• Vodka Potatoes or grain
• Brandy Grapes

DIA Notes 197
WHISKY
• All whisky distilled in Scotland is covered by the generic
term Scotch.
• Different brand labels which offer the public may be:
a. Proprietary Scotch
-This means that it is a blend of:
i. Malt whisky distilled from malted barley.
ii. Grain whisky distilled from maize.
b. Deluxe whiskies
 Same product as above but will have been matured much
longer.
 Some well known brand names here are Dimple Haig,
Johnny Walker and Black Label.
• Whether Proprietary Scotch or Deluxe whiskies, both styles
are sold on the market at the recognized alcoholic strength
of 40% OIML.
DIA Notes 198
GIN
• The term „gin‟ is taken from the first part
of the word Genievre which is the French
term for juniper.
• Maize, rye and malted barley used in gin
production.
• Example of gin:
a. Fruit gin
b. Geneva gin
c. Old Tom
d. London dry gin
DIA Notes 199
RUM
• Made from the fermented by-products of
sugar cane.
• Available in dark and light varieties.
VODKA
• Describe as a colourless and flavourless
spirit.


DIA Notes 200
BRANDY
• Defined as a spirit distilled from wine.
• Brandy should be stored away from
strong light and odours at a temperature
of between 15º and 18ºC.
• It is best served neat at room
temperature or as a long drink.
• Example:
a. Cognac
b. Almagnac

DIA Notes 201
BEER
• Made from fermented grain by the process called brewing.
• The traditional ingredients are malt (barley soaked to
germinate and then dried), yeast, hops and water.
• Beer is the general term for ales, lagers and stout.
• Ales and lagers are made by different techniques of
fermentation.
• Ales are top-fermented whereas lagers are bottom-
fermented.
• Lagers are paler and more highly-carbonated then ales.
• Stout is a dark heavy beer.
• Draught beer is beer drawn from a barrel rather than bottled
or canned.
• Today many beers are served chilled.
DIA Notes 202
Beer may be served from one of the following:
i. Pump (manual) – from cask
ii. Free flow – by keg beers, carbon dioxide
cylinder is connected to the keg and the
gas forces the beer to the top.
iii. Meters – used with keg beers. They are
sealed pumps which dispense beer in
half pints (measure for liquids).
DIA Notes 203
BEER
• They are fermented drinks, deriving their alcoholic
content from the conversion of malt sugars into
alcohol by brewers yeast.
• The basic materials used in the brewing process
are as follows:
• Malted barley
• Hop – the part of the hop that is the flower, which
contains an oil that gives beer its flavour.
• Sugar - refined sugars are used which aid the
fermentation and the production of alcohol and
also add sweetness.
• Yeast – yeast plus sugar produces alcohol and
gives off a gas, carbon dioxide.

DIA Notes 204
• There are three main categories of beer:
a. Ales: top-fermented, pale, strong or
dark.
b. Lagers: bottom-fermented, paler and
more highly-carbonated.
c. Stout: sweet or bitter, dark heavy beer.

DIA Notes 205
LIQUEURS
• Liqueurs are spirit-based (sometimes
wine-based) liquors, sweetened and
flavored.
• Often taken with the coffee at the end of a
meal.
• Usually served neat (without any mixer) in
liqueur glass.
• Also be taken in black coffee as a liqueur
coffee.
• Liqueurs are also frequently used in
cocktails.

DIA Notes 206
COCKTAILS
• Cocktails are mixed drinks. Two or more
ingredients are mixed by one of the following
methods:
• Shake and strain (in a cocktail shaker with
ice)
• Stir and strain (in a mixing glass with ice)
• Blend (in an electric blender with the quantity
of ice specified in the recipe)
• Build (prepared directly in the glass).
DIA Notes 207
Cocktails fall into three (3) broad types:
• Pre-dinner cocktails:
-Usually acidic or dry and make good aperitifs
-Example: Dry Martini
• After-dinner cocktails:
-Tend to be richer, often creamy and sweet
-Example: Brandy Alexander
• Long drink cocktails:
-Often contain fruit juices, soft drinks or milk in
addition to their alcoholic base.
-Example: Tom Collin
DIA Notes 208
NON-ALCOHOLIC DRINKS
• Includes a wide variety of beverage items from
cold to hot and from the simple to the exotic
• Some are served from the kitchen/still area and
some are dispensed from the bar.
1. Served from the kitchen/ still area:
i. Tea (Darjeeling, English Breakfast, Earl Grey,
China and herbal tea)
ii. Coffee (Long black, Café au lait, Espresso,
Cappuccino, Vienna coffee, Decaffeinated)
iii. Hot chocolate
DIA Notes 209
2. Dispensed from the bar
• Aerated water (water charged with gas,
usually carbon dioxide. Aerated waters often
contain a syrup for taste and color)
• Fruit juices (fresh, canned, boxed or bottled).
• Squashes (fruit juices or syrups with sugar,
water and other ingredients usually
described as „cordials‟)
• Mineral waters may be still (e.g. Evian) or
sparkling (e.g.Perrier)
DIA Notes 210
What is tea?
• Prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves
of a tropical evergreen bush called
Camellia sinesis.
• A healthy beverage containing
approximately only half the caffeine of
coffee and at the same time it aids muscle
relation and stimulates the central nervous
system.

DIA Notes 211
Producing countries
1. China (oldest tea growing)- more fragrant and
delicately perfumed teas (e.g. Lapsang
Souchong).
2. Ceylon (Sri Lanka)- have a delicate, light,
lemon flavour.
3. India (world‟s largest tea producer)-best
known teas being Darjeeling which is delicate,
rounded mellow flavoured and Assam, a
stronger and more full-bodied and flavoured
tea.
4. Kenya – medium flavoured tea.


DIA Notes 212
Purchasing tea
• Tea may be purchased in a variety of
forms:
1. Bulk (leaf)
2. Tea bags - heated sealed and contain
either standard or specialty teas.
3. String and tag - one cup bag with string
attached.
4. Envelopes - string and tag but in an
envelope.
5. Instant - instant tea granules.



DIA Notes 213
Specialty teas
a. Assam - rich full and malty flavoured.
b. Ceylon – a pale golden colour.
c. Darjeeling – a delicate tea with light grape
flavour.
d. Earl Grey – a blend of Darjeeling and China.
e. Jasmine – fragrant and scented flavour.
f. Kenya – consistent and refreshing tea.
g. Lapsang Souchong – smoky, pungent and
perfume tea, delicate.
h. Orange Pekoe – similar to Lapsang Souchong
but with slightly fruity aroma and flavour.
DIA Notes 214
What is coffee?
• The tree which produce Coffea are the
genus Coffee which belongs to the
Rubiaceae family.
• The fruit of the coffee tree is known as the
cherry.
• The cherry usually contains two coffee
seeds.
DIA Notes 215
The blend
• Green bean have to be roasted in order
to release the coffee aroma and flavour
• The common degrees of roasting are:
a. Light or pale roasting – for mild beans to
preserve their delicate aroma.
b. Medium roasting – stronger flavour.
c. Full roasting – bitterish flavour.
d. High roasted coffee – strong bitter.
DIA Notes 216
Espresso
• The method involves passing steam through the
finely ground coffee and infusing under
pressure.
• Served black in a small glass cup.
Cappuccino
• If milk is required, it is heated for each cup by a
high pressure steam injector and transform a
cup of black coffee into cappuccino.
Decaffeinated
• Made from beans after the caffeine has been
extracted.
Cafe au lait
• Also known as white coffee, served with milk.

DIA Notes 217
Aerated waters
• Aerated with carbon dioxide.
• Examples:
a. Soda water: colourless and tasteless.
b. Tonic water: colourless and quinine
flavoured.
c. Dry ginger: golden straw coloured with a
ginger flavour.
d. Bitter lemon: pale cloudy coloured with
sharp lemon flavour .
DIA Notes 218
Natural spring waters or mineral water
• Divided water into two main types: mineral water
and spring water.
• Mineral water: has a mineral content (strictly
controlled).
• Spring water: has a fewer regulations, apart from
those concerning hygiene.
Natural spring water
• From natural springs in the ground.
• Being impregnated with the natural minerals
found in the soil and sometime naturally charged
with an aerating gas.
DIA Notes 219
TOPIC 7
END-OF-SERVICE
PROCEDURES
DIA Notes 220
TOPIC 7: END-OF-SERVICE PROCEDURES
The end-of-service procedures includes:
• Preparing and presenting a bill
• Payment procedures and methods
• Tips (gratuities)
• Saying goodbye to the guests
• Tidying, cleaning and resetting after
service.
DIA Notes 221
PREPARING AND PRESENTING A BILL
The two purposes of guest‟s bill:
1. To inform the guest of the amount to be paid.
2. To act as a control system for the establishment.
• Guest‟s bills may be presented at the table, at
the bar or at a cashier‟s desk.
• Bill should be kept up to date at all times and
ready for presentation as soon as the guest
requires it.

DIA Notes 222
Presenting the bill
• You should be alert to signs that guests may
want their bill.
• Bills should not be presented until they are
asked for.
• When a bill is presented at the table, it is
placed in front of the host( the person who
has asked for the bill) on a small plate from
the right.
• Bill is folded so that the amount to be paid
cannot be seen by the other guests or it is
placed in a billfold.
DIA Notes 223
• If there is no obvious host, you may place
the bill in the center of the table.
• Bills presented at bars should be presented
on a plate, folded or in a billfold.
• Do not hover around waiting for your guests
to pay.
• Remain alert so that when they have paid
for their meal, there is no unnecessary delay
while they are kept waiting for you to collect
the payment.
DIA Notes 224
Methods and procedures for payment
Common payment methods include:
1. Cash
• Very simple, settling of the bill and the tendering
of guest‟s change.
2. Credit cards
• When the card is placed on the bill, you should
collect it and before processing it, check:
a) The establishment accepts the kind of card
presented.
b) Its expiry date.
c) That it has been signed.
d) Check the number against the current warning
bulletin.
DIA Notes 225
• To use the card, place it in the addresser or
stamping machine with the credit slip on top
and slide the bar over both to imprint the slip
or print the credit slip with the computer
printer.
• List the costs of the meals, tax and bar total
on the slip and total the amount.
• Bring a pen and have the guest check and
sign the slip.
• Compare the signature with the one on the
credit card to be sure they are identical and
return the credit card.
DIA Notes 226
3. Cheques
• Usually not accepted without the support
of a banker‟s card.
• Check name and bank‟s name on the
banker‟s card match those on the cheque.
• The bill being paid does not exceed the
limit stated on the card.
• If the bill is higher than the card limit, ask
the customer to pay at least the excess by
a different method.
DIA Notes 227
4. Vouchers (Luncheon)
• Often given to office workers as a
supplement to their salaries.
• Make sure the establishment accepts the
vouchers before you accept them in
payment of a bill.
5. Charge accounts
• The transaction must have been authorized
by management.
• Check the guest‟s signatures against a
charge record or if it is in a hotel, the
guest‟s name against a room number.


DIA Notes 228
TIPS (GRATUITIES)
• Is a monetary reward for courteous and efficient
service.
• Tips are incentives to do a good job.
• Sometimes tipping is based on the quality of food
instead of the attention given by the server.
• Generally, the size of the tip is between 10 and
20 percent of the total amount of the guest check.
• A tip may be given in various ways:
a. If tip is handed to you, thank the guest politely.
b. If it is left on the table, pick up before the table is
cleared.
c. If several servers share the responsibility of one
table, they should divide the tip.
DIA Notes 229
INCREASING THE TIP
• Be neat.
• Friendly greetings.
• Be friendly and helpful but be efficient.
• Smile often when appropriate.
• Check often to see whether customers are in need
service and offer to help them.
• Serve orders to customers as soon as possible.
• Offer appropriate condiments with foods.
• Pour water and coffee for customers as needed.


DIA Notes 230
SAYING GOODBYE TO THE GUESTS
• The last impression guests are given as they
leave after a meal is as important as their first
impression on arrival.
• The farewell should be warm and friendly and as
personal as possible.
• Assist those departing by moving their chairs for
them, collecting their personal belongings and
offering to call for a taxi if not too busy.
• If busy, at least acknowledge their departure
with nod and a smile
• If you can, wish them „Good evening‟ and thank
them for coming.
DIA Notes 231
TIDYING, CLEARING AND RESETTING
• When the guests have left, the tables and service
areas must be cleared of used and soiled items
and the tables prepared for use again.
• Remove coffee cups and center items, glassware
and ashtrays.
• The cups and saucers should be carried using
either the two-or the three-plate technique.
• Do not stack the cups. Glassware should be
removed on a drink tray while the remaining centre
items are removed by hand.
• Ensure that all the chairs are returned to the their
original positions round the table.
• Do not forget to check the chairs for crumbs.