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Skeleton 1

The Skeletal System
Skeleton comes from Greek for “dried up body”
The skeleton is the framework upon which our entire bodies
are built.
Our bones are light yet strong, and are perfectly suited
to provide protection and movement.
Skeleton 2
The Skeletal System
The skeleton is divided into two divisions, the
axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
The axial skeleton are the bones that form the longitudinal
axis of the body
The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of
the limbs and the girdles.
Skeleton 3
The Functions of Bones
Our bones give us shape and form, and
contribute to homeostasis in several important
ways.
1.) Support: Bones are the girders of our body
They also serve to protect soft organs, and provide
attachment points for muscles
Skeleton 4
The Functions of Bones
2.) Protection : Bones protect soft tissues such
as the brain, spinal cord, and the organs in the
thoracic cavity.
3.) Movement : The skeletal muscles attach to the bones
with tendons.
The bones act as levers to move the body and it‟s
parts.
Skeleton 5
The Functions of Bones
4.) Storage : The internal cavities of bones are
used to store fat.
The bones themselves are repositories for minerals such
as calcium and phosphorous. The „turnover‟ of these
minerals is controlled by hormones.
5.) Blood Cell Formation: Hematopoiesis occurs within
the marrow cavities of certain bones
Skeleton 6
Classification Of Bones
Adult skeletons have 206 bones
Bones are made of two basic types of osseous tissue :
Compact Bone
Spongy Bone
Skeleton 7
Bones of the Human Body
• The adult skeleton has 206 bones
• Two basic types of bone tissue
– Compact bone
• Homogeneous
– Spongy bone
• Small needle-like
pieces of bone
• Many open spaces
Figure 5.2b
Skeleton 8
Classification Of Bones
Compact bone is smooth, dense and appears
homogeneous.
Spongy bone is made of needle-like pieces of bone with
plenty of open space
Bones can also be classified by shape as well
Skeleton 9
Bones of the Human Body
• The adult skeleton has 206 bones
• Two basic types of bone tissue
– Compact bone
• Homogeneous
– Spongy bone
• Small needle-like
pieces of bone
• Many open spaces
Figure 5.2b
Skeleton 10
Classification of Bones on the
Basis of Shape
Figure 5.1
Skeleton 11
Classification Of Bones
Long bones
Short bones
Flat Bones
Irregular bones
Skeleton 12
Classification Of Bones
Long Bones :
Are longer than they are wide,
Have a shaft, with enlarged heads at both ends,
And are made mostly of compact bone
Skeleton 13
Structures of a Long Bone
• Periosteum
– Outside covering of the
diaphysis
– Fibrous connective
tissue membrane
• Sharpey‟s fibers
– Secure periosteum to
underlying bone
• Arteries
– Supply bone cells with
nutrients
Figure 5.2c
Skeleton 14
Classification Of Bones
All the bones of the limbs are long bones:
Arm:
Humerus, the upper bone of the arm, articulates
proximally at the shoulder, and distally at the elbow with
the proximal end of the ulna.
The Radius is the lateral bone of the lower arm
The Ulna is the medial bone of the lower arm
Skeleton 15
Classification Of Bones
Leg:
Femur, largest, strongest bone of the body. Articulates
proximally with the acetabulum of the hip, and distally with the
tibia to form the knee joint.
Tibia, larger of the two bones of the lower leg,
commonly called the shin bone; proximal end
atriculates with the distal end of the femur to form the
knee joint. The distal end articulates with the tarsals to
help form the ankle.
Fibula is the smaller of the bones of the lower leg; the
proximal end does not help form the knee, but the distal
end does help form the ankle.
Skeleton 16
Classification Of Bones
Short Bones:
Are generally cube shaped, and contain mostly spongy
bone.
The patella, or kneecap, and the bones of the
wrist(carpals) and bones of the ankle(tarsals) are
examples of short bones.
The patella is a sesamoid bone, which forms inside a tendon.
Skeleton 17
Classification Of Bones
Flat Bones:
Are thin, flat and usually curved.
Are composed as a „sandwitch‟ of spongy bone
between layers of compact bone.
Examples include most bones of the skull, the ribs, and
the sternum.
Skeleton 18
Classification Of Bones
Irregular Bones:
All bones that do not fit into any previous group are
irregular bones.
The vertebrae and the bones of the hip are examples.

Skeleton 19
Structure of a Long Bone
Figure 5.2 page 133
The structure of a long bone has specific regions with
specific names.
Diaphysis
Periosteum

Epiphysis

Epiphyseal
line

Epiphyseal
Plate

Articular
cartilage

Medullary
Cavity

Skeleton 20
Gross Anatomy of a Long
Bone
• Diaphysis
– Shaft
– Composed of compact
bone
• Epiphysis
– Ends of the bone
– Composed mostly of
spongy bone
– Covered by hyaline
cartilage(articular)
Figure 5.2a
Skeleton 21
Structures of a Long Bone
• Articular cartilage
– Covers the external
surface of the
epiphyses
– Made of hyaline
cartilage
– Decreases friction at
joint surfaces
Figure 5.2a
Skeleton 22
Gross Anatomy of a Long
Bone
• Periosteum
– Connective tissue
membrane that covers the
diaphysis

• Epiphyseal Line
--In the formed bones of
adults, a thin line of bony
tissue that marks the spot
where the diaphysis and
epiphyses meet
Figure 5.2a
Skeleton 23
Gross Anatomy of a Long
Bone
• Medullary Cavity
– The hollow space found in
the shaft of a long bone.
– In adults it is filled with fat.
– In infants it is filled with red
marrow, used for blood
cell formation
– In adults red marrow is
found in spongy bone of
flat bones, and epiphyses
of some long bones
Figure 5.2a
Skeleton 24
Bone Markings and Landmarks
Bones are not smooth and featureless
Muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves and blood vessels
must attach to or pass through bones to reach body tissues.
There are two categories for bone markings:
Projections or processes which grow out from the bones.
Depressions or cavities which are indentations in the bone.
Skeleton 25
Bone Markings and Landmarks
A device for remembering bone markings:
All terms beginning with “T” are projections.
All terms beginning with “F” (except for facet), are
depressions
See table 5.1 on page 134
Skeleton 26
Microscopic Anatomy of Bones
Microscopic examination of compact bone
reveals complex structural elements
Mature bone cells are called osteocytes
“Osteo” = Bone
Osteocytes are found in tiny spaces within compact bone
known as lacunae (little lake)
Skeleton 27
Microscopic Anatomy of Bones
Lacunae are arranged in concentric circle
called lamellae
The lamellae are arranged around central canals called
Haversian canals
Each unit consisting of a central canal and the matrix
rings is called an Osteon, or Haversian system
Skeleton 28
Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Figure 5.3
Skeleton 29
Microscopic Anatomy of Bones
Central Canals run length-wise in the bone
carrying nerves and blood vessels to all areas
of the bone
Tiny canals called canaliculi radiate outward from the
central canals to all lacunae
Perforating canals called Volkmann‟s canals run into
the bone at right angles to the shaft.
Skeleton 30
Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
Figure 5.3
Skeleton 31
Microscopic Anatomy of Bones
This elaborate network of blood vessels and
canals keep the bone cells very well supplied
with nutrients despite being very hard.
Bones usually heal quickly and well.
It is the inorganic salts that provide the hardness of the
bones, while the organic components provide the
flexibility.
Skeleton 32
Bone Formation and Growth
The process of bone formation is called
ossification.
Ossification involves 2 major phases
First : In utero The hyaline cartilage model is
completely covered by bone matrix, formed by
osteoblasts
Skeleton 33
Microscopic Anatomy of Bone
• Canaliculi
– Tiny canals
– Radiate from the
central canal to
lacunae
– Form a transport
system
Detail of Figure 5.3
Skeleton 34
Changes in the Human
Skeleton
• In embryos, the skeleton is primarily
hyaline cartilage
• During development, much of this cartilage
is replaced by bone
• Cartilage remains in isolated areas
– Bridge of the nose
– Parts of ribs
– Joints
Skeleton 35
Bone Formation and Growth
For a short time, the fetus has cartilage „bones‟
enclosed by bony bones
Second : The enclosed cartilage is digested away, thus
opening the medullary cavity within the new bone
At birth, or soon after, most of the cartilage model has
been converted into bone, except for 2 regions:
Skeleton 36
Changes in the Human
Skeleton
• In embryos, the skeleton is primarily
hyaline cartilage
• During development, much of this cartilage
is replaced by bone
• Cartilage remains in isolated areas
– Bridge of the nose
– Parts of ribs
– Joints
Skeleton 37
Long Bone Formation and
Growth
Figure 5.4a
Skeleton 38
Bone Formation and Growth
Articular cartilage
Epiphyseal plates
Articular cartilage persists for life ( hopefully)
Epiphyseal plates allow for longitudinal bone growth
Skeleton 39
Long Bone Formation and
Growth
Figure 5.4a
Skeleton 40
Bone Growth
• Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long
bone during childhood
– New cartilage is continuously formed
– Older cartilage becomes ossified
• Cartilage is broken down
• Bone replaces cartilage
Skeleton 41
Long Bone Formation and
Growth
Figure 5.4b
Skeleton 42
Bone Growth
• Bones are remodeled and lengthened until
growth stops
– Bones change shape somewhat
– Bones grow in width
Skeleton 43
Bone Growth
Osteoblasts in the periosteum add new bone tissue
to the external surface of the bone.
Appositional growth is the process by which a bone
widens
Long bone growth is under hormonal control;
growth hormone and sex hormones
Bones are dynamic structures, and are remodeled
constantly in response to:
Skeleton 44
Bone Growth
Ca
+
in the blood
Stress due to gravity
Force applied by skeletal muscles
When Ca
+
levels drop the parathyroid gland
releases parathyroid hormone (PTH) which
stimulates osteoclast activity.
This releases Ca
+
into the blood
Skeleton 45
Bone Remodeling
If Ca
+
levels in the blood are too high, a condition
known as hypercalcemia, then Ca+ is deposited on
the bones.
Bone Remodeling
Bones maintain normal proportions during long
bone growth
Increased demands on the skeleton cause it
change in response
Skeleton 46
Bone Remodeling
Activity helps build strong bones
Inactivity causes bones to lose mass due to Ca
loss, (atrophy)
PTH determines when and if bones are broken
down.
Physical stress determines where bone is built
Skeleton 47
Fractures and Bone Repair
Activity helps build strong bones
Inactivity causes bones to lose mass due to Ca
loss, (atrophy)
PTH determines when and if bones are broken
down.
Physical stress determines where bone is built
Skeleton 48
Bone Fractures
• A break in a bone
• Types of bone fractures
– Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not
penetrate the skin
– Open (compound) fracture – broken bone
penetrates through the skin
• Bone fractures are treated by reduction
and immobilization
– Realignment of the bone
Skeleton 49
Common Types of Fractures
Table 5.2
Skeleton 50
Repair of Bone Fractures
• Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed
• Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a
callus
• Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony
callus
• Bony callus is remodeled to form a
permanent patch
Skeleton 51
Stages in the Healing of a
Bone Fracture
Figure 5.5
Skeleton 52
Bone Fractures
• A break in a bone
• Types of bone fractures
– Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not
penetrate the skin
– Open (compound) fracture – broken bone
penetrates through the skin
• Bone fractures are treated by reduction
and immobilization
– Realignment of the bone
Skeleton 53
Common Types of Fractures
Table 5.2
Skeleton 54
Repair of Bone Fractures
• Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed
• Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a
callus
• Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony
callus
• Bony callus is remodeled to form a
permanent patch
Skeleton 55
The Axial Skeleton
• Forms the longitudinal part of the body
• Divided into three parts
– Skull
– Vertebral column
– Bony thorax
Skeleton 56
The Axial Skeleton
Figure 5.6
Skeleton 57
The Skull
• Two sets of bones
– Cranium
– Facial bones
• Bones are joined by sutures
• Only the mandible is attached by a freely
movable joint
Skeleton 58
The Skull
Figure 5.7
Skeleton 59
Bones of the Skull
Figure 5.11
Skeleton 60
Human Skull, Superior View
Figure 5.8
Skeleton 61
Human Skull, Inferior View
Figure 5.9
Skeleton 62
Bones of the skull
The cranium is composed of 8 bones, except for 2
paired bones, they are all single bones.
Frontal Bone : the forehead, also forms the the
projections under the eyebrows and the superior
part of each eye orbit
Parietal Bones : paired bones that form the
superior and lateral walls of the skull
They meet at the sagittal suture and form the
coronal suture where they meet the frontal
Skeleton 63
The Skull
Figure 5.7
Skeleton 64
Bones of the skull
The temporal bones are inferior to the parietal
bones, and join with them at the squamous suture
There are several important bone markings on the
temporal bone.
External auditory meatus: ear canal
Styloid process : allows for muscle attachment
Zygomatic process : the thin bridge of bone that joins
anteriorly with the zygomatic bone
Skeleton 65
Bones of the skull
Mastoid process provides an attachment site for
some neck muscles. Also contains the mastoid
sinuses.
Jugular foramen : allows for the passage of the
jugular vein .
Carotid canal : anterior to the jugular foramen,
allows for passage of the carotid artery.
Skeleton 66
Human Skull, Inferior View
Figure 5.9
Skeleton 67
Bones of the skull
Occipital Bone forms the inferior posterior portion
of the skull.
The occipital bone contains the magnum foramen,
which is the large opening that allows for passage
of the spinal cord from the base of the brain down
the vertebral column .
The occipital bone joins with the temporal and
parietal bones
Skeleton 68
Bones of the skull
The occipital bone features the occipital condyles,
which articulate with the first cervical vertebrae,
called the atlas.
The sphenoid bone is the wing shaped bone which
spans the skull, most of which is visible on the
interior of the skull .
Skeleton 69
Bones of the Face
14 bones compose the face
12 Bones are paired, and only the mandible and the
vomer are single bones.
Maxillae ( maxillary bones) fuse to form the upper
jaw. All of the facial bones join the maxillae, except
the mandible
Skeleton 70
Bones of the Face
The palatine processes form the anterior hard
palate
The maxillae also contain the para-nasal sinuses
Palatine Bones – paired bones that lie posterior to
the hard palate
Failure of these bones to fuse results in a cleft
palate
Skeleton 71
Paranasal Sinuses
• Hollow portions of bones surrounding the
nasal cavity
Figure 5.10
Skeleton 72
Bones of the Face
The Zygomatic bones : commonly called the
cheekbones, they also form a large portion of the
eye sockets
Vomer : single plow-shaped bone that forms the
nasal septum
Inferior conchae : thin curved bones that project
from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity.
Mandible : Lower jaw, the largest strongest bone of
the face
Skeleton 73
Bones of the Face
Hyoid Bone:
The only bone in the body that does not directly
articulate with another bone.
It is located in the mid neck, above the larynx, and
is anchored to the styloid process by ligaments
Shaped like a horse shoe, it serves as a movable
base for the tongue and as a point of muscular
attachment for muscles in the neck
Skeleton 74
The Hyoid Bone
• The only bone that
does not articulate
with another bone
• Serves as a
moveable base for
the tongue
Figure 5.12
Skeleton 75
Fetal Skull
The fetal skull is large when compared to the body
of the fetus.
A newborn’s skull has regions that have yet to be
converted to bone.
These ‘soft spots’ are called fontanels ( little
fountains)
The rhythm of the baby’s pulse can be felt in these
areas.
They are usually converted to bone 22 to 24 months
post – partum.
Skeleton 76
The Fetal Skull
• The fetal skull is
large compared to
the infants total body
length
Figure 5.13
Skeleton 77
The Fetal Skull
• Fontanelles – fibrous
membranes
connecting the
cranial bones
– Allow the brain
to grow
– Convert to bone
within 24 months
after birth
Figure 5.13
Skeleton 78
Vertebral Column
• Is formed by 26 irregular bones
• Is a flexible, curved structure extending
from the skull to the pelvis
• Protects the delicate spinal cord
• Transmits the weight load of the body to
the lower limbs
Skeleton 79
The Vertebral Column
• Vertebrae separated
by intervertebral
discs
• The spine has a
normal curvature
• Each vertebrae is
given a name
according to its
location
Figure 5.14
Skeleton 80
Vertebral column
• There are 33 separate vertebrae at birth
• Nine of these fuse to for the composite
bones of the sacrum and the coccyx
• From superior to inferior the bones are
designated by location and number
• Cervical 7
• Thoracic 12
• Lumbar 5
Skeleton 81
Vertebral column
• The number of bones in each group can
remembered by the time of day we
typically eat.
• 7 Cervical
• 12 Thoracic
• 5 Lumbar
• Individual vertebrae are separated by
flexible fibrocartilage intervertebral disks
Skeleton 82
Vertebral column
• The intervertebral disks absorb shock, and
are highly compressible.
• They are 90% water
• As we age, the water content decreases
and the disks become less flexible
• This helps explain why some elderly
people seem to „shrink‟ with age.
Skeleton 83
Vertebral column
• Herniated, or „slipped‟ disks can press
against the spinal cord or nerves that exit
the spinal cord..
• This can result in extreme pain, and loss
of function
• Spinal Curvatures
• The spine is curved to help absorb shock.
Skeleton 84

Skeleton 85
Vertebral column
• The thoracic and sacral curves are called
primary curves because they are present
at birth.
• The secondary curves develop later.
• The cervical develops when the baby
begins to raise it‟s head, and the lumbar
when the child begins to walk.
Skeleton 86
Structure of Vertebrae
• All vertebrae have a similar structural pattern.
• Some common features:
• Body or centrum: the weight bearing part of the
vertebra, and it faces anteriorly.
• Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the
posterior extensions from the body of the
vertebrae.
• Vertebral foramen: canal through which the
spinal cord passes.
Skeleton 87
Structure of Vertebrae
• Transverese Process: Two lateral projections
from the vertebral arch
• Spinous Process : Single projection arising from
the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch.
• Superior and Inferior Articular Processes : paired
projections that allow vertebra to form joints with
adjacent vertebrae
• Vertebral arch: formed by the joining of all the
posterior extensions from the body of the
vertebrae.

Skeleton 88
Structure of Cervical Vertebrae
• Cervical vertebrae ( C1 to C7 )form the
neck region of the spine.
• C1 and C2 are specialized, they perform
functions not shared by other vcervical
vertebrae
• The Atlas ( C1)
• Has no body

Skeleton 89
Regional Characteristics of
Vertebrae
Figure 5.17a–b
Skeleton 90
Structure of Cervical Vertebrae
• Transverse processes have depressions
that receive the occipital condyles.
• The Axis ( C2 ) Acts as a pivot for the atlas
and the skull
• C3 through C7 are the smallest and
lightest vertebrae
• Their spinous processes are short and
divide into two branches.
Skeleton 91
Regional Characteristics of
Vertebrae
Figure 5.17a–b
Skeleton 92
Structure of Cervical Vertebrae
• The transverse processes contain
foramina for the arteries to pass through
on their way to the brain.
• They are the only group of vertebrae with
this feature.
Skeleton 93
Regional Characteristics of
Vertebrae
Figure 5.17a–b
Skeleton 94
Structure of Thoracic Vertebrae
• Thoracic vertebrae ( T1 – T 12 ).
• Larger than cervical vertebrae
• Have two costal demifacets on each side
to receive the head of the ribs
• Have long spinous processes that angle
sharply downward.
• When viewed from the side resemble the
head of giraffe
Skeleton 95
Regional Characteristics of
Vertebrae
Figure 5.17c–d
Skeleton 96
Structure of Lumbar Vertebrae
• Lumbar vertebrae ( L1 – L 5 ).
• Are the strongest and stursiest of all
vertebrae.
• Have large block- like bodies
• Spinous processes are short, and hatchet
shaped.
• When viewed from the side resemble the
head of a moose.
Skeleton 97
Regional Characteristics of
Vertebrae
Figure 5.17c–d
Skeleton 98
The Sacrum
• Formed by 5 fused vertebrae
• Superior aspect articulates with the inferior
aspect of L5
• Laterally the wing-like alae articulate with
the hip bones to form the sacroiliac joints
• It forms the posterior wall of the pelvis
• The vertebral canal continues inside the
sacrum as the sacral canal
Skeleton 99
The Sacrum

Skeleton 100
The Coccyx
• Formed by the fusion of 3 to 5 tiny
irregular vertebrae
• It is the vestigial tail in humans

The Thorax
The sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae
make up the thorax, or thoracic cage
Skeleton 101
The Thorax
• The Thoracic cage surrounds and protects
the heart, lungs and major blood vessels.
• The Sternum
• Is a flat bone composed of the fusion of 3
bones. Superior to inferior they are:
• Manubrium
• Body ( Gladiolus)
• Xiphoid process
Skeleton 102
The Thorax
Skeleton 103
The Sternum
• The sternum articulates with the first 7
pairs of ribs.
• The sternum has 3 important landmarks
• The jugular notch
• The sternal angle
• The xiphisternal joint
Skeleton 104
Skeleton 105
The Sternum
• The jugular notch: the concave upper part of the
manubrium, usually at the level of T3
• The sternal angle : site where the manubrium
and the gladiolus meet to form a slight angle.
• It is the reference point for locating the second
intecostal space for listening to the heart valves
• Xiphisternal joint : Where the sternal body and
the xiphoid process meet. Used as a landmark
to locate the level of T9
Skeleton 106
The Ribs
• 12 Pairs of ribs form the thoracic cage
• Men and women have the SAME number
of ribs
• All ribs articulate with the vertebral column
posteriorly
• The first 7 pairs are known as true ribs
because they attach directly to the
sternum by costal cartilage
Skeleton 107
The Ribs
• The next 5 pairs are false ribs because
they either attach indirectly to the sternum,
or not at all
• The last 2 pairs of false ribs lack sternal
attachment, and are called floating ribs

Skeleton 108
Appendicular skeleton
• Composed of 126 bones
• Shoulder girdle
• Also known as the pectoral or shoulder
girdle, consists of 2 bones
• Clavicle
• Scapula

Skeleton 109
Clavicle
• Also called the collar bone
• Attaches medially to the manubrium
• Attaches laterally to the scapula
• Serves to hold the arm away from the
thorax, and helps prevent shoulder
dislocation
• A broken clavicle causes the shoulder to
collapse medially
Skeleton 110
Scapulae
• Also called the shoulder blades
• Flat, triangular in appearance, has 2
important processes
• Acromion process: the enlarged end of the
spine of the scapula
• Coracoid process : points over the top of
the shoulder and helps anchor the
muscles of the arm
Skeleton 111
Skeleton 112
Scapulae
• The scapula does not attach directly to the
axial skeleton, but is held in place by
muscles
• The scapula has three borders:
• Superior
• Medial
• Lateral

Skeleton 113
Skeleton 114
Scapulae
• The scapula has three angles:
• Superior
• Inferior
• Lateral
Skeleton 115
Skeleton 116
Scapulae
• The glenoid cavity is the shallow socket
that receives the head of the humerous
• The shoulder girdle is exceptionally free to
move
• However the price of this range of motion
is that it is easily dislocated
Skeleton 117
Skeleton 118
Bones of the upper limbs
• There are 30 bones in each upper limb
• The arm is formed by the single long bone,
the humerus
• The proximal end has a rounded head that
fits into the glenoid cavity
Skeleton 119
Skeleton 120
Bones of the upper limbs
• The greater and lesser tubercles opposite
the head are sites for muscular attachment
• The deltoid tuberosity is a roughened are
at the midpoint of the shaft where the
deltoid muscle attaches
• The radial grove allows for the passage of
the radial nerve.
Skeleton 121
Skeleton 122
Bones of the upper limbs
• The distal end of the humerus has a spool
shaped trochlea on the medial side, and
the ball like capitulum on the lateral side
• On the anterior surface the coronoid fossa
is a depression above the trochlea
• On the posterior surface you will find the
olecranon fossa
• These 2 depressions allow for free
movement of the elbow
Skeleton 123
Skeleton 124
The Forearm
• The radius and ulna form the forearm
• In anatomical position the radius is the
lateral bone
• The radius and ulna articulate with each
other proximally and distally at small radio-
ulnar joints
• The bones are also connected by a long
interosseous membrane
Skeleton 125
Bones of the Upper Limb
• The forearm has two
bones
– Ulna
– Radius
Figure 5.21c
Skeleton 126
The Forearm
• The head of the radius forms a joint with
the capitulum
• The radial tuberosity is the location for the
attachment of the biceps tendon
• The ulna is the medial bone
• The coronoid fossa can be found on the
proximal anterior surface of the bone
• The olecranon process can be found on
the proximal posterior surface
Skeleton 127
Bones of the Upper Limb
• The forearm has two
bones
– Ulna
– Radius
Figure 5.21c
Skeleton 128
The Forearm
• The coronoid and olecranon processes
grip the trochlea like pliers to form the
elbow.
Skeleton 129
The Hand
• The hand consists of the carpals,
metacarpals and phalanges.
• The carpals are 2 rows of 4 irregular
bones, and form the wrist
Hamate Pisiform Triquetral Lunate

Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Capitate

Skeleton 130
The Hand
• The hand
– Carpals – wrist
– Metacarpals –
palm
– Phalanges –
fingers
Figure 5.22
Skeleton 131
The Hand
• The carpals are bound together by ligaments
that restrict movement between them
• The palm consists of metacarpals numbered 1 to
5, starting on the thumb side.
• Each hand has 14 phalanges, and all of the
fingers are composed of three phalanges,
except for the thumb, which has 2.
Skeleton 132
Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
• Hip bones
• Composed of three pair of fused bones
– Ilium
– Ischium
– Pubic bone
• The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis
• Protects several organs
– Reproductive organs
– Urinary bladder
– Part of the large intestine
Skeleton 133
The Pelvis
Figure 5.23a
Skeleton 134
The Pelvic Girdle
• The pelvic bone is formed by 2 coxal
bones
• Each of these bones is formed by the
fusion of 3 bones.
• Ilium
• Ischium
• Pubis
Skeleton 135
The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone
Figure 5.23b
Skeleton 136
The Pelvic Girdle
• The pelvis is constructed of fairly large and
heavy bones
• The hips are responsible for bearing the
entire weight of the torso
• They also bear the stress associated with
locomotion
• Reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and
part of the large intestine are protected by
the pelvis
Skeleton 137
Gender Differences of the
Pelvis
Figure 5.23c
Skeleton 138
The Thigh
• The femur is the only bone in the thigh
• It is the largest, strongest bone of the body
• The proximal end of the femur has a ball-
like head, and an obvious neck
• The femur slants medially to bring the
knees in line with the body‟s center of
gravity
Skeleton 139
Bones of the Lower Limbs
• The thigh has
one bone
– Femur – thigh
bone
Figure 5.24a–b
Skeleton 140
• Distally, the lateral and medial condyles
articulate with the tibia
• The LEG
• The larger and more medial bone in the
lower leg is the tibia(shinbone)
• Proximally, it articulates with the distal
femur to form the knee joint
• Distally the medial malleolus forms the
inner bulge of the ankle
Skeleton 141
Bones of the Lower Limbs
• The leg has two
bones
– Tibia
– Fibula
Figure 5.24c
Skeleton 142
The fibula
The smaller, lateral bone of the lower leg
The fibula does not form the knee joint
The distal end of the fibula forms the outer
part of the ankle with it‟s lateral malleolus
The tibia and fibula are connected by an
interosseous membrane, just like the
radius and ulna are.
Skeleton 143
Bones of the Lower Limbs
• The leg has two
bones
– Tibia
– Fibula
Figure 5.24c
Skeleton 144
Bones of the Lower Limbs
• The thigh has
one bone
– Femur – thigh
bone
Figure 5.24a–b
Skeleton 145
Bones of the Lower Limbs
• The leg has two
bones
– Tibia
– Fibula
Figure 5.24c
Skeleton 146
Bones of the ankle and foot
• The foot
– Tarsus – ankle
– Metatarsals – sole
– Phalanges – toes
Figure 5.25