• Project
• Project Management
• Program
• Program Management
• Portfolio
• Portfolio Management
• Project Management Office (PMO)
• Organizational Project Management Maturity (OPM3)
A project is a temporary
endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product,
service or result.
Topic 1.2
Accomplished through the appropriate
application and integration of 42
logically grouped project
management processes comprising
the 5 process groups.
Topic 1.3
Application of knowledge, skills,
tools, and techniques to project
activities to meet the project
Topic 1.4.2
 A program is a group of related projects
managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits
and control not available from managing them
 Programs may include elements of related work
outside of the scope of the discrete projects in the
 A project may or may not be part of a program but
a program will always have projects.
Topic 1.4.2
 Program Management is defined as the
centralized coordinated management of a
program to achieve the program’s strategic
objectives and benefits.
 Projects within a program are related through the
common outcome and collective capability.
 Focuses on project interdependencies and helps
to determine the optimal approach for managing
 Following relationships qualify for portfolio
management and not program management:
 Shared client, Seller, Technology, and
Topic 1.4.2
 Actions related to project interdependencies may
 Resolving resource constraints and/or
conflicts that affect multiple projects within the
 Aligning organizational/strategic direction that
affects project and program goals and
 Resolving issues and change management
within a shared governance structure.
Topic 1.4.1
 A portfolio is a collection of projects or
programs and other work that are grouped
together to facilitate effective management of that
work to meet strategic business objectives.
 The projects or programs in the portfolio may not
necessarily be interdependent or directly related.
Topic 1.4.1
 Portfolio Management refers to the
centralized management of one or more portfolios,
which includes identifying, prioritizing, managing,
and controlling projects, programs, and other
related work, to achieve specific strategic
business objectives.
 Portfolio Management focuses on ensuring that
projects and programs are reviewed to prioritize
resource allocation, and that the management of
the portfolio is consistent with and aligned to
organizational strategies.
Topic 1.4.3
 To maximize the value of the portfolio by careful
examination of its components – the constituent
projects, programs and other related work,
 for inclusion in the portfolio and
 the timely exclusion of projects not meeting or
contributing least to the portfolio’s strategic
 Organizations’ strategic plan becomes the
primary factor guiding investments in the projects.
Senior managers or senior management
teams typically take on the responsibility
of portfolio management for an

Topic 1.4
 Organizational Planning
 Impacts projects by means of Project
 Directs Funding and Support for component
projects on the basis of
 Risk categories
 Specific lines of business
 General types of projects

 In mature organizations, project management is
governed by program and portfolio management.
 Organizational strategies and priorities
 Organization’s Strategic Plan
Reference: Figure 1-1.
PMBOK® Guide, 4
Figure 1-1
Topic 1.4.3
 Projects are often utilized as a means of achieving
an organization’s strategic plan.
 Projects are typically authorized as a result of one
or more of the following strategic considerations:
 Market demand
 Strategic opportunity/business need
 Customer request
 Technological advancement
 Legal requirements
Topic 1.4.4
 A Project Management Office (PMO) is
an organizational body or entity assigned various
responsibilities related to the centralized and
coordinated management of those projects under its
 The responsibilities of a PMO can range from
providing project management support functions to
actually being responsible for the direct
management of a project.
 The projects supported or administered by the PMO
may not be related other than by being managed
 Specific form, function, and structure of a PMO is
dependent upon the supported organization’s needs.
Topic 1.4.4
 A PMO can be delegated authority to act as an
integral stakeholder and a key decision maker
during the beginning of each project, to make
recommendations, or to terminate projects or take
other actions as required to keep business
objectives consistent.
 A PMO may be involved in selection, management,
and deployment of shared or dedicated project
Topic 1.4.4
 A primary function of a PMO is to support project
managers in a variety of way which may include,
but are not limited to:
 Managing shared resources across all projects
administered by the PMO.
 Identifying and developing project management
methodology, best practices, and standards.
 Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight.
 Monitoring compliance with project management
standards, policies, procedures, and templates via
project audits.
 Developing and managing project policies, procedures,
templates, and other shared documentation.
 Coordinating communication across projects.
Topic 2.3
 The PMO can provide but is not limited to:-
 Administrative support services such as policies,
methodologies, and templates.
 Training, mentoring, and coaching of project
 Project support, guidance, and training on how to
manage projects and the use of tools.
 Resource alignment of project staff.
 Centralized communication among project
managers, project sponsors, managers, and other
Topic 1.5
 Operations are an organizational function
performing the ongoing execution of activities that
produce the same product or provide a repetitive
 Organizations sometimes change their operations,
products, or systems by creating strategic business

 Though temporary in nature, projects can help
achieve the organizational goals when they are
aligned with the organization’s strategy.

Topic 1.5
Both requires to be performed by people
Both requires to be provided resources
Both are constrained by limited resources
Both requires to be planned, executed ad controlled
Both are aligned with the Organizational Strategic Objectives
Deliverables and Knowledge is transfered between the two

Occurs through transfer of project resource to operations toward
the end of the project
Through a transfer of operational resource to project at the start of
the project
Topic 1.5
Operations require Business
Process Management or
Operations Management
Projects require Project
Permanent Endeavors Temporary Undertakings
Ongoing nature of Operations Temporary Assignments
Produce Repetitive Outputs Produce Unique Outputs
Permanent Resource Assignments Temporary Resourcing
Executed as per standards (SOPs)
institutionalized in product life
Executed according to Project
Management Plan developed for
project life cycle
Sustain the business Attain objective and then terminate
Adopt a new set of objectives and
the work continues.
Concludes when its specific
objectives have been attained
Topic 1.5
 Projects can intersect with operations at various
points during the product life cycle:
 At each closeout phase
 When developing a new product, upgrading a
product, or expanding outputs
 Improvement of operations or the product
development process
 Until the divestment of the operations at the end
of the product cycle

Topic 1.6
 The role of project manager is distinct from a
functional manager or operations manager.
 A Project Manager is the person assigned by
the performing organization to achieve the project
 A Functional Manager is focused on providing
management oversight for a administrative area.
 An Operations Manager is responsible for a
facet of the core business.
 Project Manager may report to a Functional Manager,
a Portfolio Manager or a Program Manager.
Topic 1.6
 Effective project management requires that the
project manager possess the following
 Knowledge – What PM knows about project
 Performance – What PM is able to do or
accomplish while applying the Knowledge?
 Personal – How PM behaves when performing
Topic 1.6
 Attitudes
 Core personality characteristics
 Leadership – ability to guide the project
team while achieving project objectives
and balancing the project constraints.
The End