Unit-V

APA Bibliography Format

(American Psychological Association)
• alphabetize
• on a separate page
• after the text of your document, but
before any appendices or notes
• number each page, continuing the
numbering of the text
APA Bibliography Format
Your APA bibliography section
should be called "References."


• Author(s)
• Publication Date
• Title
• Publication Information
• place of publication
• publisher
• (sometimes) page numbers
APA Bibliography Format
Whichever format you use, you need to include
information on:


Spencer, R. F. (1969). The north Alaskan Eskimo.

Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

(Original work Published in 1959)
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a work with a single author:


Coleman, B., Frogner, E., & Eich, E. (1971). Ojibwa myths

and legends. Minneapolis: Ross and Haines.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a work with multiple authors:


United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. (1986).

Record of decision: Final environmental impact statement,

land and resource management plan, Superior National

Forest. (USDA Publication No. 641- 110/20043).

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a book or report with a
corporate author:


Fleischman, W. A. (1978). Resident and non-resident owner

attitudes toward land use. Unpublished manuscript,

University of Minnesota Duluth, Center for Community

and Regional Studies, Duluth, MN.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to an unpublished manuscript:


Patterson, F. (1978, October). Conversations with a gorilla.

National Geographic, 438-465.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to an article from a monthly
magazine:


Puzzling out man's ascent. (1977, November 7). Time, 64-69.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to an article from a weekly
magazine or weekly newspaper, with no
author given:


Downs, H. (Narrator). (1968, March 21). The first Americans

[TV Video]. New York: NBC News.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a TV or radio program:


Gardner, R. G. (Director). (1964). Dead birds [Film].

Washington, DC: Harvard University, Peabody Museum,

Film Study Center.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a film:


Laundergan, J C. (2000, December 8). [Functional analysis

of social stratification.] Sociology 1100 class

lecture. University of Minnesota Duluth. Duluth, MN.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a lecture:


Although most agree on the components for
electronic citations, format standards are just
emerging for citations from electronic media.

For citing WebSites the tendency seems to be to
italicize (or underline) the title of the site, or, if
there is no title, to include a description such as
“Home Page,” but not underlined or italicized or in
quotation marks.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to electronic citations:


For the latest up-to-date information see:

Style Sheets for Citing Internet & Electronic
Resources -- UC Berkeley - Teaching Library Internet Workshops

Electronic Reference Formats Recommended by the
American Psychological Association -- APA
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to electronic citations:


• Author's Last Name, Initial(s).
• (Date of document). [if different from date accessed]
• Title of document.
• Title of complete work. [if applicable]
• Version or File number. [if applicable]
• (Edition or revision). [if applicable]
• Protocol and address, access path, or directories.
• (date of access).
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to electronic citations:


Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user

dimensions. MUD history. http://www.utopia.com/talent/

lpb/muddex/essay (2 Aug. 1996).
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to a Named WebSite:


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of

article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month

day, year, from source.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to an Online periodical:


Fine arts. (1993). In E. D. Hirsch, Jr., J. F. Kett, & J. Trefil (Eds.),

Dictionary of cultural literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

INSO Corp. America Online. Reference Desk/

Dictionaries/Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (20 May

1996).
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to Online Reference Sources:


ID Software. (1993). The ultimate doom. NY: GT Interactive

Software.
APA Bibliography Format
Reference to Software Programs:


APA Bibliography Format
You no longer need to include words like "Inc.,"
"Publishers," "and Co., " "Company," "Ltd.," and
"Limited" in your references section.

Thus, for example, refer simply to “St. Martin's”
rather than “St. Martin's Press.”

There is one exception: with university presses, spell
out the entire publisher (for example, "The University
of Chicago Press").