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by

Sobha Devi
 signal generator is very useful and important equipment in
electronic troubleshooting and development.

 Applications:
 checking the stage gain, S/N, bandwidth
checking the frequency response
checking the alignment in receivers

Oscillator – provides sinusoidal signal only
Converts a DC source to an AC energy (no energy is created).
 Usually built-in in the instrument.
 E.g: 1. Fixed freq – normally at 1000c/s.
2. Variable freq – 100kHz - MHz
Generator – provides several types of waveforms including sine
wave, square wave, triangular wave, pulse trains, as well as
amplitude modulation (AM) waveform.
 Available as a separate instrument.
 Provide signals for testing purposes (eg: radio transmitter &
receiver).
Requirements For Signal Generator :
 The frequency of the signal should be known and stable.
The amplitude should be controllable from small to large
values.
 The signal should be distortion-free.
BAND APPROXIMATE RANGE
AF 20Hz – 20kHz
RF Above 30kHz
VLF – Very Low Frequency 15 – 100kHz
LF – Low Frequency 100 – 500kHz
Broad Cast 0.5 – 1.5MHz
Video DC – 5MHz
HF 1.5 – 30MHz
VHF 30 – 300MHz
UHF 300 – 3000MHz
Microwave Beyond 3000MHz (3GHz)
 FIXED FREQUENCY AF OSCILLATOR

 VARIABLE AF OSCILLATOR
BASIC STANDARD SIGNAL GENERTOR (SINE WAVE)
STANDARD SIGNAL GENERATOR
AF SINE AND SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR
5mv - 5v (rms)

Push pull amplifier

Low out put
impedance is 600Ω
0-20v (peak)

Symmetry ->
30-70%
 Frequency Range 10hz – 1mhz
Frequency selector: It selects the frequency in different ranges and
varies it continuously ina ratio of 1: 11. The scale is non-linear.

 Frequency multiplier: It selects the frequency range over 5 decades
from 10 Hz to 7 MHz

Amplitude multiplier: It attenuates the sine wave in 3 decades, x l ,
x 0.1 and x 0.01.

 Variable amplitude: It attenuates the sine wave amplitude
continuously

Symmetry control: It varies the symmetry of the square wave from
30% to 70%.

Amplitude: It attenuates the square wave output
continuously.

switch: It selects either sine wave or square output.

 Output available: This provides sine wave or square wave
output.

 Sync: This terminal is used to provide synchronization of the
internal signal with an external signal.

 On-Off Switch
FUNCTION GENERATOR
Frequency range 0.01 Hz – 100kHz

 
t
out idt
C
e
0
1
Sine
Square
Triangle
sawtooth
RANDOM NOISE GENERATORS
Semiconductor noise diode
SQUARE AND PULSE GENERATOR


____________
Duty cycle=
Pulse width
Pulse period
The duty cycle can be varied from 25-75%. 50Ω - supplies pulses with a rise and fall time of 5ns at 5Vp.
600 Ω - supplies pulses with a rise and fall time of 70ns at 30Vp.
Basic Generating loop
SQUARE AND PULSE GENERATOR
SWEEP GENERATOR
ARBITRARY WAVE FORM GENERATOR
Arbitrary Period Wave Form