SOFT SWITCHING DC-DC CONVERTERS

FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES
WITH MPPT

NAME OF THE PROJECTEE
D.Shankar
MT10PED019.

NAME OF PROJECT GUIDE
Dr. P.S.KULKARNI
ELECTRICAL ENGG.DEPT. , VNIT.


10/29/2012
1
WHY SOLAR ENERGY?
 Solar energy is the most readily available source of
energy.
 It is free.
 It is also the most important of the non-conventional
sources of energy because it is non-polluting.

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OUTLINE
 Aims and Objectives.
 Motivation.
 Introduction.
 Modeling Of PV Module.
 Maximum Power Point Tracking.
 Soft-switching DC-DC Converter.
 PV Systems With MPPT.
 Perturb and Observe (P & O) MPPT Algorithm.
 Conclusions.
 Future work.
 References.
 Publications.

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
 To achieve maximum Efficiency from the dc-dc
converter by using soft switching techniques.
 Study the effect of radiation and temperature on the solar
module out put.
 To track maximum available power from the solar PV
Module.
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MOTIVATION
 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar mission of MNRE.

 Keeping in view power losses in India everyone is keen to
adopt it.

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INTRODUCTION
 A MPPT system has been consisting of a soft switching
BOOST/BUCK-type dc/dc converter, irrespective of the
temperature and irradiation conditions and of the load electrical
characteristics.
 It overcomes the problem of mismatch between the solar arrays
and the given load.
 The conventional Boost/Buck converter decreases the
efficiency because of hard switching, which generates losses
when the switches are turned on/off.
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PROPOSED SYSTEM









 A DC-DC converter (step up/step down), serves the purpose of
transferring maximum power from the PV module to the load
and acts as an interface between the load and the module.

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STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEM WITH MPPT
8
The input DC–DC converter part is formed by the PV array and the
output section by the batteries and load. The role of the MPPT is to
ensure the operation of the PV module at its MPP, extracting
the maximum available power.
10/29/2012

MODELING OF PV MODULE
 A PV module consists of a number of solar cells
connected in series and parallel to obtain the desired
voltage and current output levels.
 Each solar cell is basically a p-n diode.




 The basic equation that describes the current output of
PV module of the single diode model is given by
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¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = 1 exp
c
S
P
s
s
s P ph p
AKT
I R
N
I R
N
V
q
I N I N I
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SOLAR CELLS CHARACTERISTICS
 The solar cell has nonlinear V –I and P–V characteristics,
which depend on the irradiance, the operating
temperature and load condition of the cell.
 The Current‐Voltage relationship & The Power - voltage
relationship curve of a solar PV module is given by
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WHAT IS A MAXIMUM POWER POINT
TRACKER?
 Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT):
 Technique used in power electronics systems to obtain the
maximum possible energy from PV arrays.
 Its use is desired to compensate for the effect of
temperature, variations in solar radiation, and load
condition in a PV system.

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PV ARRAY CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES &
POWER-VOLTAGE CURVES









Mismatch between resistive load and PV Source; current–
voltage curves & power–voltage curves


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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING (MPPT)
METHODS
These are the some widely used MPPT algorithms can be
broadly classified as:

1) Perturbation and Observation (P&O) Method
(a) Conventional P&O Method
(b) Incremental Conductance Method

2) Linearity-based Methods:
(a) Short-circuit current method
(b) Open Circuit Voltage Method

3) Ripple Correlation Control Method

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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING
14
Incremental Conductance Method
These method is based on the fact that
the slope dP/dV of the panel P-V curve
is positive on the left side of the MPP,
zero at the MPP and negative on the
right side of the MPP.

The incremental and conductance algorithm makes use of the
Following eq:

at MPP.

at the left of the MPP.

at the right of MPP.
0 =
dV
dP
0 >
dV
dP
0 <
dV
dP
( )
dV
I V d
dV
dP .
=
10/29/2012

MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING
15
Open Circuit Voltage Method
A linear dependency exists between
“cell voltages corresponding to
Maximum power and “cell open circuit
voltage”.
V
MP
=M
V
.V
OC

Where M
V
is the voltage factor is equal
to 0.74


The optimum operating current for the
maximum output power is proportional
To the short circuit current under various
condition of radiation .
I
op
=k.I
sc

Where k is the proportional constant.
Short-circuit current method
10/29/2012

BASIC PERTURB AND OBSERVE
 Reference voltage control.
 Direct duty ratio control.





 System performance is affected by:
 Step Size
 Perturbation Frequency
( )
MPPT
f
( )
REF
V DorA A
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Begin P&O algorithm
Measure V
o
(K),I
o
(K)
P
o
(K)=V
o
(K)*I
o
(K)
∆P
o
= P
o
(K)- P
o
(K-1)
∆P
o
>0
D (K)- D(K-1)>0

D (K)- D(K-1)<0

Update History
P
o
(K-1)=P
o
(K)
Decrease
duty cycle
Decrease
duty cycle
Increase
duty cycle
Increase
duty cycle
Perturb and
Observe
MPPT
Algorithm
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CONTD..
 Implemented through a DC/DC converter
LOGIC
1. Change duty cycle
2. Observe consequences on power output
3. Decide direction of next change in duty cycle


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SOFT-SWITCHING DC-DC CONVERTER
 The dc–dc converter for a PV system has to control the
variation of the maximum power point of the solar cell
output.
 The analysis, design and modelling processes of hard-
switched converters are mature, where the switching
frequency was limited to a few 10’s of kHz.


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BASIC CONCEPTS ON HARD-SWITCHING
 Hard-switching








The process of power semiconductor device hard-switching

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THE CONCEPT OF SOFT-SWITCHING
 Soft-switching








The process of power semiconductor device soft-switching

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TWO TYPES OF SOFT-SWITCHING
Is to shape the voltage or the current waveform by creating
a resonant condition to:
 Force the voltage across the switching device to drop to
zero before turning it ON ¬ Zero-Voltage Switching
(ZVS)

 Force the current through the switching device to drop to
zero before turning it OFF ¬ Zero-Current Switching
(ZCS)

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WHY SOFT-SWITCHING?
 Reduce switching losses especially at high switching
frequencies.

 Increase the power density, since the size and weight of
the magnetic components is decreased by increasing the
operating frequency.

 Reduce the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).

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SOFT-SWITCHING BOOST CONVERTER






 Values of resonant inductor and resonant capacitor are
calculated by
|
.
|

\
|
[
+ A
|
.
|

\
|
÷
[
<
min max min
2 2
I i T D V TV D L
L fw o r
o o
r
r
r
V
T D I
V
L I
L
T D
C
2
min min
2 2
2
min
2
2 2
min
8 . 0 4 04 . 0
[
÷
[
+
[
=
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THEORETICAL WAVEFORMS

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SOFT-SWITCHING BUCK CONVERTER

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THEORETICAL WAVEFORMS
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BUCK CONVERTER PARAMETERS
 The design procedure of the battery charger with ZCS buck
converter for a 12-V 48-Ah lead acid battery is summarized as
follows.
 The normalized switching frequency f
ns
= 0.7 was set based on the
normalized voltage gain M=V
o
/V
s
= 14/17 =0.8.
= 14/6 = 2.33 Ω.
The characteristic impedance is determined by substituting
R
o
= 2.33 Ω and Q = 1 into
The necessary resonant frequency is derived from f
r
=f
s
/f
ns
= 16 kHz/0.7
= 22.25 kHz.
From above eq..
W
o
/Z
0
=1/L
r
C
r
=1/W
o
Z
0
L
o
=100L
r

C
o
=100C
r






30
O
O
O
I
V
R =
( ) LrCr
W
O
1
=
10/29/2012

MPPT LIMITATION
 The maximum power transfer occurs when the source impedance
equal to load impedance. i.e.
 The input impedance is given by
 The converter output voltage & current is given by

 The relation between & is given by


 Similarly for buck converter is given by, the converter output
voltage & current is given by


 The relation between & is given by


in
in
in
I
V
R =
D
V
V
S
O
÷
=
1
) 1 ( D I I
S O
÷ =
( ) ( )
LOAD
O
O
S
S
in
R D
I
V
D
I
V
R
2 2
1 1 ÷ = ÷ = =
LOAD
in
R
R
D ÷ =1
in
R
load
R
31
D V V
S O
=
D
I
I
S
O
=
in
R
load
R
LOAD
O
O
S
S
in
R
D I
V
D I
V
R
2 2
1 1
= = =
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10/29/2012

BOOST, BUCK CONVERTER & PV MODULE
PARAMETERS
Maximum Power(P
o,
max
)
74W
p
(option
al)
Switching frequency(
f
s
)
20 kHz
PV Module Voltage
(V
i
)
15-17.5V
Output Voltage (V
o
) 25V
Main Inductor( L) 280µH
Resonant Inductor(
L
r
)
150µH
Input Filter Inductor
(L
f
)
50µH
Output Capacitor(C
o
) 1000µF
Resonant
Capacitor(C
r
)
20nF
Table I. Boost Converter
Parameters
Open circuit voltage(V
oc
) 22.42V
Short circuit current(I
sc
) 4.2A
Maximum voltage(V
mpp
) 18.83V
Maximum current(I
mpp
) 3.93A
Maximum power at
STC(P
max
)
74W
P

Maximum system
voltage
600V
Table II. PV Module
Parameters
Maximum Power(P
o,
max
)
74W
p
(option
al)
Switching frequency(
f
s
)
16kHz
PV Module Voltage
(V
i
)
15-17.5V
Output Voltage (V
o
) 14V
Resonant
Capacitor(C
r
)
2.98µH
Resonant Inductor(
L
r
)
16.96µH
Output Inductor (L
o
) 160µH
Output Capacitor(C
o
) 300µF
Table III. Buck Converter
Parameters
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MATLAB/SIMULATION &RESULTS
SOLAR PV PANEL
MPPT CONTROLLER
ZVS BOOST/BUCK CONVERTER
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V-I & P-V CHARACTERISTICS UNDER
DIFFERENT RADIATION(MATLAB/SIMULATION
RESULTS)

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SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF PV
MODULE
Connection of 3 panel in parallel
Connection of 3 Panel in series

Connection of 3 Panel in parallel

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PV MODULE UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

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PV MODULE UNDER PARTIAL SHADING
CONDITION
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time(hour)
21/05/2012 variation of solar radiation in VNIT
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BOOST
CONVERTER(MATLAB/SIMULATION)

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Fig..1 Represent Waveform of Main Inductor Current and gate pulse.











Fig.2. Voltage and current waveform across main switch.
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Fig.3. Voltage across resonant capacitor and resonant inductor current











Fig.4. Voltage across diode.
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BUCK CONVERTER (MATLAB/SIMULATION)

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FIG.1. WAVEFORMS OF THE TRIGGER SIGNAL VG AND THE CONTROL SIGNAL VGA .
Fig. 2. Waveforms of the freewheeling diode voltage Vdm and the
resonant capacitor voltage Vcr .
Main switch
Auxiliary switch
Time(sec)
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Fig.3.The resonant inductor current Ilr .
Time(sec)
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CONVERTER OUT PUT VOLTAGES
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For boost converter 35V
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
For buck converter 12.2V
MPPT P&O METHOD

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PV MODULE POWER, VOLTAGE, AND CURRENT(WITH
MPPT

With out MPPT
At 25
o
C &1000W/m
2


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PV MODULE POWER, VOLTAGE, AND
CURRENT(WITH STEP INCREASES IN RADIATION)
Time(sec)
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PV MODULE POWER, AND DUTY CYCLE
VARIATION(STEP SIZE ΔD =0.005)
49
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PV MODULE POWER, AND DUTY CYCLE
VARIATION(WITH STEP INCREASES IN RADIATION)
50
Time(s)
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CONCLUSIONS
 The P&O MPPT algorithm is a simple algorithm that
does not require previous knowledge of the PV generator
characteristics or the measurement of solar intensity and
cell temperature.
 Direct duty ratio control offers better stability
characteristics and higher energy utilization efficiency at
a slower transient response and worse performance at
rapidly changing irradiance.
 Noise has significant impact on the algorithm
performance, especially with low step sizes where the
system response to noise is comparable to that of MPPT
perturbations.
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FUTURE WORK
 Development of a MPPT system has been consisting of a
soft switching boost/buck-type dc-dc converter,
irrespective of the temperature and irradiation conditions
for home lighting system and battery charging.
 Improvement in maximum power point tracking algorithm
(MPPT).
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 [1] Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaic's- fundamentals,
technologies and application”, PHI learning private Ltd,2012.
 [2] A. K. Mukerjee, Nivedita Takur, “Photovoltaic Systems-
Analysis and Design”, PHI learning private Ltd,2011.
 [3] Trishan Esram, and Patrick L. Chapman, “Comparison of
Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques”,
IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2007.
 [4] Sang-Hoon Park, Gil-Ro Cha, Yong-Chae Jung, and Chung-
Yuen Won, “Design and Application for PV Generation System
Using a Soft-Switching Boost Converter With SARC”, IEEE
Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 2, February
2010.
 [5] Eftichios Koutroulis, Kostas Kalaitzakis, and
Nicholas C. Voulgaris “Development of a Microcontroller-Based
Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Control System., IEEE
Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2001.

REFERENCES
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CONTD..
 [6] Weidong Xiao, Nathan Ozogand William G. Dunford,” Topology Study
of Photovoltaic Interface for Maximum Power Point Tracking”, IEEE
Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 3, June 2007.
 [7] Rahul S. Sable, A. S. Werulkar and P. S. Kulkarni , "Microcontroller
Based Soft Switching Buck Converter for Solar Home Lighting System.”,
National conference on (ETREEE-201 ) pp.(167-173), February 25-26,2012.
 [8] R. Gules, J. De Pellegrin Pacheco, H. L. Hey, and J. Rnhoff, “A
maximum power point tracking system with parallel connection for PV stand-
alone applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2674–2683,
Jul. 2008.
 [9] Ying-Chun Chuang, “High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for
Rechargeable Batteries” , IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57,
No. 7, July 2010.


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PAPER PUBLICATION
 [1] D.Shankar, A.S. Werulkar, P.S. Kulkarni “Simulation Of Soft Switching
Boost Converter With MPPT For Solar Home Lighting System” All India Seminar
(with International Participation) On Clean Energy & Energy Conservation 2012,
Pp.(100-106), 13
th
-14
th
October 2012.
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56
THANK YOU!!
D.Shankar

10/29/2012